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the perusal of those invaluable writers, whose excellence was borne the test of ages; from whom the moderns have imbibed the principles of science and of taste; and to whom they are indebted for the best models in the art of composition.
In order to succeed in an undertaking of this nature, and to improve on the labours of the learned men who have written on the subject, considerable abilities are necessary; he who attempts the task with any probability of success must be endowed with shrewdness and sagacity for the discovery of analogies, and a sound judgmert to decide on them; he must be well sersed in a variety of authors, and acquainted with their habits of thought and modes of expression ; and he must also possess a knowlege of kindred languages, and be enabled to make use of it for the clucidation of the points under dicussion.
The title-page of the present volume informis us that the Grammar is on a new plan; an intimation which may probably induce the curious inquirer to examine its contents : but we are also told that it is on an inproved plan : here the author decides on the merit of the performance, and forestalls the opinion of the reader, when it wculd be much more proper to leave any such improvement for the discovery of those who peruse it. Every author, who gives a work to the public on a subject which has been treated by several predecessors, may state that the plan is new: but, with regard to its being an improvement, his publication of it implies his own opinion, and therefore such an assertion is unnecessary as well as unbecoming
In examining this gramniar according to its professions, our notice is first attracted by the language in which it is written, and which is English: in this respect it is comparatively new, though not absoluicly : but whether this be or be not an improvement is a question which will excite different opinions. To encounter the difficulties which attend the acquisition of a strange language, the use of our own seems most reasonable, because the statement of rules, of analogies, and of minute exceptions, in any other dialect, adds obstacles to no purpose; yet, nota withstanding this objection, the advocates for the teaching of Greek through the medium of the Latin are not at a loss for arguments to allege in favour of their opinion. They urge that the young classical student, whether at school or under a private tutor, is always taught Latin before Greck, and generally is not required to learn the latter until he is able, with little assistance, to read an easy author in tlie former: at such a period, they state, it is very proper that, while he begins another language, he should improve himself in that in which he is not perfect; and this is done by acquiring the rules of the new, written in the old. The Latin, they likewise say, has the advantage of expressing its sense in fewer words than the English ; and moreover, that the Greek Grammar in Latin, although apparently adding difficulties in acquiring Greek, is in reality very seldom found to occasion -such to the young student. We think that a Greek Grammar in English, for these reasons, is not likely to be adopted in schools, though it may be of considerable advantage to the private student; and its use is certainly confined to an English public.
Mr. Jones divides his work into three parts, which are subdivided into chapters: the first part relates to the elements of speech, and the declinable words: the second, to contractions, and the formation of words; and the third, to syntax, and the influence of association on the Greek language.
With Chapter I, which treats of Letter, Diphthong, and Syllable, we were much pleased, particularly the decomposition of the double letters &; the former being decomposed to the letter o joined either to a, B, or , the second to the letter o joined either to x, y, or x, and the latter to the letter joined io t, d, or 6.- In the chapters on the properties of Nouns are many valuable observations; and among the rest that of ascertaining the genders either by the signification or termination. The Declensions are simplified and reduced to tbree; the first and second in the Westminster Grammar are consolidated; and the fourth, being the attic dialect of the third, is considered as belonging to it. All the declensions of nouns in the contracted form are referred to the third part the work.
Mr. Jones's observations in the chapters on the origin and properties of Verbs appear to us so ingenious and important, that we shall lay some of them before our readers :
• Verbs originally were the names of things, or substantives; but by combining with them the personal pronouns, they became in consequence of the association of ideas to express not things, but the opee rations of things. The conversion of nouns into verbs is easily explained in the following manner. Suppose the personal pronouns to ave become by use thus changed :
vi u sos
EU TOK Oot they • Now let these in their corrupted state be annexed to any noun, for instance to onoos wine ; and we shall have os: 0-W wine I, wwe su wine thou, 0170-s, wine he; 01ro-oftex, wine we; G.NO-Ets, wine ye; Ouro-outh, wipe they
• When the attention of the speaker or hearer was fixed upon the first of these combinations, the union of the two words which signifi.d him.
self and wine could not fail of bringing to his mind the circumstances which he had previously experienced in connection with that liquid; and hence he recalled the idea of making wine, or tasting wine, or drinking wine ; consequently the two terms thus combined he naturally employed to express one of these notions. A similar process takes place with regard to the remaining five combinations, and thus have we in Greek and other languages, verbs diversified by six persons. This extension of the names of things to signify the actions, which those things have been observed to exert, is founded on the law of association; and may be illustrated by a thousand instances in all languages, but in none so rimarkably as in the Hebrew. This last, as being among the first, if not the very first language of men, exhibits in the clearest manner, when duly examined, every step which mankind took in the communication of their ideas by ineans of speech; and its verbs when stripped of the personal pronouns combined with them, appear to be nothing else than the names of things. Be it observed that this doctrine, concerning the origin of verbs, is not a matter of barren speculation ; but serves to unfold mach order, beauty, and simplicity in the construction of the Greek verbs, and to render their numerous inflexions more perfectly understood, and more easily retained by the learner.'
Conjugation is the mode in which the personal terminations of verbs are changed to express the several moods and tenses. - In the Greck tongue, there are only three of these modes, the first compre. bends verbs ending in w; the second those in jes; the third such as termiuate in pas. The two former, as they convey an active signification, may be called the Active forms, the last, the Passive form.'
In treating of the Passive Voice, Mr. Jones thus expresses bimself:
** The Passive voice may be derived from the Active by annexing apaces in the room of w to the radical verbs. The origin of the passive form may, I conceive, be deduced from the position already laid down ; viz. that verbs are the names of things, converted by the association of ideas to signify the actions of those things.
• A person having built a house, and wanting a term to convey that operation, would recur either to the materials employed for that purpose, or to the edifice itself. If he were a Saxon, he would derive the desired term from the former; if a Grecian, from the latter; thus he would have said timber 1.-oxfw (ouxos eyw) house I. Here the pronoun I connected with the materials or work, and in that case which usually expresses a person in action, represents the speaker as agent in the business. Buż if the same Grecian had to represent him. self, not as an agent, but as one to whom the house belonged, and for whom it was built, he would then have used the pronoun in a different case-ixos por house for me. In this instauce, the terms osxo: Luas house for me, do not now, as before, coalesce as an action with its agent, but as an action with the person to whom it belongs, for whom it is intended, and in whom it terminates. Hence their combination might come to convey the idea, I am housed or am buill,- for the aux. ilary am serves only to assert that built or housed belongs to the pro.
Hóan preceding it, and to cement their union in the mind as subject and predicate.
• In the same manner, if cos tos(Tv) the dative case of ov thou and he be annexed to the word osxas, now converted by this connection inta a verb, we shall have dixoşago, Oskos tos, house for thee, house for him. These combinations, by very slight changes, become ose-opsi, obras och wi-frau, I am built, thou art built, he is built. In the plural number, the pronouns annexed are so much changed as to preserve no resemblance to their original state. In the dual, however, their analogy is preserved pretty free from corruption. Thus duou the dative of Suw is changed into for, which annexed to the radical verb forms the second and third persons dual ; oux - Joy ye or they two are built. The pronour huss we prefixed to box is abbreviated into fue hox, which forms the first person dual, eszülous Jou we two are built.'
Part III. contains an account of the words which suffer contractions in their several relations; and, by a few simple rules, Mr. J. explains the variations which they undergo, whether nouns or verbs. The chapter on the Greek dialects, as far as it goes, is valuable ; and those which follow on the come position of words will prove of great service in acquiring the language.
The Fourth Part contains the Syntax; and on this portion of the volume, which is very considerable, the author appears have bestowed peculiar pains. Here he summonses his various powers, his ingenuity, and his learning, to explain the numerous and anomalous idioms of this copious language, and every difficulty is confidently opposed, and laboriously explained. He he. sitates not, in various instances, to depart from the first authorities, when they are adverse to his opinion ; and he particularly treats of the relations of nouns, adjectives, and verbs, in all their varieties of construction, however irregular. The Preposi. tions are simplified and decomposed to their original roots, and their various meaning is illustrated with great ingenuity. Adverbs, conjunctions, and interjections, are also decomposed, and thus satisfactorily explained.-The last chapter treats of the influence of Association on the Greek language ; and many idioms and seeming inaccuracies, which did not come within the rules of Syntax, are enforced and rendered more comprehensible by having recourse to it.
Although we have thus far spoken favourably of this treatise, we must now point out some deficiencies that occurred to us in the examination. We think that the plan is capable of considerable improvemeut. In order to give the greater novelty. the author has in many respects departed from the old Gammar, without sufficient cause; and we should have preferred that the many emendations here suggested had been ingrafted on the old, with only the necessary alteration. To
instance a few particulars ; Mr. Jones has deviated from the old division into parts of speech, which should certainly be treated each separately; from the neglect of this easy method we meet with some confusion, and we find adjectives and even participles in the chapter which professes to treat only of
The other parts of speech are not kept sufficiently distinct ; and as to adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections, the student does not obtain any account of them, till he is presumed to be a tolerable scholar by labouring through the Syntax, when he finds them introduced nearly at the end of the book.
Another material deficiency is the want of adequate examples, particularly of the modes and tenses of the verbs, of which the author seemed conscious at the conclusion of the work, where we find paradigms (tables) of them : but they would certainly be of greater benefit to the learner, were they placed in the part in which he treats of the verbs. Thes paradigms of them in the first person singular in each mode and tense, as in other grammars, would be an improvement. Paradigms of the several Dialects, as they affect the terminations of words, are also wanting. The Syntax, as it is, seems very long, and many parts are not very important to a beginner ; if these parts, as well as some others, were more frequently confined to the smaller type of the volume, its size would have been lessened, and the self-teaching student would be the better enabled to judge what should first engage his attention. We noted also several inaccuracies, to which probably the author alludes when he says that he discovered some errors, after the printing of the book, and which he promises carefully to correct, should a new edition be wauted.
In his Rules for the Syntax of Verbs, Mr. Jones occasionally refines without sufficient reason. E. G.
• Rule XVI. The genitive is often used for the dative, or the dative for the genitive, as the writer is desirous of fixing the attention of his reader upon the source, or upon the instrument or end of the specified action. Thus, when Homer
be would burn the ships with flaming fire, Nous eustenotu Augs xndia, he fixes the mind upon fire, as the instrument by which this is done, but when in another place, Il. ix. 242, he writes, AUTAS TE ENTENTEDY, Usheçou mugos, that he quould burn them FROM fire, he directs the attention backward to fire, as the cause from which their being burnt proceeded."
If Homer were alive, we suspect that he would say that the grammarian has discovered what the poet never intended to express, for that in both phrases the latter had the same idea.