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rowed in with the small harrow belonging to the plough. But it should have been observed, that, after the ridges were split by the middle double furrows, and before they were closed again by the harrow, a little manure was sprinkled in them.
At Dogue Run, listing the ground intended for Siberian wheat, barley, &c., a second time.
At Muddy Hole sowed with the drill plough two rows of the Albany pease between the corn rows, to see whether they would come to any thing for want of the support which they give one another when sown broad-cast. The same management given the ground as for oats and barley at this place.
13th. — Sowed oats in drills ten feet apart, between corn rows in the Neck, twenty-four rows, in the following manner. 1. A single furrow ; 2. another and deep furrow in this ; 3. four bouts to these ; 4. ploughed again in the same manner; 5. a single furrow in the middle of these ; 6. manure sprinkled in this furrow; 7. the great harrow over all these ; and, 8. the seed sowed after the harrow with the drill or barrel plough, and harrowed in with the harrow at the tail of it. Note. — It should have been observed, that the field intended for experiments at this plantation is divided into three parts, by bouting rows running crosswise; and that manure, and the last single furrow, are (at least for the present) bestowed on the most westerly of those nearest the Barn.
14th. — Harrowed the ground at Muddy Hole, which had been twice ploughed, for Albany pease in broad-cast. At Dogue Run began to sow the remainder of the Siberian wheat, about fourteen quarts, which had been left at the Ferry; run deep furrows in the middle, and made five-feet ridges. Did the same for carrots in the same field on the west side next the meadow. Ordered a piece of ground, two acres, to be ploughed at the Ferry around the old corn-house, to be drilled with corn and potatoes between, each ten feet apart, row from row of the same kind. Sowed in the Neck, or rather planted, next to the eleven rows of millet, thirty-five rows of the rib-grass seeds, three feet apart, and one foot asunder in the rows. · 15th. — Sowed six bushels of the Albany pease broad-cast at Muddy Hole, on about an acre and a half of ground, which was harrowed yesterday as mentioned above.
Sowed in the Neck along side of the rib-grass fifty rows of burnet seed, exactly as the last was put in; that is, in three feet rows, and one foot in the row.
EXTRACT FROM A DIARY FOR DECEMBER, 1799.*
December 7th. — Rainy morning, with the wind at north ; mercury at 37. Afternoon, clear and pleasant; wind westerly. Mercury 41 at night. Dined at Lord Fairfax's.
8th. — Morning perfectly clear, calm, and pleasant; but about nine o'clock the wind came from the northwest and blew frost. Mercury 38 in the morning, and 40 at night.
9th. — Morning clear and pleasant, with a light wind from northwest. Mercury at 33. Pleasant all day ; afternoon calm. Mercury 39 at night. Mr. Howell Lewis and wife set off on their return home after breakfast ; and Mr. Lawrence Lewis and Washington Custis, on a journey to New Kent.
10th. — Morning clear and calm ; mercury at 31. Afternoon lowering; mercury at 42, and wind brisk from the southward. A very large hoar-frost this morning.
11th. — But little wind, and raining. Mercury 44 in the morning, and 38 at night. About nine o'clock the wind shifted to the northwest, and it ceased raining, but continued cloudy. Lord Fairfax, his son Thomas, and daughter, Mrs. Warner Washington and son Whiting, and Mr. John Herbert, dined here, and returned after dinner.
12th. — Morning cloudy; wind at northeast; mercury 33. A large circle round the moon last night. About one o'clock it began to snow; soon after, to hail, and then turned to a settled cold rain. Mercury 28 at night.
13th. — Morning snowing, and about three inches deep. Wind at northeast, and mercury at 30. Continued snowing till one o'clock, and about four it became perfectly clear. Wind in the same place, but not hard. Mercury 28 at night.
* This extract has no other interest, than that derived from its being the part of Washington's diary written during the last week of his life. The words, in which the entry is made on the 13th of December, are probably the last he ever wrote, as he was attacked that night with the disorder of which he died.
No. III. p. 235.
WASHINGTON'S FARE WELL ADDRESS.
The curiosity, which has been expressed respecting the authorship of the Farewell Address, would seem to require some notice of the subject in this work; although the question, as to the manner in which that address originated, is one of small moment, since its real importance consists in its being known to contain the sentiments of Washington, uttered on a solemn occasion, and designed for the benefit of his countrymen. Whether every idea embodied in it arose spontaneously from his own mind, or whether every word was first traced by his pen, or whether he acted as every wise man would naturally act under the same circumstances, and sought counsel from other sources claiming respect and confidence, or in what degree he pursued either or all of these methods, are points so unimportant, compared with the object and matter of the whole, as to be scarcely worth considering. Nor is it intended here to do any thing more than to state a few facts, leaving the reader to draw his own inferences.
When Washington accepted the Presidency, to which he had been called by the unanimous voice of the people, it was not his intention to remain in the office more than one term. Towards the close of that term, he wrote the following letter to Mr. Madison, whom he had been in the habit of frequently consulting, and of whose ability, integrity, and practical wisdom, he entertained the highest opinion.
PRESIDENT WASHINGTON TO JAMES MADISON.
“ Mount Vernon, 20 May, 1792. “ MY DEAR Sir, “As there is a possibility, if not a probability, that I shall not see you on your return home; or, if I should see you, it may be on the road, and under circumstances, which may prevent my speaking to you on the subject we last conversed upon, I take the liberty of committing to paper the following thoughts and requests.
“I have not been unmindful of the sentiments expressed by you in the conversations just alluded to. On the contrary, I have again and again revolved them with thoughtful anxiety, but without being able to dispose my mind to a longer continuation in the office I have now the honor to hold. I therefore still look forward with the fondest and most ardent wishes to spend the remainder of my days, which I cannot expect to be long, in ease and tranquillity.
“Nothing but a conviction, that my declining the chair of government, if it should be the desire of the people to continue me in it, would involve the country in serious disputes respecting the chief magistrate, and the disagreeable consequences which might result therefrom in the floating and divided opinions, which seem to prevail at present, could in any wise induce me to relinquish the determination I have formed ; and of this I do not see how any evidence can be obtained previous to the election. My vanity, I am sure, is not of the cast to allow me to view the subject in this light.
“Under these impressions, then, permit me to reiterate the request I made to you at our last meeting, namely, to think of the proper time and the best mode of announcing the intention, and that you would prepare the latter. In revolving this subject myself, my judgment has always been embarrassed. On the one hand, a previous declaration to retire, not only carries with it the appearance of vanity and self-importance, but it may be construed into a maneuvre to be invited to remain ; and, on the other hand, to say nothing implies consent, or at any rate would leave the matter in doubt; and to decline afterwards might be deemed as bad, and uncandid.
“I would fain carry my request to you farther than is asked above, although I am sensible that your compliance with it must add to your trouble. But, as the recess may afford you leisure, and I Aatter myself you have dispositions to oblige me, I will, without apology, desire, if the measure in itself should strike you as proper, or likely to produce public good or private honor, that you would turn your thoughts to a Valedictory Address from me to the public, expressing in plain and modest terms, that, having been honored with the presidential chair, and to the best of my abilities contributed to the organization and administration of the government; that, having arrived at a period of life, when the private walks of it in the shades of retirement become necessary, and will be most pleasing to me; (and as the spirit of the government may render a rotation in the elective officers of it more congenial with the ideas [the people have] of liberty and safety) that I take my leave of them as a public man, and, in bidding them adieu, retaining no other concern than such as will arise from fervent wishes for the prosperity of my country, I take the liberty at my departure from civil [life], as I formerly did at my military exit, to invoke a continuation of the blessings of Providence upon it, and upon all those who are the supporters of its interests, and the promoters of harmony, order, and good government.
“ That, to impress these things, it might among other topics be observed, that we are all the children of the same country, a country great and rich in itself, capable, and promising to be as prosperous and happy as any which the annals of history have ever brought to our view; that our interest, however diversified in local and smaller matters, is the same in all the great and essential concerns of the nation ; that the extent of our country, the diversity of our climate and soil, and the various productions of the states consequent of both, are such as to make one part not only convenient, but perhaps indispensably necessary to the other part, and may render the whole, at no distant period, one of the most independent (nations) in the world ; that the established government, being the work of our own hands, with the seeds of amendment engrafted in the constitution, may, by wisdom, good dispositions, and mutual allowances, aided by experience, bring it as near to perfection, as any human institution ever approximated, and therefore the only strise among us ought to be, who should be foremost in facilitating and finally accomplishing such great and desirable objects, by giving every possible support and cement to the Union ; that, however necessary it may be to keep a watchful eye over public servants and public measures, yet there ought to be limits to it, for suspicions unfounded and jealousies too lively are irritating to honest feelings, and oftentimes are productive of more evil than good.
“ To enumerate the various subjects, which might be introduced into such an address, would require thought, and to mention them to you would be unnecessary, as your own judgment will comprehend all that will be proper. Whether to touch specifically any of the exceptionable parts of the constitution may be doubted. All I shall add, therefore, at present is, to beg the favor of you to consider, first, the propriety of such an address ; secondly, if approved, the several matters which ought to be contained in it; thirdly, the time it should appear, that is, whether at the declaration of my intention to withdraw from the service of the public, or to let it be the closing act of my administration, which will end with the next session of Congress; the probability being, that