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tional trees were set out and the conditions give promise that these will make equally as good a growth. These trees are set 680 to an acre and at the end of the third year will be available for fence posts. At this time the groves will be materially thinned leaving about 200 trees to the acre to come to maturity as timber trees.

It was not until the actual development of this land was under way that the many possibilities of its development were realized. Hundreds of acres of the comparatively level mesa are ideally adapted for agricultural purposes and could be leased to material advantage as small farms for the raising of vegetables and small fruits. At present a few hundred acres are being used by the city for raising hay for the use of farm stock and that of the different departments, which has proven to be a great saving in this line. With the rapid growth of the city, this land, owing to its superb location, will soon be particularly desirable for suburban homes, and will no doubt be ultimately leased by the city for this purpose.

The possession of this land and the establishment of a municipal forest and farm offered a splendid opportunity for the city to solve some of its sociological problems by the establishment of an institution where a class of men, who through lack of employnent, were dependent upon the city, could be given assistance. During the last winter a camp was established upon the land for this purpose. A system by which each man was given ten days' work, with his board and bunk and fifty cents a day, was inaugurated, and the men worked in clearing land and planting trees. A few hundred of the unemployed of the city took advantage of this opportunity to gain assistance. Many who were arrested by the police for vagrancy and drunkenness were sent out by the court in lieu of a jail sentence and were helped in this way. This plan has proven to be a complete success and has been of great help to the men as well as a saving to the city. All the trees planted this year have been set out by these men. In nearly every case the men have been efficient workers and no trouble had been experienced in any manner.

It is doubtful if a better plan than the establishment of a municipal forest and farm could be adopted by any city. It is not only a good investment commercially, but is a saving to the taxpayer in taking care of an element who are a burden to the community, in such a way that they become self-supporting and are enabled to take their proper place in society. It is doubtful if San Diego will ever dispose of this land as the possibilities of its development along the most advanced ideas of municipal government are unlimited. San Diego expects, through this development, to put herself forward as one of the most progressive cities of the country.

Max Watson.

Pueblo Forester, City of San Diego.

RECENT ACTIVITIES OF CITY CLUBS

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HERE was a time when it was thought that the citizen's duty to

his government ended at the polls, and eighteenth century states

men resented the formation of political clubs as a meddlesome interference with the rights of governing persons. In our day, however, citizens, through their special associations for labor legislation, prison reform, purification of milk supply, and a hundred other public purposes, are threatening to take possession of large fields of legislation and administration by a process of "peaceful penetration.” Private citizens are now doing work which was once regarded as the peculiar function of official persons; they are analysing questions of law-making and enforcement; they are drafting laws, watching administrative officers, employing experts to find out better ways of doing public business, and creating public sentiment on matters of policy. The line between public authorities and private interest is broken down.

In the sphere of municipal government, city clubs have for several years taken the lead as general non-partisan assocations. The older institutions, such as the City Club of New York, continue to thrive and justify their ways in affairs municipal. The St. Louis Club, now in its second year has found a place in that community under the secretaryship of Gustavus Tuckerman, and is growing steadily in the range of its activities and in membership. The Chicago club is just settling down to better work than ever in its new club house. The Milwaukee club is in process of reorganization. It is being transformed from a dinner club into a real civic association. It has employed Charles A. Hanson, as civic secretary, and is at work increasing its membership to 1000 with a view to erecting a permanent home for the club. The proposals for the new club house are interesting: “We do not look forward," they say, "to luxurious quar

We shall not abandon our democracy. But whatever we shall have will be worthy of the club and such that both men and women members will be proud of it. The only restriction anticipated between members is that bed rooms to be provided (at a profit to the club) will constitute a section of the building exclusively for men.

No bar to be installed, no liquors except soft-drinks, sold in the house." The roll of members contains appropriately enough the names of Dr. Bading, the new mayor, Victor Berger and Carl D. Thompson.

The objects of the several clubs, as publicly announced, are strikingly similar. The St. Louis club states that its chief purpose is that of providing "an open forum for the discussion of public affairs." The purpose of the Milwaukee club is "to bring together in intimate association, men, who are sincerely seeking the best interests of our city; to create within

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1 See NationAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW, 245.

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the club an ideal of civic betterment, by providing, through addresses at noonday luncheons, through ample literature and otherwise, the best thought of the day in civic matters; to disseminate civic knowledge by newspaper publicity and by bulletins to be published by the club and widely distributed; to promote a spirit of coöperation among the citizens in public matters."

In turning over the club programs for recent months one cannot help being impressed with the wide range of interest shown and the practical nature of the matters discussed. It would be hard to imagine a theme which has not been up for discussion in some form at the various clubs. St. Louis takes a preferential vote of the members on the several live subjects of the hour and the program committee is guided by the results. The program of that club for the winter of 1911-12, falls into eleven general divisions: the administration of justice, trusts and corporations, social reform; industrial problems; political reform; local municipal problems; social occasions; the Far East; health; education; and general municipal problems. Among the distinguished speakers before the club have been President Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Louis D. Brandeis, Governor Harmon, Henry George, Jr., Champ Clark, Dr. Wiley, Dr. W. H. Maxwell, Francis J. Heney, Dr. Delos F. Wilcox, Ella Flagg Young, and Jane Addams. The Boston club entertained the delegates to the convention of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, in September, 1911, gave receptions to distinguished persons visiting the city during the winter, and listened to talks upon subjects ranging from town planning by Raymond Unwin to detective experience by William J. Burns. The Boston program for the past winter, although it contains a number of themes of local municipal interest, seems to have looked more to general information and entertainment than to the detailed analysis of Boston's pressing problems.

The Philadelphia City Club on the contrary confined its activities rather closely to the instant need of things, for the winter's program contains such topics as supplying Philadelphia with electricity for light and power, the development of the parkway, vice commission for Philadelphia, who are responsible for grossly insanitary conditions in Philadelphia? It must not be thought, however, that there is a want of catholicity in the Quaker City, for the City Club also listened to addresses by Prof. Franklin H. Giddings, Dr. E. Dana Durand, Dr. Wiley, and Harvey N. Shepard.

New York's City Club conducted during the winter fifteen Saturday luncheons and a number of important evening meetings at which subjects of general and local interest were under discussion. The club entertained His Excellency, Count von Bernstorff and has published his address on German cities. The Los Angeles club took up such matters as the city charter, the proposed municipal newspaper, the Good Government

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and Socialist candidates for the school board, single tax, taxation, social hygiene, public baths, and the work of the legal aid society. The Milwaukee club has been merely a forum, meeting at various hotels, and listening to speeches and discussion by members and guests on civic affairs.

As it was their bounden duty, the women of Los Angeles, enfranchised in October, 1911, have organized a city club of their own. In fact, the new association came into existence in June of that year a few months before their victory at the polls, and pending the erection of a home of its own is pleasantly located in the Higgins Building. The purpose of the club is to bring together in informal association “those women who are genuinely interested in the improvement, by independent and disinterested methods, of the civic and economic conditions of the community in which they live, in order that, by friendly intercourse, exchange of views, accurate information, and united activities, intelligent and effective coöperation in the work for good government for the City and County of Los Angeles may be secured." It is to be regretted that space does not permit the publication in full of the program of the new club for the year 1911-1912, for it is a model in comprehensiveness, balance, pertinency, and fair-mindedness. It embraces a wide range of topics of practical interest, a hearing of the candidates of all parties in current elections, a consideration of constitutional amendments to be voted on, and discussions of immediate local and national political issues.

It must not be thought, however, that much and appropriate talk is the sole purpose of the city club, even though the essence of democracy is government by discussion. Each of the clubs under survey investigates special local problems and prepares reports of immense practical value. Although non-partisan in character the clubs give a great deal of attention to immediate questions of city politics and administration, and co-operate with officials and local bodies in the execution of varied public programs.

For example, the City Club of St. Louis, in conjunction with the Civic League has just held a civic exhibit displaying the work of the several municipal departments and civic organizations of the city which, it is hoped, may be the precursor of an annual budget exhibit conducted by the municipal authorities. In addition to the usual committees the St. Louis club has a special committee on public service which is designed to serve as an intelligence office to bring together volunteer workers and opportunities for civic service.

The City Club of Los Angeles reports that it has accomplished two important things during the past few months: It has started a movement which will mean the acquirement by the city of the old Normal School site for municipal purposes-a municipal auditorium being one of the buildings in view. The club has succeded in getting both the city and the county to adopt the idea of using the school buildings as polling places. This idea was tried out last December and proved a great success, saving a heavy expense and surrounding the polls with a good environment. In January, 1912, the club began work on the reorganization of the city planning committee.

Chicago's City Club through its committees on parks, playgrounds, and baths, and education, has been studying the relation of the public school buildings to the recreational facilities of the parks, and has made some pertinent recommendations to the city authorities to the effect that needless duplications of facilities can be avoided, with decided economy, by the use of park lands for school purposes and the school buildings for recreational facilities.

In New York City, the City Club has been specially active in the subway developments and the preservation of the City Hall Park. The club strongly supported the constitutional amendments making possible the establishment of a special court for condemning private property for public use and conferring upon cities in the state the power to make excess condemnations—both of which were defeated at the election of 1911 by the vote of the up-state districts. The club secured the repassage of these amendments slightly modified at the session of 1912. Club members have been well represented on important official city commissions. The committee work of the New York Club has been so successful that its methods are worthy of special study. By special request William F. Howes, the committee secretary, furnishes the following brief account of the plans which have been worked out to secure effective committee services:

A gentleman of considerable experience, well known to the NATIONAL MUNICIPAL REVIEW's readers, said a year or more ago in my hearing that no system of voluntary committees ever had worked or work successfully. The experience of the New York City Club up to that time went a long way toward bearing him out. A year's experience since has convinced us that proper machinery with intelligent direction can effect constant and important results. A plan devised by Robert S. Binkerd, the club's secretary, is already working well and will undoubtedly work much better.

The committees are appointed as a result of the expressed interests of the club members. Every member, on election, is invited to serve upon a committee of his choice. He is also requested to file a “special interest” blank. In the fall of each year the membership is recanvassed and preliminary committee meetings held to which all members interested are invited to bring suggestions. A thorough reorganization follows.

Two of the club's committees, both meeting weekly, have always done remarkably effective work. These,--the legislation committee handling all city bills introduced into the state legislature and the committee on city affairs handling the calendars of the board of estimate and the board of alderman, have been made feeders for the others. The number of matters coming before these two committees during the year is, of course,

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