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Oh pleasant place! “I had been well con

Doluyddelan Castle. tent To seek no other earthly home beside !"

“ Seated in a rocky valley, sprinkled over with stunted trees, and watered by the

Lleder. The boundaries are rude and barDivination by a Torrent, or Taghairm.

ren mountains; and among others, the great

bending mountain Scabod, often conspicu"A wild species of magic was practised in the district of Trotterness (Skie), that is placed on a high rock, precipitous on

ous from most distant places. The castle was attended with a horrible solemnity. A

one side, and insulated : it consists of two family who pretended to oracular knowledge, practised these ceremonies. In this five, the other thirty-two by twenty. Each

square towers, one forty feet by twentycountry is a vast cataract, whose waters, fall had formerly three floors. The materials ing from a high rock, jet so far as to form a

of this fortress are the shattery stone of dry hollow beneath, between them and the the country; yet well squared, the maprecipice. One of these impostors was sewed sonry good, and the mortar hard. The castle up in the hide of an ox, and to add terror yard lay between the towers.”? to the ceremony, was placed in this concavity: the trembling enquirer was brought dwn was born here.”—Pennant's Snowdon,

“ Llewelyn the Great ap Jorwerth Drwnto the place, where the shade and the roar- with a print. ing of the waters increased the dread of the occasion. The question is put, and the person in the hide delivers his answer; and so

Llys Bradwen. ends this species of divination styled Taghairm." - PENNANT'S Hebrides.

" At some distance beyond these (the two pools called Llynian Cregenan, in the neighbourhood of Cader Idris), near the river

Kregennan, I saw the remains of Llys BradOld Age of an American Savage.

wen, the court or palace of Ednowain, chief Ar the Chapter Coffee House Club, to of one of the fifteen tribes of North Wales, which I accompanied Carr and Barbauld, either in the reign of Gryffydd ap Cynan, Thursday, February 9, 1797, Morgan (a man or soon after. The reliques are about thirty of noisy and boisterous abilities) related the yards square : the entrance about seven feet following story, to prove that the age of the wide, with a large upright stone on each side, American savage is not destitute and mise- by way of door case: the walls with large rable.

stones, uncemented by any mortar. In short, An European met with an aged Indian the structure of this palace shows the very on the banks of a lake. He had lived more low state of architecture in these times ; it than eighty years. The European asked him may be paralleled only by the artless fabric if he was not weary of life. “No, stranger!" of a cattle house.”—Ibid. he replied, “ our God comes over the great water once in every year; and I hope he may come and return many times before he

Welsh Manners. takes me with him. In summer I can yet I MUST not lead the reader into a belief provide for myself by fishing. In winter the that every habitation of those early times young men give me share of their provisions, and I sit with them around the fire, and hear | This and the next extract are used up in the them tell the stories of the chase, and I love and Kregennan, see pt. 1st. x. and the engrav

notes to Madoc. For“ Dolwydellan's Tower,” to hear them."

ing in vol. v. of SOUTHEY's Poetical Works.

J. W. W.

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was equal in magnificence to that of Edno- | close together, or should one side lose its wain

ap Bradwen. Those of inferior gentry genial heat, they turn about and give the were formed of wattles, like Indian wig- chilly side to the fire. (See Giraldus Camwams, or Highland hovels; without gardens brensis, Descr. Walliæ, p. 888.) or orchard, and formed for removal from “ Some vein of the antient minstrelsie is place to place, for the sake of new pasture, still to be met with in these mountainous or a greater plenty of game. The furniture countries. Numbers of persons of both sexes was correspondent; there were neither ta- assemble, and sit around the harp, singing bles, nor cloths, nor napkins; but this is less alternately Pennylls, or stanzas of ancient wonderful, since we find, that even so late or modern poetry. The young people usualas the time of Edward II. straw was used ly begin the night with dancing, and when in the royal apartment. Notwithstanding they are tired, sit down, and assume this this, the utmost hospitality was preserved. species of relaxation. Oftentimes, like the Every house was open, even to the poorest modern improvisatore of Italy, they will sing person. When a stranger entered, his arms extempore verses. A person conversant in were taken from him and laid by; and, after this art, will produce a Pennyll apposite to the scriptural custom, water was brought the last which was sung; the subjects proto wash his feet. The fare was simple : the duce a great deal of mirth ; for they are meal did not consist of an elegant variety, sometimes jocular, at others satyrical, and but of numbers of things put together in a many amorous. They will continue singlarge dish: the bread was thin oat cakes, ing without intermission, and never repeat such as are common in our mountainous the same stanza; for that would occasion parts at this time. The family waited on the loss of the honour of being held first of the guests, and never touched anything till the song. The audience usually call for the they had done, when it took up with what was tune: sometimes only a few can sing to it; left. Music, and the free conversation of and in many cases the whole con pany: but the young women, formed the amusements when a party of capital singers assemble, of the time, for jealousy was unknown among they rarely call for a tune, for it is indiffeus. Bands of young men, who knew no pro- rent to them what tune the harper plays. fession but that of arms, often entered the Parishes often contend against parishes, and houses, and were welcome guests; for they every hill is vocal with the chorus.”—Penwere considered as the voluntary defenders Nant's Snowdon. of the liberties of their country. They mixed with the female part of the family, joined their voices to the melody of the harp, and

Birth of Sommona Codom. consumed the day with the most animated “SommonA - CODom, the Siamese deity, festivity. At length, sunk into repose, not

was born of a virgin, who conceived by the under rich testers, or on downy beds, but prolific influence of the sun. The innocent along the sides of the room, on a thin cover

virgin, ashamed to find herself with child, ing of dried reeds, placed round the great flew to a solitary desert, in order to conceal fire, which was placed in the centre, they | herself from the eyes of mankind. She was lay down promiscuously, covered only by a coarse home-made cloth, called Brychan or plaid, the same with the more ancient Bra

? « Pennill," an epigram, a staff of a poem miraculously delivered upon the banks of a extraction, or at least something more than lake of the most beautiful babe that ever human, descended from the highest of the was created, without any assistance or sense sixteen worlds, and with a stroke of his scyof pain, (Spenser) but having no milk metar cut asunder a certain flower which wherewith to suckle him, and being unable swam on the surface of the water, from which to bear the thoughts of seeing him die, she sprang up a beauteous young damsel, with jumped into the lake, where she set him whom the pious mandarin was so passionateupon the bud of a flower, which blowed of ly enamoured that he determined to marry itself for his more commodious reception, her : but her inflexible modesty rendered and afterwards inclosed the infant as it were his most endearing addresses fruitless and in a cradle."-(FATHER TACHARD. Second ineffectual. The mandariñ was more geneVoyage to Siam, Book 5.)

or of a song, consisting of two, three, four, or cha;' and kept one another warm by lying more lines. RicHARDS in v. In 1823 I spent

a night in a small cottage at the fvot of Car.

nedd Llewelin, and in the heart of Snowdonia, I See Celtic Dict. in v. **Breacan,' Hence with an old and valued friend, -and there we Gallia Braccuta. SPELMAN in v. “ Bracha." heard the Welsh improvisatore’s verse in per

J. W. W. fection.-J. W. W.

rous and just than to force her to com

pliance; and notwithstanding it was the “ As he was sitting under a tree, he was most disagreeable thing in nature to him to glorified in a very signal manner, and adored live alone, without any relations and withby angels, who came down from heaven for out issue, he checked the violence of his inno other purpose. His brother Thevatat, clination, and behaved with the utmost dejealous of his glory, conspired his downfall, cency and respect. Unsuccessful as he was, and declared open war against him, with all however, he planted himself at an awful disthe brute creation. Sommona-Codom de- tance directly opposite to this inexorable fended himself manfully by virtue of his beauty. He gazed upon her with all the good works; but nothing was so great a sup

tenderness of the most affectionate lover. port and protection to him as his strict prac

By the miraculous influence of his amorous tise of the tenth commandment, which com

glances, she conceived, and became the joyprehends the exercise of charity, without ful mother of a numerous offspring, and yet which he must have inevitably been van

still remained a pure and spotless virgin. quished, notwithstanding he was endowed In process of time the virtuous mandarin with all the good works contained in the nine thought himself in duty bound to furnish his other injunctions. The guardian angel of numerous family with all the conveniences the earth, used her utmost endeavours to of life, and for that purpose created that prevail on the enemies of Sommona-Codom beautiful variety of beings which now reto adore him as a god; but at last finding plenish the earth. Afterwards he returned them obstinate and perverse, and inatten- to heaven, but could not however gain adtive to her repeated remonstrances, she mittance therein till he had first done pecompressed her watery locks, and poured nance, and duly qualified himself for that forth such a deluge as totally destroyed happy state. them."-PICART.

“Before this restoration of the earth to its primitive state, four deities condescended to govern and preside over it. Three of

them, weary at last of the important charge, Peopling of the World in the Belief of Laos. resigned their guardianship, and went higher

“ The people of Laos (Laies or Langiens) towards the north, to taste the uninterrupted believe that the heavens existed from all joys of solitude and retirement. Xaca, the eternity; that they are situate above sixteen sole remaining god, after instructing manterrestrial worlds, the pleasures whereof are kind in the duties of religion, fully deter.. justly proportioned to their respective ele- mined to attain to the highest pitch of perfecvation. The earth, about 18,000 years be- tion, sunk at last into Nireupan, or the everfore Xacca or Xequin, was dissolved and blessed state of annihilation.”—PICART. reduced to water. A mandarin of divine


skilled in all the arts which are necessary Siamese Heaven and Hell.

for the prolongation of life. They cheer“SOMMona-Codom is likewise in Nireu- fully however resign it to God from one pan. According to the Siamese (M. de la thousand years to another, by voluntarily Loubère and Pere Tachard), there are nine sacrificing themselves on a funeral pile, reabodes of bliss, and nine of sorrow. The serving only one of their tribe to raise up former are over our heads, and the latter those that are dead, by virtue of his magiunder our feet. The higher each mansion cal incantations. It is as dangerous as it the more delightful and joyous ; the lower, is difficult to meet with these marvellous the more dismal and tremendous : insomuch hermits; and the lives of such as do, are in that the happy are exalted far above the apparent danger of being lost.”—PICART. stars, as the unhappy are sunk 10,000 fathoms deep below the earth. Those who inhabit the higher realms are called Thenada, Descent of fallen Souls compared to the the dwellers below, Pii, the men of earth,

Fall of the Ganges. Manout. “When a soul has once attained to so high the manner in which souls always descend

An Indian poet, endeavouring to illustrate a pitch of perfection, as that no new enjoy into bodies, one more imperfect than anments here on earth, how refined soever, are suitable to the dignity of its nature, the other, in proportion to their deviating from Siamese think that it is then freed from all

the dictates of reason, compares them to the

descent of the river Ganges," which," says future transmigrations. From that happy moment it appears no more in this world, he, “ fell first from the highest heavens into but rests for ever in Nireupan ; that is to

Chorkam; from thence on the top of Issour

en; after that, on the celebrated Mount Ima; say, in a state of perfect inactivity and im

from thence on the earth ; from that into passibility. In short, according to their no

the sea, and from thence at last into Padation, consummate happiness and the ineffable joys of Paradise entirely consist in this sort lam, that is, into hell.”—Père Bouchet. Piof annihilation. The remarkable passage ascribed to Musæus by the ancients, “ that virtue will hereafter be rewarded with an

Japanese Penitents. eternal ebriety," so nearly resembles that of

“Certain Japanese penitents make it their the impassibility of the soul, that these two duty to pass over several high and almost opinions may be resolved into one, without inaccessible mountains into some of the most the least difficulty or forced construction.” solitary deserts, inhabited by an order of an-PICART.

chorites, who, though almost void of huma

nity, commit them to the care and conduct Siamese Hermits.

of such as are more savage than themselves.

These latter lead them to the brinks of the “The Siamese say that there are certain most tremendous precipices, habituate them anchorets who live retired in the most soli- to the practice of abstinence, and the most tary deserts, and are perfect masters of all shocking austerities, which they are obliged the secrets of human nature. They perfectly to undergo with patience, at any rate, since understand the art of making gold, silver, their lives lie at stake; for if the pilgrim and the most precious metals : there is no- deviates one step from the directions of his thing so wonderful and surprising but what spiritual guides, they fix him by both his they can effect with the utmost ease. They hands to the branch of a tree, which stands assume what forms they please, and make on the brink of a precipice, and there leave themselves immortal ; for they are well | him hanging till, through faintness, he quits


his hold of the bough and drops. This is, way, and the poor penitent is dashed to however, the introduction only to the disci- pieces at the bottom of the precipice. Such pline they are to undergo; for in the sequel, as escape through a sincere confession, proafter incredible fatigue and a thousand dan- ceed farther to pay their tribute of divine gers undergone, they arrive at a plain sur- adoration to the deity of the place. After rounded with lofty mountains, where they they have gratified their father confessor's spend a whole day and night with their arms trouble, they resort to another pagod, where across, and their face declined upon their they complete their devotions, and spend seknees. This is another act of penance, un- veral days in public shows and other amuseder which, if they show the least symptoms ments.”—PICART. Acosta. De Bry. Purchas. of pain, or endeavour to shift their uneasy posture, the unmerciful hermits whose province it is to overlook them, never fail with

Priest of Manipa. some hearty bastinadoes to reduce them to

"MANIPA, the goddess of the people (Tartheir appointed situation. In this attitude the pilgrims are to examine their consci- tars) of Tanchuth (called Lassa, or Boratai,

or Barantola), has nine heads, which form ences, and recollect the whole catalogue of their sins committed the year past, in order fellow, prompted by an enthusiastic rage,

kind of pyramid. A bold resolute young to confess them. After this strict exami- like him who cries Amoc amongst the Innation, they march again till they come to a

dians, and drest in armour, flies round about steep rock, which is the place set apart by the city, upon some certain days in the year, these savage monks to take the general confession of their penitents; on the summit of in honour of the goddess. This young en

like a madman, and kills every one he meets this rock there is a thick iron bar, about three thusiast is called Phut or Buth.”—PICART. ells in length, which projects over the belly of the rock, but is so contrived, as to be drawn back again, whenever it is thought

Fountain of the Fairies. convenient. At the end of this bar hangs a large pair of scales, into one of which these

“In the journal of Paris in the reigns of monks put the pilgrim, and in the other a

Charles VI. and VII., it is asserted that the counterpoise, which keeps him in equilibrio; Maid of Orleans, in answer to an interroafter this, by the help of a spring, they push gatory of the doctors whether she had ever the scales off the rock, quite over the pre

assisted at the assemblies held at the founcipice. Thus hanging in the air, the pilgrim tain of the fairies near Domprein, round is obliged to make a full and ample confes

which the evil spirits dance? confessed that sion of all his sins, which must be spoken so

she had, at the age of twenty-seven, often distinctly, as to be heard by all the assist- repaired to a beautiful fountain in the counants at this ceremony; and he must take try of Lorraine, which she named the good particular care not to omit or conceal one

fountain of the fairies of our Lord."-Fasingle sin, to be stedfast in his confession, bliaux, by Ellis and Way. Le Grand. and not to make the least variation in his account: for the least diminution or conceal

Identity. ment, though the misfortune should prove more the result of fear than any evil inten- "CHAQUE individu, considéré separément, tion, is sufficient to ruin the penitent to all differe encore de lui-même par l'effet du intents and purposes ; for if these inexor- tems; il devient un autre, en quelque maniable hermits discern the least prevarication, ère, aux diverses époques de sa vie. L'enhe who holds the scales gives the bar a sud- fant, l'homme fait, la vieillard sont comme den jerk, by which percussion the scale gives | autant d'étrangers unis dans une seule per

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