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teeth of the termites : these formidable ants, / villages where the inhabitants compel all it is said, are unable to eat it. The leaves travellers to accept of one day's provisions ; are large and shining; and the flowers whether they be many or few, rich which grow in full bunches, of so rich a poor, European or native, they must not nature, that when gathered and dried in refuse the offered bounty.”—Ibid. vol. 2, the sun, they resemble malaga raisins in p. 415. flavour and appearance. These blossoms are ate in various ways, either as a preserved fruit, or to give an acidity to curries

[Indian Holybreds, or, Sacred Lands.] and other savoury dishes ; but their greatest consumption is in the distillery of arrack, and vujiessa lands, are set apart in each

“ Some particular fields, called pysita of which there are many kinds, from rice, jaggaree, tari, and sugar: this by way of village for public purposes ; varying perdistinction is called mowah-arrack, and is haps as to the mode of application, in dif

ferent districts; but in most the produce so strong and cheap a spirit that the lower class of natives drink it to great excess :

of these lands is appropriated to the main

tenance of the Brahmins, the cazee, washits consequences are as pernicious as the same deleterious liquor in Europe. In a

erwoman, smith, barber, and the lame,

blind, and helpless; as also to the support plentiful season a good tree produces from two to three hundred pounds weight of

of a few vertunnees, or armed men, who flowers; the proportionate quantity of spi- are kept for the defence of the village, and rit I cannot ascertain. The flowers are

to conduct travellers in safety from one

village to another. An English reader may never entirely gathered. Those that remain on the tree are succeeded by a fruit or

perhaps be surprised to see the barber in shell containing a pulp of delicate white

the list of pensioners : there is seldom more

than one in each village; he shaves the ness, from which is extracted an oily substance like butter or ghee, which keeps a

inhabitants gratis ; and as he has no exerlong time, and for family use answers all

cise in the day, it is his province at night the purposes of those valuable articles. to carry a mussaul, or torch, to light tra

vellers on the road, or for any other purThe kernel or seed contains an oil of inferior quality and more rancid flavour: it

pose required; no time remaining for him

to attend to husbandry or to provide for does not congeal and is chiefly used by the poor.”—Ibid. vol. 2,

his family, it is but just he should be mainp. 451.

tained at the public expense; this is also to be applied to the washerwoman and the

smith, who work for the village, without [Eastern Hospitality.] any other emolument.

places, “ HOSPITALITY to strangers prevails

particularly in Mysore, there is an approthroughout Guzerat; a person of any con

priation of grain to the saktis or destructive sideration passing through the province is spirits; and perhaps to many other deities presented at the entrance of a village, with

may be the objects of hope or fear in fruit, milk, butter, firewood, and earthen

the worship of the villagers.”—Ibid. vol. 2, pots for cookery; the women and children offer him wreaths of flowers. Small bowers are constructed on convenient spots, at a distance from a well or lake, where a per

[The Blood-stones of Cobra.] son is maintained by the nearest villages,

" In this town of Diu the

so much famed to take care of the water-jars, and supply stones of Cobra are

made, they are comall travellers gratis. There are particular posed of the ashes of burnt roots, mingled

In some

who

p. 416.

414

THEVENOT

- FORBES.

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with a kind of earth they have, and once from the month of November to that of
again burnt with that earth, which after- February, when the corn, opium-fields, &c.
wards is made up into a paste, of which are growing
these stones are formed. They are used “ From the insecure manner in which
against the stinging of serpents and other these wells are generally finished, as well
venomous creatures, or when one is wound- as from the looseness of the soil in many
ed with a poisonous weapon. A little blood places, they rarely last long. In such cases
is to be let out of the wound with the prick the peasant digs others, without doing any-
of a needle, and the stone applied thereto thing to those which have fallen in. This
which must be left till it drop off of itself. productive of considerable danger, not
Then it must be put into woman's milk; or only to hunters, but to foot passengers ;
if none can be had, into that of a cow, and many of whom are precipitated into them.
there it leaves all the venom it hath im- Several collectors of districts are very ri-
bibed; for if it be not so used, it will gid in causing every old well to be distin-
burst.”—THEVENOT.

guished by a pillar of mud, sufficiently high
to be seen above the surface of the highest
crops. These serve as beacons as do the

levers to such wells as are in use.
[Oriental Wells.]

pity such a precaution were not in uni“The well is usually built on a spot in versal practice.”Oriental Sports, vol. 1, some degree elevated above the neighbour

p.

25. ing fields with one, two, or more levers, inserted into forked posts, and moving on pivots, placed near its brink; the butt-end [The fallen Fortunes of the Great City of of each lever is loaded with mud sufficiently

Agra.] to overpower the weight of an earthen or “ The country through which we trairon pitcher, when filled with water. This velled for several days past has presented a pitcher being fastened to a rope, of which melancholy picture, occasioned by a dreadthe part that touches the water is made of ful famine, which had sadly diminished the green ox hides, as being less subject to rot population, and left the survivors in a state than hemp, and suspended thereby from of misery. At Gwalier the whole suburbs the peak of the lever, the operator pulls were strewed with skeletons; and from down the peak until the vessel reach the thence to Agra the villages were generally water. When it is filled, he suffers the uninhabited, and the land became a wilderlever to act; and the loaded end, descend- ness from want of cultivation ; but our aring again, draws up the pitcher, which rival at Agra presented a scene lamentable empties itself into a reservoir, or channel, beyond conception. whence the water is conducted by small “The gloom of the morning veiled the rills into an immense number of partitions, suburbs in a great measure from our obmade by a little raised mould. A person servation, and we entered the gates of Agra, attends to open each partition, in its turn, or Akber-abad, with the early dawn; and and to stop the water when the bed has proceeding through the quarter called Momreceived a sufficient supply. Thus each | tazabad, beheld on all sides the most mebed or partition is adequately watered. lancholy objects of fallen grandeur, mosques, Some wells are worked by a pair of oxen, palaces, gardens, carravansaries, and mauwhich draw over a pulley, and raise, as they soleums, mingled in one general ruin. walk down an inclined plane, a leather bag “ Agra had been the frequent subject of containing from twenty to forty gallons at our conversation, we had anticipated much a time. This process is chiefly confined | novelty, and expected every comfort at

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FORBES — P. H. BRUCE — PIETRO DELLA VALLE.

415

the close of our fatiguing journey—instead from the flames; the gentleman, sensibly of the spacious squares and frequented affected by such generosity, pressed his streets of a great capital, it was with dif- Chinese friend to take the security, which ficulty and danger we kept our horses on he did, and then effectually destroyed it. their feet amidst the magnificent, but ter- The disciple of Confucius, beholding the rible mass of ruin. Few persons can have renewed distress it occasioned, said he an idea of the painful sensations excited would accept of his watch, or any little by such a view of this once celebrated city, valuable as a memorial of their friendship. for few have the opportunity of contem- The gentleman immediately presented his plating an object so deplorable! In the watch; and the Chinese, in return, gave midst of this chaotic heap of desolation, him an old iron seal saying, 'Take this seal ; our attention was suddenly roused by a it is one I have long used, and possesses stupendous fabric bursting on our view, in no intrinsic value: but as you are going to complete repair and resplendant beauty- India to look after your outstanding cona splendid structure, with domes and mina- cerns, should fortune further persecute rets of the purest white, surmounting the you, draw upon me for any sum of money dark umbrage of rich surrounding groves, you may stand in need of, seal it with this produced in such a situation a most extra- signet, sign it with your own hand, and I ordinary effect.”-FORBES, vol. 4, p. 36. will pay the money.'”—Ibid. vol. 4, p. 242.

[Noble Generosity of a Chinese Merchant.]

[Black Teeth.] “I think it very probable you may meet

Black teeth are in so much esteem our friend C— at Tellicherry or Cochin, among the Banyans that they call the whitein one of the Portuguese ships from Macao, teethed Europeans bondra, or apes.-P. H. which generally arrive about this time. BRUCE. You have heard of his late misfortunes; but it is possible you may not know by what means his affairs are likely to be re

[Custom of Plaistering Floors with Cowtrieved. You, who were formerly so well

Dung.] acquainted with this worthy man in India, “ As the Hindoos have not solid squares know that he afterwards resided many to use like us, they make their floors of years highly respected at Canton and Ma- earth so slightly that they cannot last long; cao; where a sudden reverse of fortune when, therefore, they wish their floors to be lately reduced him from a state of affluence well united, polished, and solid, they plaisto the greatest necessity. A Chinese mer- ter them over with cow-dung, which they chant, to whom he had formerly rendered mix up with water, if it is not liquid, but use service, gratefully offered him an imme- without when fresh; and applying it either diate loan of ten thousand dollars, which with the hands, or with an instrument like the gentleman accepted, and gave his bond a trowel, they render their floors whole, pofor the amount; this the Chinese imme- lished, bright, and solid, with a greenish codiately threw into the fire saying, "When lour, as the cattle are fed only on herbs. you, my friend, first came to China, I was But it has this advantage, that the polisha poor man; you took me by the hand, and ing is done at once, and it dries immediateassisting my honest endeavours, made me ly, and so thoroughly that you can immerich. Our destiny is now reversed : I see diately make use of the room. As I told you poor, while I am blessed with affluence.' you, they expected us, and we found in the The by-standers had snatched the bond houses where we were to lodge, people ac

416

MOOR

- PIETRO DELLA VALLE - FORBES.

tually thus employed when we arrived; and the sun, reflected by marble or polished
yet the floors of the chambers dried at once, floors: domestic comfort is sacrificed to ex-
and we remained in them. Certainly this terior decoration.
is quelque chose de beau et de galant; when “No man of taste would now build a
I return to Italy I shall try it the more low sun-excluding veranda, nor mitigate
willingly, as they say that such floors have

the intensity of the heat by a cow-dung marvellous virtue against the plague. All flooring. In Bombay, the delectable light the inconvenience which I find is that this

that, twenty or thirty years ago, was so combeauty and polish does not last long, but to

monly admitted through thin semi-transpabe preserved, requires to be renewed every rent panes

, composed of oyster-shells, is no eight or ten days; this

, however, signifies longer known among the English, except little, as it is so easily done, and costs no

in the church; and these, perhaps, will thing but a servant's labour. The Portu

when the present worthy clergyman shall gueze use this practice at Goa, and in their

vacate his cure, give way to the superior other Indian settlements.”—PIETRO DELLA

transparency of glass. The church will then VALLE.

be, like our new house, insufferably hot;
and the adaptation of pankhas, monstrous

fans, ten, twenty, thirty, or more feet long, [Cow-Dung Flooring in the East.]

suspended from the ceiling of sitting rooms, “ The custom so universal in India, of and moved to and fro by men outside, by using cow-dung for covering for floors and

means of ropes and pullies, will be neceswalls, can scarcely be considered as a su- sary.”—Ibid. p. 142. perstition; for it is used for floors by all sects, as well as Hindus, as the most cool and cleanly article. Once a week, perhaps,

[Indian-Lamps.] it is common to rub over earthen floors

“FLAMBEAUX are not made in India, but with fresh cow-dung, mixed up with as instead, certain lamps (falots) of metal, much water as will render it easy to spread: shaped like those which are painted in the this is done, not only in tents and tempo- hands of the infernal furies; and of which rary houses of gentlemen, but sometimes the fire is supported by bituminous and over the best apartments of splendid habi- other dry substances, placed in the bason tations of Europeans, as well as natives.

of these torches. This flame is increased The smell, which is not at first unpleasant, by a certain unetuous liquor, which the quickly goes off; and no floor is so cool and torch-bearer carries in a metal flagon with comfortable, nor so obnoxious to fleas and vermin. This pleasant and salutary article he pours it slowly on, to increase the flame,

a very long neck, made purposely that when is falling into disuse with the English, who the length may secure him from injury.”— in their habitations and habits, are depart- | PIETRO DELLA VALLE. ing more and more from the sober dictates of nature, and the obedient usages of the natives.” — Moon's Hindu Pantheon, p. 141.

[Bhool Shikun, or, The Destroyer of Idols.]

“Sultan Mahmood made thirteen cruel

and successful expeditions from Ghisni, [Advantage in the East of Unglazed Win

against the Hindoo rajahs, from one of dows, and of Cow-Dung Flooring.]

which he caried to his capital a spoil of fifty “ We now, for instance, build lofty thousand captives, three hundred and fifty rooms, admitting insufferable glare and elephants, with gold, diamonds, pearls, and heat through long glazed windows fronting | precious effects to an incredible amount.

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These riches were generally secreted in tem- a strong proof of the magnificence of that ples: hollow images were filled with jewels; great but bigoted monarch, and of the megold and silver, which had been accumu- lancholy mutability of human grandeur; for lating for ages, were buried under the pave- in the short space of ninety years, the splenment. At the destruction of the temple of did remains of this princely structure are Somenaut, the Brahmins offered the Sultan mouldering into dust, and some parts quite a large sum to spare the principal idol, which obliterated ! he refused, saying he preferred the title of “ We first entered by a lofty gateway ‘the destroyer of idols,' to the seller of idols,' into a vast area called the Jellougah, or the and, brandishing his mace, inflicted so vio- place where the imperial guards paraded ; lent a blow on the image, that it broke in the gates here, as in most other oriental papieces, and there issued from it an amaz- laces and cities, being intended for the ading collection of the most precious jewels. mission of state elephants, with the exalted The Sultan was immediately congratulated houdar on their backs, are on a large scale, by his Mahomedan courtiers, on the purity and add much to the general grandeur. and effect of his zeal; and from thence as- From the Jellougah we ascended a noble sumed the additional title, a glorious one in flight of steps into another spacious court, their estimation, of Bhool Skikun, the . De- on the western side of which was the duanstroyer of Idols.'”—Forbes, vol. 3, p. 142. aum, or public hall of audience, and oppo

site to it the nobat khani, or music-gallery.

On approaching the hall of audience, a ti[Holy Prayer!]

mid hare started from the spot where stood

the musnud of Aurungzebe; that throne “Give to us, and to all thy servants where the proudest monarch in the world whom thy Providence hath placed in these

was seated in all his glory! The throne was remote parts of the world, grace to dis

elevated in the most conspicuous part of charge our several duties with piety to

this superb hall; the hall itself was filled wards thee our God; loyalty towards our

with ameers of the first distinction, and the king ; fidelity and diligence towards those spacious court crowded with haughty war, by whom we are employed ; kindness and riors and other nobles, while the air echoed love towards one another, and sincere cha- with the swelling notes from the Nobat rity towards all men ; that we, adorning the Khani, and the voices of the chopdars and gospel of our Lord and Saviour in all things, heralds loudly proclaiming, ' May the King these Indian nations among whom we dwell, of the World live for ever!' From that beholding our good works, may be won over

throne, which the proudest nobles then apto the love of our most holy religion, and glorify thee, our Father which art in hea- proached with awe and palpitation, now

sprang forth a terrified little hare!'”_SIR ven!”—Ibid. p. 30.

CHARLES MALET.— Ibid. vol. 3, p. 105.

[The City of Aurungabad. The Throne of

Aurungzebe and the startled Hare.] [The Hindoo Princes and their Secret “ MAY 31, 1794. This morning we made

Chamber.] another excursion from our encampment to “ MANY Indian Princes, Hindoos and view the city of Aurungabad and its envi- | Mahomedans, as also the wealthy nobles, We went first to the palace, which have a favourite upper chamber, with walls

Aurungzebe at the same time and ceiling covered with mirrors of every as the city; and in the multiplicity and ex- size and shape: in the centre is a sofa or a tent of its offices and apartments, exhibits swinging bed, suspended from the roof,

rons.

was built

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