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thur Young, Esq., F.R.S.--This well arranged and ingenious essay, occupying too pages, is divided into two parts, the first treating of those manures which are dug or made on a farm * the second of animal, vegetable, and fossil manures t. It is impossible, in the narrow space to which we are confined, to do justice to this dissertation, in which Mr. Young well combines chemical with agricultural facts; and his remarks on the Nature of Dung, on the Nature and Properties of the Substances constituting the Animal Manures, and in the Food of Plants, are well intitled to the attention of the farmer. On the last of these subjects, Mr. Young appears to have exercised a truly philosophical research ; and the result of his investigation is that 'hydrogen, which is very beneficial in vegetation, is found in a very considerable number of substances which are used as manures, and that there may be some difficulty in finding a single one that does not contain, emit, or attract it.' Some pains are taken to decide the contest between bydrogen and carbon ; and we extract this part of the essay as a specimen of the genius which it displays :
• Hydrogen gas, obtained from filings of iron by sulphuric acid, 1 have often found highly beneficial to vegetation. I do not assert that even in this case it is positively free from carbori, but the quane tity is by far too small to permit the effect to be attributed to that substance.
• An observation of Fourcroy throws no inconsiderable light on this subject.
“Charcoal," says that eminent chymist, “ decomposes water, having a greater affinity with oxygen, than that has with hydrogen."
• This circumstance explains much of the difficulty which attends the insolubility of charcoal in water. Mr. Kirwan says, that the grand desideratum is to discover the means of rendering charcoal Aoluble in water. Dr. Ingenhouz says, that it is totally insoluble, and almost unalterable. But it is evident, from the observations of other chymists, that some budies exist possessing this power. Pote
* Consisting of 15 sorts,' 1. Marle. 2 Chalk.
Lime-stone and lime. 4. Clay loam and sand. S. Burnt clay. 6. The ashes of paring and burning. 7. Yard dung. 8. The sheep-fold. 9. Pigeon's dung. 19. Pond and river mud. II. Seed weeds. Pond and river weeds. 13. Hemp and flax water. vegetables. 15. Green crops ploughed in'
+ Under these beads are included, Animal Manures. 1. Night soil. 2. Bones. 3. Sheep's trotters.
Hair. s. Feathers.. 6. Fish.
8. Woollen rags. 9. Currier's shavings. io. Horn shavings - Vegetable Manures. 1. Wood ashes. 2. Peat. ashes. 3. Coal-ashes. 4. Soot. 5. Peat dust. 6. Poteash waste. 7. Sugar baker's waste. 8. Tagner's bark. 9. Malt-dust. 10. Rape cake.- Fossil Manures. 1. Salt. 2. Gypsum.' REY, APRIL, 1897. Е с
ash has this effect, according to Mr. Thomson. And Mr. Davy and Senel ier remark the same thing of pure-alkalies, but not when combined with acids Dr Darwin also remarks, that is carbon absorbs with great avidity all putrid exhalations. These consist chiefly of ammunia, hydrogen, and carbonic acid, and are the immediate products of the dissolution of animal or vegetable bodies. Hydro. gen and nitrogen produce ammonia, which, combining with carbon, may orm a he par carbonis ; and by thus rendering carbon soluble in water, may much contribute to the growth of vegetables."
In ano. ther passage Sencbier says, " he has found it insoluble in water;
and that alkalies alone have the power of dissolving some particles." Mr. Davy remarks also, that "charcoal and water in a bottle give out slowly sorie heavy infiammable air." Here is the interesting cir. cumsance : If the solution of charcoal in water, whether by time, potash, or contact with soils, be attended with the extrication of hydrogen gas, no wonder that charcoal should act as a manure,
• I have now before me four and twenty tumblers of water, with plants growing through pierced cork floats. Different substances are added to each; among others charcoal, which evidently acts as a powerful manure. But the superiority over the glass which has no addition is nothirg in comparison with that of plants in another apparatus, in which hydirgen gas, from iron filings and diluted sulphuric acid, is thrown up to the roots every day. The superiority here is striking to every observer.
· That there is still some difficulty, must however be admitted. Chaptal observes, that gas extracted from a mixiure of sulphuric acid and iron, holde more or less of charcoal in solution, because iron itself contains it. The desideratum seems th-refore to be the application of hydrogen, free from carbon, as the means of really ascertaining to which substance the effect is to be attributed.
in what degree hydrogen is contained in, or formed by other substances which act as manures, is an enquiry of great importance.'
Mr. Young concludes with offering it as his opinion that an age of experiments will be necessary fully to elucidate the subject of Manures.
On the Use of Tobacco-water in preserving Fruit Crops, by destroying Insects, and on the Use of the Striped or Ribband Grass. By Mr. Robert Hallett. ---- A second Letter from Mr. Robert Hallett, on the Efficacy of Tobacco-water in destroying Insects, in. festing Fruit-Trees.—T'he use of tobacco-water in destroying insects on trees is not new, as the editor observes : but, as tobacco is an expensive article, he suggests the trial of the infusion of some of our bitterest plants with the same intention. Striped grass is recommended as excellent summer food for cattle. In his second letter, Mr. H. tells us that he has em. ployed the tobacco-water with complete success for ten years.
On employing the Poor in Parish Work-houses. By the late Benjamin Pryce, Esq.-It is a palpable misnomer to call those 9
houses, in which the poor are congregated, work-houses, since little or no work is done in them. According to a report on this subject which we have elsewhere, seen, the earnings of the poor in work-houses amount on an average to 3s. gd. a head yearly, or to about half a farthing daily! Parish officers, who are desirous of making these houses answer their title, may derive assistance from this short communica. tion; which is the result of much inquiry, and in which the principles inculcated are rational :
• The robust and healthy poor who are able to maintain thema selves, should be admitted into workhouses with great caution, and be considered as temporary guests only, to be removed as soon as they can find employment cisewhere. The employment to be provided for the inhabitants of these receptacles of poverty and imbecility should be such as is suited to their strength and capacity : it should be something easy to learn, and in which they could instruct or as. sist each other. The articles should not be in much danger of being spoiled by the inattentive or unskilful; and they should also, as far as circumstances will admit, (for such poor at least as are not likely to remain in the workhouse) be something in which, after their discharge, they can be employed with advantage to themselves in their own habitations or for masters in the same parish or neighbourhood."
On feeding Stalled Cattle on Out-Chaf, &c. By John Exter. The chaff here meant consists of unthreshed oat sheaves cut into chaff. To his process of feeding, Mr. Exter adds a recommendation of the North Devon Cattle.
Report of the Committee appointed by the Bath and West of Eng. land Society to survey the Farm, &c. of Mr. White Parsons at West-Camel, in the County of Somerset, taken the oth and 10th of August, 1803, in claim of a Premium which was adjudged to him. This report does not admit of abridgment.
Reflections on the high Prices of Provisions in Times of Scarcity, and especially of Bread-Corn. By W. Matthews.—Though the remarks in this paper are just, they have not the merit of novelty
Extract of a Letter from a Gentleman in Jersey to his Friend in Glamorganshire on the Use of Vraic as a Manure. By J. Franklin, Esq.-The mode in which this sea-weed is collected, and its ashes are applied as a manure, are here described : but the detail cannot be generally interesting.
On the most profitable Size of farming Cattle. By Charles Gordon Grey, Esq.-That' the smaller kind of animals come soonest to maturity, and ever pay most for their food,' is the doctrine of this gentleman.
On Slating. By Mr. Lewin Tugwell.- A plate is annexed to illustrate this new method of slating; in which the objects
attempted are lightness, flatness, the prevention of rifting by the wind, and economy; without the engraving, however, it cannot be particularly illustrated.
On the Utility of making Family Wines from several of our Garden Fruits ; especially for benevolent Uses
. Extracted from an Address on diferent Topics, to the Board of Superintendance
. By W. Matthews.-As foreign wines are excluded by their high price from many families, Mr. M. recommends che cultivation of the black currant, (which he prefers to the white and the red,) and of vines in favourable situations, for the purpose, with the help of sugar, of making wine. În a letter annexed to this paper from Dr. Anderson, a certain degree of acidity in the fruit is represented as necessary to give made wines a zest; 'the mixture of spirits with wine is reprobated ; and three years are stated as necessary to elapse before made wines are fit to drink.
Remarks on sundry important Uses of the Potatoe. By a Mem. ber of the Society.- 1 he experiments here detailed relate to the making of potatoe-flour, which is obtained from the root boiled, dried, and ground; and which is said to keep longer at sea, if barrelled up, than wheaten flour. 100 lbs. of potatoes yield 25 lbs. of four.
On Planting. By Thomas Davis, Esq.- Various directions are here given, respecting the kind of trees proper to plant; the age and condition of young trees fit for planting; the previous preparation of the land ; the situations; the time of planting, &c.; and as these hints proceed from a person of experience, they will be deemed worthy of notice,
Calculations, shewing the Advantages to Lords of Manors, from the Practice of Leasing on Lives. By the Same.
On the best Periods for Leasing and entering on Lands, for Landlord and Tenant : in a Letter to a Farming Gentleman. By the Same.-The calculations and reasonings in the first of these papers are adapted to the feelings of the aristocracy; in the second, Mr. D. decides generally that Lady-day is the best for the landlord, Michaelmas for the tenant.
On the Management of Marsh Lands, Irrigation, &c. By the Same. It is recominended, after having drained marsh lands, to keep them perfectly dry ; to feed as hard as possible with stock of the cow kind, and to employ such manures as suit the soil. Ms. D. advises in irrigation not to attempt too much, but to proceed slowly, and under the direction of experienced judges.
A brief A brief Statement of the Society's Conduct since the last Publication, respecting Bills of Inclosure.—Though the Society failed in their object of a General Inclosure Bill, they congratulate them. selves on having succeeded in diminishing the expence attend. ing the application to Parliament for inclosures.
On the Cultivation of the Poppy. By T. Cogan, M.D.This curious and amusing essay cannot fail of attracting attention. Dr. Cogan shews that the white poppy (papaver hortense semine albo) has been cultivated to a great extent on the continent ; that oil extracted from its seed is not only destitute of noxious qualities, but is equal to olive oil; and that the oil-cakes are a wholesome and nutritive food for catile. The mode of poppy-culture is detailed ; and it is hinted, as an important matter of inquiry, whether the poppy may not be cultivated with the double view of procuring opium from the rind and oil from the seeds
The remainder of the papers consist of
A Statement of the Society's Proceedings consequent on the Decease of its late President, Francis Duke of Bedford :
Account of Ploughing for the Society's Premiums in 1803 :
Account of a successful Claim of the Society's Premium for a superior Flock of Sheep. By Wm. Dyke, Esq. :
Report respecting a successful Exhibition of Seedling Apples, for the Society's Premium. By J. B. Cholwich, Esq., and
An Account of the Premiums and Bounțies given by the Society, at the Annual Meetings of the last six Years, with the sum Total of the preceding Payments,
Though our notice of each paper has been necessarily con. cise, we hope that the report will enable our agricultural readers to appreciate the value of the contents of this volume.
Art. XII. Descriptive Excursions through South Wales and Mon
mouthshire, in the rear 1804, and the four preceding Susamers. By E. Donovan, F.L.S., Author of the British Zoology," &c. Embellished with Thirty-one Places of Views, Antiquities, &c. 2 Vols. 8vo. 21. 25. Boards. Rixingtons.
: .our tourists and our book-makers, few readers of taste will be displeased to revisit it with so well informed and accomplished a guide as Mr. Donovas. The scenery and antiquities of the country, its natural history; and the manners and customs of the people, have all been topics of observation and inquiry