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Percentages indicated by shaded spaces.


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SALT. In salt fish, etc. 80 90 100

10 20

30 40



50 60

Pickerel (pike).
Yellow perch..
Black bass.
Mackerel, average.


Whitefish ..
Salmon, in season, fat....
Desiccated cod.....
Smoked herring..
Salt mackerel..
Salt cod ...
Crabs, edible portion...
Crawfish, edible portion.
Lobsters, edible portion.
Scallops, edible portion.
Mussels, shell contents...
Round clams, shell contents..
Oysters, shell contents, average..
Beef, lean, nearly free from fat..
Beef, round, rather lean ...
Beef, sirloin, medium fatness...
Mutton, side, well fattened.....
Pork, very fat......
Beef, side, well fattened.
Beef, flank, very fat.....
Ham, smoked.....
Chicken, moderately fat
Cheese, whole milk ...
Cheese, skimmed milk.

Hens' eggs.


Percentages indicated by shaded spaces.


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Flounder, whole....
Haddock, dressed
Bluefish, whole..
Pickerel (pike), whole..
Cod, dressed ...
Alewife, whole...
Whitefish, whole.
Shad, whole...
Mackerel, whole..
Herring, whole
Halibut, dressed..
Salmon-tront, dressed .
Eel, dressed....
Salmon, whole..
Smoked herring
Salt cod ......
Smoked haddock......
Scallops, edible portion, muscle..
Oysters, edible portion
Crabs, in shell.....
Lobsters, in shell..
Mussels, in shell..
Long clams, in shell...
Round clams, in shell..
Oysters, in shell....
Beef, round, rather lean ....
Beef, sirloin, rather fat..
Mutton, side, well fattened..
Fat pork, very fat..
Beans ...
Wheat-flour, best quality..
Indian-corn (maize) meal
Beef, side, well fattened..
Beef, flank, very fat...
Ham, smoked....
Chicken ...
Hens' eggs.


Cost of protein per






16 18 15 22 20 16 18

4 18 8

Cents, 108 86 70 62 56 86 107 B9 80 48 61 89 19

172 98 65 98


87 80

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67 50 19

70 46 88 83

Salt cod.

Suppose a pound of beef of average fatness COMPARATIVE COSTS OF PROTEIN IN ANIMAL AND VEGEto cost 25 cents and to contain 25 per cent. of

TABLE FOODS. inedible matters, bone, etc., 45 per cent. of

Ordinary water, and 30 per cent. of nutritive substance,

prices per upon which latter-the bone and water being assumed to be without nutritive value-the whole cost comes. The 30 per cent. or in Beef : Sirloin, medium fatness. pounds of nutritive substance thus costs 25 Same, at lower price.


Round, rather lean... cents, or at the rate of 834 cents per pound.

Round, rather lean, lower price. If, now, we leave out of account the minute Corned, lean. quantities of carbohydrates and the mineral

Flank, very fat.......

Mutton: Leg.. matters, the whole cost will fall upon the pro

Side, medium fatness. tein and fats. Assuming these to cost in the Pork,* very fat........, ratio of 5 : 3 and the amounts in the meat to Milk, 8 cents per quart. be, protein 144 per cent. and fats 15 per cent., Cheese : Whole milk.. an easy computation will show the protein to

Skimmed milk. cost 10707 cents, and the fats 64:6 cents per Salmon : Early in season...

100 672 pound. Proof: 141-100 pound of protein at 1077

When plenty.

Shad. cents = 15.3 cents; tu pounds of fats at 64:6

When abundant.. cents = 9.7 cents; 15-3 cents + 9.7 cents = 25 Bluefish cents, the cost of the pound of meat which contained the given amounts of protein and fats. Mackerel. The above ratios, protein : fats : carbohydrates

When abundant...

Cod.. =5:3:1, represent at best only general aver

When plenty.. ages, and may in given cases be more or less Alewife. incorrect. A method free from these objec- Canned salmon.. tions consists in simply computing the amounts Salt mackerel..

12.5 of nutrients that may be bought for the same

Lower.. price in different food-materials. At the same time the method above detailed is doubtless Oysters + 25 cents per quart


25 12

166 220

819 • 209


85 cents per quart. accurate enough for a general comparison of

50 cents per quart, choice.. the relative cheapness and dearness of ordinary Lobsters... foods, and is used in calculating the costs of

Wheat-flour, best. protein below.

Indian-corn (maize) meal Of the different nutrients, protein is physio- Oatmeal logically the most important as it is pecuniarily Potatoes, * 50 cents per bushel. the most expensive. In fish, furthermore, as

100 cents per bushel.

1.7 in the leaner kinds of meat, it is the predomi

* Contain very little protein, + Shell contents. nant nutritive ingredient. For these reasons the cost of protein in fish and other foods may calculations, the protein in the oysters costs be used as a means of comparing their relative from two to three dollars, and in salmon rises cheapness or dearness, as is done in the follow- to nearly six dollars, per pound. In beef, muting table. The figures represent the ordinary ton, and pork, it varies from 108 to 48 cents; prices per pound and the corresponding costs in shad, bluefish, haddock, and halibut, the of protein, in specimens

of food-materials ob- range is about the same ; while in cod and tained in New York and Middletown (Conn.) mackerel

, fresh and salted, it ranges from 67 markets. Though the number of specimens to as low as 33 cents per pound. Salt cod is too small for reliable averages, the figures, and salt mackerel are nearly always, fresh cod taken together, doubtless give a tolerably fair and mackerel often, and even the choicer fish, idea of the relative costliness of the nutrients as bluefish and shad, when abundant, cheaper in the different classes of foods.

sources of protein than any but the inferior Thus the nutrients of vegetable foods are, kinds of meat. in general, much less costly than in animal In short, we pay for many of our foods foods. The animal foods have, however, the according to their agreeableness to our palates, advantage of containing a larger proportion of rather than their value for nourishing our bodprotein and fats, and the protein, at least, in ies. At the same time it is interesting to note more digestible forms. And further, the so- that the prices of the materials that make up called “nitrogenous extractives" of kreatin, the bulk of the food of the people seem to run carnin, etc., of meats, which contribute so much more or less parallel with their actual nutrito their agreeable flavor, exert a nutritive effect tive values. Here, as elsewhere, the resultant which, though not yet explained, is neverthe- of the general experience of mankind has led less important. It is these which give to "ex- slowly and blindly, but none the less surely, tract of meat” its peculiar flavor and stimu- to the same general result to which accurate lating effect.

research more understandingly and quickly Among the animal foods, those which rank guides us. as delicacies are the costliest. By the above Fish as Foodo-As the investigation to which


19 12 15 14 14 28

a large number of the analyses of Tables I–IV belong was undertaken with an especial view to the study of fish as food for man, some more specific reference to fish may not be out of place here. The flesh of fish contains, in general, about the same proportions of protein, less fat, more water, and hence, on the whole, less nutritive material, than that of domestic animals used for food. Thus we have in the flesh of flounder only 16 per cent., and in that of cod 18 per cent. of nutrients, while ordinary lean beef has from 25 to 33 per cent., and the fatter meats considerably more. The fatter kinds of fish, however, as herring, mackerel, salmon, shad, and white-fish, approach nearer to medium beef. Dried and salted fish also contain good proportions of nutrients, the specimens of ordinary salt codfish having 28 per cent., salt mackerel 47 per cent. The edible portion of shell-fish is poor in nutrients, oysters varying from 9 to 19 per cent., and lobsters averaging 18 per cent. Proportions of Nutrients in Fish and other FoodMattrials as commonly sold.—Fish as found in the markets generally contain more refuse, bone, skin, etc., than meats, as is illustrated in Tables II and IV. With the larger proportions of both refuse and water the proportions of nutrients, though variable, are usually much less than in meats. Thus, a sample of flounder contained 67 per cent. of refuse, 28 per cent. of water, and only 5 per cent. of nutritive substance, while the salmon averaged 23 per cent., the salt cod 22 per cent., and the salt mackerel 36 per cent. of nutrients. The nutrients in meats ranged from 30 per cent. in beef to 46 per cent. in mutton, and 874 per cent. in very fat pork (bacon). The canned fish compare very favorably with the meats. It is worth noting that the nutrients in fresh codfish, dressed, in oysters, edible portion, and in milk, were nearly the same in amount, about 12% per cent., though differing in kind and proportions. egetable foods generally have less water and more nutrients than animal foods. Ordinary flour, meal, etc., contain from 85 to 90 per cent. or more of nutritive material. But the nutritive value is not proportional to the quantity of nutrients, because the vegetable foods consist mostly of carbohydrates, starch, sugar, cellulose, etc., of inferior nutritive effect, and because their protein is less digestible than that of animal foods. Potatoes contain a large amount of water and extremely little protein or fats. Uses of Fish as Food.—The chief uses of fish as food are (1) as an economical source of nutriment, and (2) to supply the demand for variety in diet, which increases with the advance of civilization and culture. As nutriment, the place of fish is that of a supplement to vegetable foods, the most of which, as wheat, rye, maize, rice, potatoes, ; : are deficient in protein, the chief nutrient of fish. The so-called nitrogenous extractives, con

tained in small quantities in fish, as in other animal foods, are doubtless useful in nutrition. The theory that fish is especially valuable for brain-food, on account of an assumed richness in phosphorus, is not sustained by the facts of either chemistry or physiology. It is an interesting fact that the poorer classes of people and communities almost universally select those foods which chemical analysis shows to supply the actual nutrients at the lowest cost. But, unfortunately, the proportions of the nutrients in their dietaries are often very defective. Thus, in portions of India and China, rice; in Northern Italy, maizemeal; in certain districts of Germany and in some regions and seasons in Ireland, potatoes; and among the poor whites of the Southern United States, maize-meal and bacon, make a large part, and in some cases almost the sole, food of the people. These foods supply the nutrients in the cheapest forms, but are all deficient in protein. The people who live upon them are ill-nourished and suffer physically, intellectually, and morally thereby. On the other hand, the Scotchman finds a most economical supply of protein in oatmeal, haddock, and herring; and the rural inhabitants of New England supplement the fat of their pork with protein of beans, and the carbohydrates of potatoes, maize, and wheat-flour with the protein of codfish and mackerel, and, while subsisting largely upon such frugal but rational diets, are well nourished, physically strong, and noted for their intellectual and moral force. As population becomes denser, the capacity of the soil to supply food for man gradually nears its limit. Fish gather materials that would otherwise be inaccessible and lost, and store them in the very forms that are most deficient in the produce of the soil. Thus, by proper culture and use of fish, the rivers and the sea are made to fulfill their office with the land in supplying nutriment for man. F00T-AND-MOUTH DISEASE. The foot-andmouth disease is the most contagious of all the maladies which affect domestic animals. Nearly all four-footed beasts are liable to it, but the cloven-footed are especially predisposed to infection. Sheep, goats, swine, and cattle contract it with equal readiness and certainty. All the individuals of a herd or flock in which it makes its appearance are affected almost simultaneously. The period of incubation is about 36 hours, though in cold weather the symptoms seem to be delayed, and sometimes do not manifest themselves until six days after exposure to the infection. The symptoms are the swelling of the digits, blisters or ulcers between the hoofs, lameness, inflammation and tenderness of the udder and teats, with sores and blisters on those parts, frothing and slobbering at the mouth, a smacking noise made with the tongue and palate, and large, rounded blisters or angry sores on the mucous membrane of the mouth.

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