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ture are repressed from infancy, and possible to accomplish by individual that the most unnatural means are exertions and separate interests." used to bring out the most injurious In another place,* Mr. Owen, with propensities; in short, that the ut- reference to this question, observes, most pains are taken to make that “ Wherever the experiment has been which by nature is the most delightful tried, the labour of each has been compound for producing excellence exerted cheerfully. It is found that and happiness, absurd, imbecile and when men work together for a comwretched. Such is the conduct now mon interest, each performs his part pursued by those who are called the more advantageously for himself and best and wisest of the present genera- society, than when employed for others tion, although there is not one rational at daily wages, or than when working object to be gained by it. From this by the piece. When employed by the principle of individual interest have day, they feel no interest in their arisen all the divisions of mankind, the occupation beyond the receipt of their endless errors and mischiefs of class, wages; when they work by the piece, sect, party, and of national antipa- they feel too much interest, and frethies, creating the angry and malevo- quently overwork themselves, and lent passions, and all the crimes and occasion premature old age and misery with which the human race death. When employed with others has been hitherto afflicted. In short, in a community of interests, both if there be one closet doctrine more these extremes are avoided, the labour contrary to the truth than another, it becomes temperate but effective, and is the notion that individual interest, may be easily regulated and superas that term is now understood, is a intended. Besides, the principles and more advantageons principle on which practices are now quite obvious by to found the social system, for the which any inclinations, from the most benefit of all, or of any, than the indolent to the most industrious, may principle of_union and mutual co- be given to the rising generation.” operation. The former acts like an It cannot be denied that human na. immense weight to repress the most ture requires a stimulus to excite its valuable faculties and dispositions, and exertions ; but unless it be maintained to give a wrong direction to all the that no stimulus short of wretched human powers.
It is one of those poverty will suffice to this purpose, magnificent errors, (if the expression and such a proposition stands opposed may be allowed,) that when enforced to the most notorious facts, thien it in practice, brings ten thousand evils becomes possible that men may be in its train. The principle on which excited by the desire of advancing in these economists proceed, instead of the acquisition of those objects which adding to the wealth of nations or of conduce to the embellishment and reindividuals, is itself the sole cause of finement of the human character, and poverty ; and but for its operation, we may set our minds quite at ease wealth would long ago have ceased to as to the danger of sinking into inacbe a subject of contention in any part tivity for want of suitable exciteof the world. If, it may be asked, ments, so long as any single good, experience has proved, that union, real or fancied, remains to be attained, combination, and extensive arrange. that is to say, to all eternity, ment among mankind, are a thousand The habits of those who will come times more powerful to destroy, than pose the first associations, will have the efforts of an unconnected multi- been formed by the usual motives by tude where each acts individually for which men are now actuated; so long himself, would not a similar increased as the projected associations are sureffect be produced by union, combi- rounded by ordinary society, they will nation, and extensive arrangement, to naturally be actuated by a desire to create and conserve ?? Why should not outstrip it in excellence ; and when, the result be the same in the one case if ever, society at large shall coine to as in the other? But it is well known be resolved into similar communities, that a combination of men and of interests, can effect that which it His Public Address, dated 25th July, would be futile to attempt and im- 1817.
one establishment will serve-to excite tribe, multiply their numbers still and stimulate another. As this is more rapidly than man; and that an one of the most important questions agricultural labourer can raise ten connected with the scheme, I have times as much as he can himself conbeen led to dwell more upon it than I
We have moreover the satisshould otherwise bave deemed neces- faction to know, that under the prosary : but I know that many men of jected arrangements, with the aid of very benevolent and liberal sentiments inachinery, a large portion of those have entertained a fear, lest men as- who are at present engaged in manu. sociated on the plan of a community factures may be liberated and enabled of interests should degenerate into if necessary, to cultivate the earth; drones. If this be probabie, what a and that the women and elder children dull place must heaven be, where we may also assist in the lighter parts of at least expect to find abundant means husbandry and gardening. of subsistence, angels' food !
Why these political economists The last objection which I shall should be so alarmed at the effect here notice, is that which founds which Mr. Owen's plan is to produce itself upon the doctrine of Mr. Mal. on the population of the country, I thus respecting population.
cannot conceive, since by far the I have studied his celebrated Essay greater number of instances in which with a strong feeling of anxiety, and men have been associated on the ain happy to say that we have nothing principle of a community of interests, to fear upon the score of an increase those persons have practised celibacy. of numbers. It is true, he sets out I have no idea that any such restricwith affirming that the geometrical tions will ever be imposed upon the ratio of huinan increase, and the union of the sexes; but well we know, arithmetical ratio of the increase of that, if prudence should require so the means of subsistence, are inevita- painful a sacrifice, there is nothing ble laws of nature, of sufficient force in that form of society to prevent its to destroy the most beautiful state of adoption. society which the imagination of man Having thus adverted to some of can conceive. But when we advance the leading objections which have towards the close of the Essay, we been raised against the scheme of find to our joy, that the inevitable Mr. Owen, I shall now slightly touch law of human increase is a power as upon some of the beneficial consetractable and docile as our hearts can quences which it is calculated to enwish. “ Thus,” says Mr. Malthus, sure to mankind. “it appears that we possess a great Its tendency is to fix the lowest power, capable, in a short time, of numbers of associated individuals, at peopling a desart region, but also such an amount as shall be competent capable, under other circumstances, to raise within themselves almost of being repressed within any, the every thing that is primarily necessmallest possible limits, by human sary or desirable for the comfortable energy and virtue, at the expense of subsistence of mankind. Each of a comparatively small amount of these families will compose a little evil.”
state, and a nation will therefore be But if the ratio of human increase made of a vast number of small corbe thus variable at the will of man, porate bodies. When once the suas admitted by the very person who perior efficacy of combined, over inprofesses to be the most deeply learn- dividual exertion, for social purposes, ed upon the subject, we have the comes to be understood and to be satisfaction to be quite certain that fully experienced, the principle of be the rate of increase what it may, co-operation will be acted upon by all there can be no insuperable difficulty the communities as respects the agto the production of the means of gregate interests of the nation, as subsistence in a corresponding ratin, effectually as it will be by the memuntil the period shall arrive when the bers of a single association; national whole of the habitable earth shall enmities will gradually melt away, have been fully peopled. We know and eventually all mankind become that other animals, and the vegetable one great family,
Notes on Di. Jones's Greek-English Lexicon.
457 I am aware that the sacred prophe- SIR,
August 6, 1823. cies deadmocions entre more this blessed Tuleb lice are realing, faste; state of things shall be established and industry of Dr. Jones, in sup, upon earth ; but, as Christianity itself plying what all but merely prejudiced first throve and spread in spite of scholars have long regarded as political convulsions, may we not desideratum in lexicography. The hope that arrangements destined to meaning of Greek words, in their nice assuage all the fiery contentions of distinctive shades of signification, is mankind, may grow up even while in numberless instances conveyed these are raging, so as to be ready to loosely and ambiguously to the aptake advantage of a lucid interval to prehension of the English student, bring rulers and people to the paths through the interposed medium of of peace? If, as I firmly believe, Latin terms. This tribute of an humChristianity be destined to make wars
ble individual to the author of the to cease throughout the world, it Greek - English Lexicon, cannot be must be genuine, primitive, uncor- judged foreign to the purposes of rupted Christianity, real, practical your journal, as among the striking Christianity, and not the sort of thing and incontestable advantages which which has but too long passed under the dictionary in question offers, may the name of that holy and powerful be accounted the light which it rereligion. Individualized man, and genuine Testament.
flects on the phraseology of the New Christianity, are so separated as to be
Dr. Jones himself would perhaps utterly incapable of union through all be one of the last to feel any surprise eternity. How highly, then, is it in- at the detection, even in this his lucid cumbent upon us who are anxious to and elaborate work, of some of those restore the lost lustre of our faith, to maculæ take the lead in a scheme which is so congenial with its spirit, which in- quas aut incuria fudit, deed is but a revival the very order
Aut humana parum cavit natura. of society (though under far more Dr. Johnson in the transcript for favourable circumstances) which was the first edition of his Dictionary, had established by the first Christian overlooked'the word sea. By a similar church!
unaccountable oversight, Dr. Jones Yes, Sir, I do hope that the Mo- has passed over without the slightest ravian brethren will not long remain notice the Greek verb for go : Bairw, almost the only specimen among us Baw, and Boruso of Christian union; but that the Uni
It struck me also, on a cursory tarians will promptly, after mature comparison of the Lexicon with the consideration, exhibit to the world a Greek Plays, that one or two various still better and more illustrious display senses might be added with advantage. of the power of Christianity to ensure I take the liberty of submitting them human happiness. Your missionaries to Dr. Jones's consideration. will then, indeed, preach glad tidings atapxn, in the plural, clippings of to the poor, and carry comfort and hair, strewn as an offering on graves. delight wherever they go, by shewing Orestes, 16. " that godliness is profitable unto all aponus, spill or pour out. Orest. things, having the promise of this 115. life, as well as of that which is to αναπαλλω, sour.
Orest. 322. come.”
do&a, show or semblance. Orest. PHILADELPHUS. 235. P. S. I will, at some future oppor- yavayooy, (LTTIKOV,) crush or overtunity, with your permission, point throw of a chariot in the race. Elecout an easy way of obtaining many of tra, 1472. the advantages of Mr. Owen's plan, OTEVw, berail. Orest. 77. by association of persons inhabiting Ducis, natural beauty. Orest. 126. the metropolis, and other cities, and It appears to me that the senses following their usual avocations. affixed to atropia, want, doubt, per
plexity, should have the addition of VOL. XVIII.
uneasiness, or restless craving of a sick torment, in this ocean of sorrow and person. Orest. 232.
suffering, which shocks the faculties And that the sense attached to of reason, and distresses the powers Kataye, approach, Orestes, 148, (it of belief." (Pp. 393, 394.) should be 149,) is an oversight. If As the Christian orator is thus vithis were the meaning, the following sited with the compunctious feelings word mporib? is mere tautology. I of nature, he may be led to exercise think the sense is speak low : lower his reason, and review the articles of your voice : purny understood. his belief. And it is to be hoped that
Under dado eupw, to the senses de- a critical and attentive perusal of the praved or perverted, disordered in New Testament, will lead him to form mind seems wanting in addition. a creed more accordant with the beOrest. 297.
nevolent character of the Supreme GELLIUS. Being, and more auspicious to the
best interests of mankind. . He deems
what he is pleased to denominate the Sır, Islington, Aug. 7, 1823. Oracles of God, the fair' subject of N reading the Rev. Mr. Irving's examination, intelligible to the comtions for the Oracles of God, and an men into a knowledge of all truth. Argument for the Judgment to come, The Bible is not a dead letter, mysteriI find that he descants very copiously ous and unintelligible, needing another upon the eternity of hell-torments. It revelation from God to make it plain is indeed, a favourite topic, pervading and useful. The preacher thus exthe work from its commencement to presses himself forcibly on the subits conclusion. He, however, advances jectnothing more than the usual argu- “O! I hate such ignorant prating, ments, and deems the contrary belief, because it taketh the high airs of that of universal restoration, pregnant Orthodoxy, and would blast me as an with mischievous consequences. He heretical liar if I go to teach the people no doubt writes under the full con- that the word of God is a well-spring viction of the truth of his sentiments, of life, unto which they have but to and of course discharges this part of stoop their lips in order to taste its his ministry with fidelity. It is please sweet and refreshing waters and be ing notwithstanding, to meet with his nourished unto life eternal. But these memorable conclusion, which shall be high airs and pitiful pelting words transcribed.
are very trifling to me, if I could but “Now when reason taketh this persuade men to dismiss all this cant picture under her deliberation, I know about the mysteriousness and profound not what confusion she feels, but darkness of the word of God, and sift surely she is distressed. She thinks their own inward selves to find out it pitiful that a brief, transient space what lethargy of conception or blind of time like life, should decide and of prejudice, what unwillingness of determine these terrible conclusions mind or full possession of worldly of eternity. She could wish a taste engagements, hath hitherto hindered of it, and then a chance of escaping them from drinking life unto their from it. And oh! it would please souls from the fountain of living her well could she indulge the fond waters. But if I go about to perhope of seeing all yet recovered and suade my brethren against the truth restored to happy seats. Hell cheat- of experience, against the very sense ed, the Devil himself converted, and and meaning of revelation, against my the universal world bound in chains own conviction, that they may read of love and blessedness! It seemeth till their eye grows dim with age more than terrible to think of wretches without apprehending one word, unswimming and sweltering for ever in less it should please God by methods the deep abyss, preyed upon by out- unrevealed to conjure intelligence into ward mischiefs and distracted by the hieroglyphic page; what do I but inward griefs, tortured, tormented, interpose another gulf between man maddened for evermore! There is a and his Maker, dash the full cup of seeming cruelty in this quietus of spiritual sweets from his lips, and Dr. Evans on Passages in Irving's Orations.
459 leave him as lonely, helpless and deso- To threats the stubborn sinner oft is late as he was before the Lion of the hard, tribe of Judah did take the book of Wrapt in his crimes against the storm God's hidden secrets and prevail to
prepar'd; unloose the seals thereof?” * (Pp. 471, But when the milder beams of mercy play, 472.)
He melts, and throws his cumbrous cloak This statement augurs well. This Lightnings and thunder proclaim the Al
away ; celebrated preacher and his admirers, with this rational view of the Scrip. The stiller sound succeeds, and-God is
mighty's stile—then disappear, tures, may sit down to a calm and
there! deliberate examination of their con. tents. The New Testament is con- I must apologize for the length of sistent with itself. The attributes of this communication. The topic is the Supreme Being are there never interesting, and I should rejoice to libelled; and the happiness of man is find that the most popular preacher held up as the end of all the divine of his day entertained more just views dispensations. From creeds and from of the glorious gospel of the everconfessions of faith, as from an empoi- blessed God-blessed, because he is soned fountain, have issued the tenets so in himself-delighting to render most inimical to the glory of God, and the work of his hands felicitous, either subversive of the welfare of mankind. in this world or in the world to come. Christ came to save, not destroy, the Mr. Irving compliments the Unihuman species. And should the ma- versalists with the designation of jority of the inhabitants of the world “ amiable enthusiasts,” adding, that be condemned to eternal punishment, he has “no hesitation to ascribe the his mission must prove a curse, and bias of their mind to the very best of not a blessing, to the children of men. feelings, a desire to save the mercy The apostolic asseveration, that where and benevolence of the Almighty” sin hath abounded, grace shall much whilst he confesses that “the mercy more abound, is realized only by the and goodness of God, exceeding great, final restoration of man to undissem- and greatly to be adored, is sufficient bled felicity.
for the salvation of all the earth." Of The subject is doubtless attended these concessions let not their author with difficulty. But as in a court of be ashamed. They are dictated by justice we incline to the side of pity the omnipotent energy of truth, and and compassion, so let us adopt that are sanctioned by the sublimated gecreed from the word of God, which nius of Christian charity. The great wars not with the feelings implanted and good Dr. Isaac Watts says, “ If by heaven in our breasts. The doc- the blessed God should at any time, trine of the eternal torments of the in consistence with his glorious and wicked is alike irreconcileable with incomprehensible perfections, release reason and revelation. Nor has this those wretched creatures (suffering fuawfully terrific dogma a salutary in- ture punishment) from their acute fluence on the mind of man. Love, pains and long imprisonment, I think rather than terror, is the predominanĆ I ought cheerfully to accept this aptrait of the dispensation of Jesus. pointment of God for the good of The lightnings and thunderings of millions of my fellow-creatures, and Sinai have given way to the small still add my joys and praises to all the voice of the gospel. Persuasion in. songs and triumph of the heavenly vites, denunciation terrifies and drives world, in the day of such a divine and away. The former avails, whilst the glorious release of these prisoners. latter multiplies the evils of trans. This will, indeed, be such a new, such gression, by hardening the sinner an astonishing and universal jubilee, against his Maker. 'Thus, agreea- both for evil spirits and wicked men, bly to the well known lines of the as must fill' heaven, earth, and even poet,
hell, with joy and hallelujahs !”
J. EVANS. Fear frightens minds, whilst Love, like
heat, Exbales the soul sublime to seek her
native seat ;