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quate if we do not mentally co-ordi- which it might derive from his erroneous nate the idea of force with that of mo- conception of a whirling force. And his tion, and recognize it as the “efficient third law was in like manner simply an cause" of those phenomena—the “materi- expression of a certain harmonic relation al conditions” constituting (to use the old which he had discovered between the scholastic term) only " their formal cause." times and the distances of the planets, havAnd I lay the greater stress on this point, ing no more rational value than any other because the mechanical philosophy of the of his numerous hypotheses. present day tends more and more to ex- Now the Newtonian “laws" are often press itself in terms of motion rather than spoken of as if they were merely higher in terms of force--to become kinetics in- generalizations in which Kepler's are instead of dynamics.
cluded; to me they seem to possess an alThus, from whatever side we look at together different character. For starting this question, whether the common sense with the conception of two forces, one of of mankind, the logical analysis of the re- them tending to produce continuous unilation between cause and effect, or the form motion in a straight line, the other study of the working of our own intellects tending to produce a uniformly accelerated in the interpretation of Nature,-we seem motion towards a fixed point, Newton's led to the same conclusion; that the no- wonderful mastery of geometrical reasontion of force is one of those elementary ing enabled him to show that, if these forms of thought with which we can no dynamical assumptions be granted, Kepler's more dispense, than we can with the no- phenomenal “laws,” being necessary contion of space or of succession. And I sequences of them, must be universally shall now, in the last place, endeavor to true. And while that demonstration show you that it is the substitution of the would have been alone sufficient to give dynamical for the mere phenomena idea, him an imperishable renown, it was his which gives their highest value to our con- still greater glory to divine that the fall of ceptions of that order of nature which is the moon towards the earth—that is, the worshipped as itself a god by the class of deflection of her path from a tangential interpreters whose doctrine I call in ques- line to an ellipse—is a phenomenon of the tion.
same order as the fall of a stone to the The most illustrative as well as the most ground; and thus to show the applicabiliillustrious example of the difference be- ty to the entire universe, of those simple tween the mere generalization of pheno- dynamical conceptions which constitute mena and the dynamical conception that the basis of the geometry of the Principia, applies to them, is furnished by the con- Thus, then, whilst no “law” which is trast between the so-called laws of plane- simply a generalization of phenomena can tary motion discovered by the persevering be considered as having any coercive action, ingenuity of Kepler, and the interpretation we may assign that value to laws which of that motion given us by the profound express the universal conditions of the acinsight of Newton. Kepler's three laws tion of a force, the existence of which we were nothing more than comprehensive learn from the testimony of our own constatements of certain groups of phenomena sciousness. The assurance we feel that determined by observation. The first, that the attraction of gravitation must act unof the revolution of the planets in ellipti- der all circumstances according to its one cal orbits, was based on the study of the simple law, is of a very different order from observed places of Mars alone,-it might that which we have in regard (for examor might not be true of the other planets; ple) to the laws of chemical attraction, for, so far as Kepler knew, there was no which are as yet only generalizations of reason why the orbits of some of them phenomena. And yet even in that strong might not be the excentric circles which assurance, we are required, by our examhe had first supposed that of Mars to be. ination of the basis on which it rests, to So Kepler's second law of the passage of admit a reserve of the possibility of somethe Radius Vector over equal areas in thing different-a reserve which we may equal times, so long as it was simply a well believe that Newton himself must generalization of facts in the case of that have entertained. one planet, carried with it no reason for A most valuable lesson as to the allowits applicability to other cases, except that ance we ought always to make for the unNEW SERIES.–VOL. XVI., No. 4.
known “possibilities of nature," is taughter came in, when the reign of law was reus by an exceptional phenomenon so fa- stored. miliar that it does not attract the notice it And thus we are led to the culminating has a right to claim. Next to the law of point of man's intellectual interpretation of the universal attraction of masses of mat. Nature-his recognition of the unity of the ter, there is none that has a wider range power, of which her phenomena are the dithan that of the expansion of bodies by heat. versified manifestations. Towards this Excluding water and one or two other sub- point all scientific inquiry now tends. stances, the fact of such expansion might The convertibility of the physical forces, be said to be invariable; and, as regards the correlation of these with the vital, and bodies whose gaseous condition is known, the intimacy of that nexus between mental the law of expansion can be stated in a and bodily activity, which, explain it as we form no less simple and definite than the may, cannot be denied, all lead upward tolaw of gravitation. Supposing those ex- wards one and the same conclusion; and ceptions, then, to be unknown, the law the pyramid of which that philosophical would be universal in its range. But it conclusion is the apex has its foundation comes to be discovered that water, whilst in the primitive instincts of humanity. conforming to it in its expansion from 3972° By our own progenitors, as by the untuupwards to its boiling-point, as also, when ored savage of the present day, every it passes into steam, to the special law of change in which human agency was not expansion of vapors, is exceptional in its apparent was referred to a particular aniexpansion also from 3972° downwards to mating intelligence. And thus they attriits freezing-point; and of this failure in buted not only the movements of the heavthe universality of the law no rationale can enly bodies, but all the phenomena of Nabe given. Still more strange is it, that by ture, each to its own deity. These deities dissolving a little salt in water, we should were invested with more than human powremove this exceptional peculiarity; for sea- er; but they were also supposed capable water continues to contract from 3972° of human passions, and subject to human downwards to its freezing-point 12° or 14o capriciousness. As the uniformities of Nalower, just as it does with reduction of tem- ture came to be more distinctly recognized, perature at higher ranges.
some of these deities were invested with a Thus, from our study of the mode in dominant control, while others were supwhich we arrive at those conceptions of posed to be their subordinate ministers. the orderly sequence observable in the A serene majesty was attributed to the phenomena of Nature which we call “ laws," greater gods who sit above the clouds, we are led to the conclusion that they are whilst their inferiors might come down to human conceptions, subject to human fal- earth in the likeness of men." With the libility; and that they may or may not ex- growth of the scientific study of Nature, press the ideas of the Great Author of Na- the conception of its harmony and unity ture. To set up these laws as self-acting, gained ever-increasing strength. And so and as either excluding or rendering un- among the most enlightened of the Greek necessary the power which alone can give and Roman philosophers, we find a disthem effect, appears to me as arrogant as tinct recognition of the idea of the unity of it is unphilosophical. To speak of any law the directing mind from which the order of as "regulating" or “ governing" phenome- Nature proceeds; for they obviously bena, is only permissible on the assumption lieved that, as our modern poet has exthat the law is the expression of the modus pressed it,operandi of a governing power. I was
All are but parts of one stupendous whole. once in a great city which for two days
Whose body Nature is, and God the Soul. was in the hands of a lawless mob. Magisterial authority was suspended by timid- The science of modern times, however, ity and doubt; the force at its command has taken a more special direction. Fixwas paralyzed by want of resolute direction. ing its attention exclusively on the order of The laws" were on the statute book, but Nature, it has separated itself wholly from there was no power to enforce them. And theology, whose function it is to seek after so the powers of evil did their work; and its cause. In this, science is fully justified, are and rapine continued to destroy life alike by the entire independence of its oband property without check until new pow. jects, and by the historical fact that it has
been continually hampered and impeded For whilst the deep-seated instincts of in its search for the truth as it is in Nature, humanity and the profoundest researches by the restraints which theologians have of philosophy alike point to mind as the attempted to impose upon its inquiries. one and only source of power, it is the But when science, passing beyond its own high prerogative of science to demonstrate limits, assumes to take the place of theo- the unity of the power which is operating logy, and sets up its own conception of the through the limitless extent and variety of order of Nature as a sufficient account of the universe, and to trace its continuity its cause, it is invading a province of through the vast series of ages that have thought to which it has no claim, and not been occupied in its evolution. unreasonably provokes the hostility of those who ought to be its best friends.
STEADILY blows the north-east wind,
And the harbor flag blows straight from the mast;
And smoke their pipes and think it will last.
Yonder the cloud-rack lowers and glooms,
And the sweet blue sky is hidden away;
And you have to shout the thing that you say.
The distant fleet of white-sailed ships
Come hastening landward with wet black sides,
Now a rush, now a pause, on the weltering tides.
The spumy froth of the rock-vexed waves
Gathers in creaming yeast on the sand;
For hedges and hillsides far inland.
The sea-birds dip and wheel in the air,
And search the surges with greedy eyes ;
Then away on the blast with their shrill sad cries.
Yonder the people crowd to the cliff,
Where the long gray grass is flattened and bent;
Every eye to seaward is fixed intent.
Far down below are the cruel rocks,
All black and slippy with black seaweed,
For ever revolving with hideous speed.
How the ships come! Let them come, poor barks !
Here is the harbor quiet and still ;
And dream of their home without fear of ill.
How the ships come! What's that? A helm
Is carried away and she drifts to the blast;
And up in the rigging the crew run fast.
O maids and mothers! O daughters and wives !
And the sea has a hold of your loved ones' lives!
Can reach her there ; she must tumble and roll,
And eat her up, and ingulf the whole.
Shrill on the wind comes their bitter cry;
A billow rises, and breaks, and goes by.
Crumbled, and crushed, and hurried away!
All o'er the beach, and all round the bay.
And there close by a man on his face;
And carry them off from this fatal place!
And the grass will grow on their quiet grave;
It had stilled the wind, and curbed the wave!
And we cannot discern in this atmosphere;
Might have heard Thee well and seen Thee near.
In the perilled toil of a wreckful world;
(From Chambero's Journal.
BETWIXT TWO STOOLS.
JOHN BUSHBY, having fallen betwixt two appear to be any reason why a man should stools and hurt himself, took a desperate expatriate himself
, simply because he had resolution and emigrated; just at the time, fallen betwixt two stools. Of course spectoo, when he appeared to have reached tators laugh, for the sight of a fellow-creathe proverbial turning in the proverbial ture falling and hurting himself is a neverlong lane; so that his friends and ac- failing source of amusement; but the sufquaintance, such of them at least as were ferer generally contents himself with trying not in his secret, wondered greatly. Nor, to force a smile, rubbing what Latin under ordinary circumstances, would there grammars call the part affected, cursing
the two lifeless logs, and determining to heart her daughter's comfortable settlement show more sense for the future. But when in life, and was ready to do anything short the two stools assume the human form, of felony to secure it. She had constantly have eyes that speak a silent language, impressed upon Annie, that in matrimonial encounter you day after day, and seem matters young ladies have nothing to do always to wear a mocking smile as if in with affections until they have ascertained derisive remembrance of your misadven- that he who might be the object of them ture, the matter wears a more serious as- can make suitable provision for a wife; pect. And in Bushby's case the stools wore and, afterwards, they may bestow them petticoats, which added to the discomfort freely. She had even gone so far as to of the situation.
maintain that love is all nonsense in these
days of civilization; that it was quite THE FIRST STOOL.
enough if a young lady proposed to did
not actually dislike the proposer; that “The question is what to do with that there was nothing so likely to promote horrid Mr. Bushby."
conjugal affection as the possession of a These words were uttered on a certain nice little income—which was her day, about two years before Bushby's emi- rendering "sine Baccho et Cerere friget gration, and the speaker was a particularly Venus.” She was also fond of inculcating amiable-looking lady of some forty-five the wisdom of that proverb which says that years of age. She was speaking to herself, "a bird in the hand is worth two in the as she gazed with a well-satisfied air at an bush.” She held it to be the height of arbor of which she commanded a full madness to refuse a present certainty in the view from the open window at which she hope of future contingencies; to decline was seated. For it was a lovely day in what Tomkins offered on the spot, in the June, and the weather was eminently suit- expectation of what Bushby might some ed for the occupation of an interesting day offer. couple, who sat upon two wicker chairs un- That was Tomkins, of course, who was der a shady, leafy roof, in a garden gay with sitting in the arbor; and he had already roses. They were, in fact, doing nothing; offered his hand, his heart, and eight hununless carrying on a conversation in a low dred a year. He was to receive a definite tone may be considered doing something. answer in a week; and there was upon his They both were young and of different features, as he sat and conversed in desulsexes. He was about six-and-twenty, one tory fashion with Annie, an expression would have said, and she was five years which might mean either that he considyounger. She had a face and figure which ered he had already made a fool of himwere pleasing rather than pretty; and the self, or that he expected to be made a fool former wore an expression such as is fre- of in the course of a week. In fact, he quently the result of recent illness or men- looked uneasy and anything but confident. tal trouble. He who sat by her was her In the pauses, which were many and pretty not yet accepted lover; and the lady at long, between the different portions of a the window was her mother. The daugh- fragmentary dialogue, he took furtive, sideter suddenly rose up in obedience to a long glances at Annie, after the fashion of sign, and stood before the amiable-looking one who is examining an article for which matron of forty-five.
he has impulsively made a bid, and which “ Annie, darling," said the latter, “I he half hopes and half fears will be ultimatethink your birthday is some day this week." ly knocked down to him. As for Annie,
“ Yes, dear mamma, on Friday.” she, during those intervals, gazed far away
“And this is only Tuesday, there is into vacancy with the air of one whose plenty of time. That is all' Í wanted, thoughts are occupied with by no means the darling."
pleasantest of day-dreams; and she pluckAnnie went back to her seat in the ed the while leaf after leaf from a rose she arbor; and the amiable-looking matron held, as if she were silently testing her fate looked more amiable than ever, for she had with the well-known alternations of “loves hit upon a satisfactory plan. She now me, loves me not.” When the last leaf had knew perfectly well “what to do with that Auttered to the ground and the stalk had horrid Mr. Bushby.” She was an excel- been listlessly dropped after it, she rose up lent mother; which means that she had at wearily and said coldly to her companion.