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Keble College, and Mr. R. E. Hughes, Jesus College. The
CH, : CH, CH, . CH3; authors showed that probably perfectly dry hydrochloric acid
CH, :CH.CH, CH, CH2; gas does not act on carbonales. Experiments were tried with
CHZ.CH:CH.CH, CH,; the carbonates of calcium and barium.-Mr. J. L. Hatton,
CH,: CH. CH. CH, . CH, . CH3 ; Hertford College, read a paper on some investigations, which
CH,:CH.CH:CH,; he had been engaged upon. in conjunction with Mr. James
CH,: CH.CH,.CH: CH... Walker, on the motions of the nodal planes in a rotating bell. This work appeared in a recent number of the Philosophical in the blood, by M. Maurice Arthus. - Are there inhibitory
- The specific gravity of silk, by M. Léo Vignon.-Glycolysis Magazine.—This paper was followed by an account of the fixation of nitrogen by plants, by Mr. O. V. Darbishire, of Balliol hypoglossal nerve, by M. Buffet-Delmas. -On the ovary and
nerves?, by M. J. P. Morat. - On an anomaly in the great College.
the egg of Gobius minulus, by M. Frédéric Guitel.-Note on PARIS.
the magnetic perturbations of March 11-13, 1892, by M. Th.
Moureaux. Academy of Sciences, March 14.-M. d'Abbadie in the chair. - The Secretary commented upon the loss sustained by the Academy by the death of M. Léon Lalanne.:-On conical BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIALS RECEIVED. vascular branches, and on the inductions to which they lead with
Books.- Note-book of Agricultural Facts and Figures, 4th edition : P. regard to the organization of the vascular blood system, by M.
McConnell (Lockwood). - A Year-book of Science, 1891: edited by Prof. Ranvier.-Researches on samarium, hy M. Lecoq de Bois- Bonney (Cassell).- Willing's British and Irish Press Guides, 1892 (Willing). baudran. By passing an electric spark from a large induction
- Sitzungsberichte der K.B. Gesellschaft der Wissenschalten, Math. Naturw. coil, without condensers, through solutions rich in samarium,
Classe, 1891 (Prag).-Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaft
lichen Classe der K.B. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften von den Jahren and viewing the spark spectroscopically, lines were obtained at 1890-91. vii. Folge, 4 Band (Prag). - Health Springs of Germany and Austhe wave-lengths 466'2, 462-7, and 459'3, and a wide hand tria, 2nd edition : F. 0. Buckland (Allen). --The School Calendar, 1892 having a well-defined edge at ^ 6112, and fading away to about
(Whittaker). -Silk Dyeing, Printing, and Finishing : G. H. Hurst (Bell).
Le Poil des Animaux et les Fourrures : Lacroix Danliard (Paris. Baillière).1622. The samarium bands undergo very marked variations
Les Fleurs à Paris : P. L. de Vilmorin (Paris, Baillière). - Statistics of the when the position of the spark with respect to the meniscus Colony of Tasmania for the Year 1890 (Tasmania, Strutt).--Anatomie et of liquid is altered. This fact is thought to be of interest from Physiologie. Comparées de la Pholade Dactyle : Dr. R. Dubois (Paris,
Masson) the point of view of the supposed complexity of samarium. It PAMPHLETS.–Neue Integrationsmethoden auf Grund der Potenzialis not impossible that there is a relation between the band Logarithmal und Numeral-rechnung : Dr. J. Bergbohm (Stuttgart).- Neue 611-622 and the narrow line which Prof. Crookes observed Rechnungsmethoden der Höheren Mathematik, Dr. J. Bergbohm (Stuttgart) when using mixtures of samarium and yttrium in vacuo,
O Theorii Ploch: E. Weyr (V. Praze).- Jahresbericht der K.B. Gesell
aft der Wissenschaften für das Jahr 1891 (Prag). and which he attributed to the presence of a new element,
Serials.-Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Orchideen von H. G. Reichenbach M. Boisbaudran has observed this line,
very fil fortgesetzt durch F. Kränzlin; Dritter Band, Fünftes Heft (Leipzig, near it, with different substances, and finds that its Brockhaus).- Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. xxix. position varies sensibly with the nature of the solu
No. 136 (Philadelphia). -Bulletin de l'Académie Imperiale des Sciences de
St. Petersbourg. Nouvelle Série, II. xxxiv. (St. Pétersbourg). — Bulletin of tion employed. The narrow line is accompanied with a the New York Mathematical Socie'y, vol. i. No. 6 (New York). less refrangible and weaker one. With lanthanum sulphate mixed with a compound of samarium, the wave-length of the stronger line was determined as 6127, and of the weaker 619'6.
PAGE Prof. Crookes obtained the wave-length 609.-On a remarkable The History of Determinants. By P. A. M.
481 prominence, by M. H. Deslandres. The prominence was The Evolution of Man. By A. M. M. observed on the east limb of the sun on March 3, as the large Our Book Shelf:spot-group of February was coming round it.-On frictionless Bonavia : " Philosophical Notes on Botanical Subgearings, by M. A. Rateau. -On periodic heat maxima jects."—W. B. H.
483 observed in spectra furnished by Aint and crown glass, and Beddard : “The Zoological Record for 1890
483 rock-salt, by M. Aymonnet. The heat maxima observed are Letters to the Editor :separated by equal wave-lengths in the case of each of the Sun Pillar. (Illustrated. Annie Ley .
484 prisms used, and, for rock salt, the maxima appear to cor- New Comet.-W. F. Denning
484 respond to the fundamental vibrations of 1, 2, 3 ..1 sys.
First Visible Colour of Incandescent Iron. (Illustems of cubical molecules.-On some well-defined alloys of trated. ) ---Capt. A. Noble, F.R.S.
484 sodium, by M. Joannis. By the action of lead, in excess, upon Poincaré's “Thermodynamics."-Prof. H. Poinsodammonium, a compound having the formula Pb Na, 2NH, caré
485 was obtained. An alloy of lead and potassium, Pb,K, was Ornithology of the Sandwich Islands.-Albert F. obtained by the action of potassammonium, in excess, upon
485 lead ; an alloy of bismuth and sodium, BiNaz, by treating Superheated Steam.-J. Macfarlane Gray pure bismuth, in excess, with sodammonium, and an alloy of Phoronomy.-A. B. Basset, F.R.S.; M. am Ende; antimony and sodium, SbNag, have similarly been produced.
G. C. R.
486 -On the analysis of minerals containing antimony, by. M. The Tudor Specimen of Eozoon.-J. W. Gregory : 486 Ad. Carnot.-On the microscopic structure of politic iron The Theory of Solutions.-J. W. Řodger
487 from Lorraine, by M. Bleicher. From the investigation it The Limpet's Strength.-J. Lawrence-Hamilton, appears that the ferruginous oolites which have been studied
M.R.C.S.. consist of a central mineral or organic nucleus, single or
Technical Education for Novelisis.-W.
487 multiple, surrounded by regular concentric layers of a substance The Origin of the Year, I. (Illustrated.) By J. rich in silica and organic matter.-On the vegetation of the Norman Lockyer, F.R. S.
487 vine, by MM. L. Roos and E. Thomas. Conclusions are The Winter Storms of Northern India. (Iliustrated.) given respecting the amounts of sugars present and the acidity By Henry F. Blanford, F.R.S.
490 of various parts of the vine plant at different stages of its The Magnetic Storm of February 13-14, 1892. (With growth.-Citric acid, by M. G. Massol. The heat of formation,
493 in the solid state, of potassium and sodium citrates is greater William Dittmar, By A. C. B.
493 than that of the corresponding carballylates. Tne augmenta- Sereno Watson.
494 tion is analogous to that observed when comparing malonic and Notes
494 succinic acids with tartronic, tartaric, and malic acids, and is to Our Astronomical Column: be attributed to the alcoholic hydroxyl group.-On some reac Fuzziness of some Variable Stars
497 tions of the isomeric amido-benzoic acids, by M. Oechsner de Astronomical Possibilities at Considerable Altitudes Coninck.-Calculation of the temperatures of ebullition of com- Increase of the Earth's Shadow during Lunar Eclipses 498 pounds derived from the paraffins by terminal substitution, by The New Star in Auriga M. G. Hinrichs.-On the pyrogenous hydrocarbons formed in Aberration. (Illustrated.) By Lord Rayleigh, Sec. R.S. 499 the compressed gas industry, by M. A. Brochet. The author Societies and Academies
502 has isolated and identified the following:
Books, Pamphlets, and Serials Received
498 THURSDAY, MARCH 31, 1892.
without ever attempting to gain a competent knowledge of the ultimate structure and vital processes of the series of lower animals. Had our physiologists and patho
logists the advantage of even a moderate instruction in A ZOOLOGIST ON DISEASE.
zoology, comparative anatomy, and embryology, they Leçons sur la Pathologie comparée de l’Inflammation would be making progress towards dealing with many of
faites à l'Institut Pasteur en Avril et Mai, 1891. Par the problems the solution of which they in vain seek to Élie Metschnikoff, Chef du Service à l'Institut Pas- wring from the unfortunate frog and rabbit. Certainly, teur. (Paris : G. Masson, 1892.)
it is not possible for a physiologist or pathologist with DR. R. METSCHNIKOFF has in this volume given a
any pretensions to an adequate knowledge of the structure clear account of the general basis of his phagocyte and activities of the organs and tissues of lower as theory, tracing the significance of ameboid cells or
well as higher animals to fail to see the great value of the phagocytes from the Protozoa upwards through various generalization which brings together under a common groups of animals to the higher Vertebrates. He adduces term the phenomena of intra-cellular digestion, of ema vast number of facts, many of them new and now for bryonic cell-layers, of inflammation, and of immunity to the first time published (with many beautiful coloured bacterial disease-which “explains" at once the mesoblast figures), others cited from his own earlier publications of the Echinoderm-larva and the very existence of the and from the work of cotemporary observers, to show colourless corpuscles of vertebrate blood. The man who that inflammation is essentially a reaction of the phago
sneers at "Metschnikoffism,"—that is, the explanation of cytes contained in animal bodies to the presence of the phenomena of inflammation and infective diseases in injured tissue or intrusive particles-a reaction which Vertebrate animals by a comparative study of these consists in active movement to the injured spot on the phenomena in Protozoa, Sponges, Jelly-fish, Worms, part of the phagocytes, and the ingulfing and digestion Crustaceans, and Mollusks--must be held to be either by them of the offending matters.
very ignorant or morbidly prejudiced against zoological This volume appears opportunely. It will, I venture to
studies. predict, be regarded as epoch-making, establishing on a
Elias Metschnikoff has been known for more than fivesolid basis the theory of phagocytes, first sketched by and-twenty years as the most productive and accurate Metschnikoff about ten years ago,' and repeatedly investigator of the embryology of marine Invertebrata, confirmed and elaborated by his brilliant researches such as the Sponges, Medusæ, Echinoderms, and Worms. It will enable the biological world to appreciate the
The amount and value of his researches in this field had theory at its true value as one of the great generaliza- placed him by general consent in the very first rank, by tions of biology, worthy to take rank, after Darwin's the side of his distinguished fellow-countryman Kowaltheory of natural selection, with Virchow's cellular ewsky, when, ten years ago, he was led to direct his pathology, and Pasteur's doctrine of the Bacterial origin attention more especially to the study of the activity of of fermentations and infective diseases.
the amaboid corpuscles of the blood and tissues of It is worth noting (and weighing well the lesson con
certain transparent organisms in resisting infection by veyed) that the food of light which the phagocyte vegetable parasites; and thence to other questions of a doctrine throws upon the nature and processes of similar nature. Lately he has retired from the Professordisease is not due to a medical man, nor even to one
ship of Zoology which he held at Odessa, and accepted of those industrious observers of the physical properties
a position giving him the control of an admirable laboraof the tissues of the frog and the rabbit, who pursue
tory in the Institut Pasteur in Paris. their researches by the aid of delicate recording drums,
Metschnikoff commences his book with the statement : balances, and pendulums, and have for some unexplained “It is solely in my quality of zoologist that I have decided reason at the present day been granted the monopoly of to deliver these lectures on a subject which belongs to the ancient and comprehensive title “physiologist.”
the domain of pathology.” Just as formerly, in comJust as the penetrating theories of Pasteur, the chemist, parative anatomy, account was taken only of Man and on insective disease, were opposed by the medical pro
the Vertebrata, so now, our author says, in medicine up fession, who regarded a chemist as an intruder in their
to the present time, all the pathological processes which domain, so the medical pathologists and the more narrow
go on in the lower animals have been left out of conminded devotees of the kymographion have, to a large sideration. And yet the study of these lower animals, extent, opposed, rejected, and attempted to ridicule, do Man and the Vertebrates, is capable of furnishing us
which present simpler and more primitive conditions than Metschnikoff's doctrine of phagocytes. Unfortunately, medical education is too little based on thorough biologi- with the key, as it were, of those complicated pathological cal training, and in this country the so-called “physiologist,” phenomena which are most interesting for medical science
. so far from being a naturalist, plunges into the diffi
Disease and pathological processes have—he reminds us cult and not very fruitful task of applying the delicate
—their evolution, just as Man and the Vertebrates them apparatus of the experimental physicist to the measure
selves have. ment of processes occurring in the higher Vertebrata, infection among Infusoria, M. Metschnikoff gives details
After describing and figuring examples of parasitic Metschnikoff's comprehensive view of the significance of phagocytes establishing the important property of “chemiotaxis "-papers, alm.st immediately after their original publication, in the Quarterly positive and negative-as characteristic of amæboid Journal of Microscopical Science, 1884. They were entitled " Researches protoplasm, selecting the plasmodium of Mycetozoa for on the Intra-cellular Digestion of Invertebrates," and " The Ancestral History of Inflammation.
special study. He next discusses the passage from unicellular animals to the Metazoa, and his embryological the phenomena of resistance to the tubercle bacillus on theory of the "phagocytella." The reaction of the the part of the giant-cells of the Algerian Rodent Merimesodermic phagocytes of sponges to foreign matters ones Shawi is given in some detail. introduced into the substance of these animals is de- The last lecture treats of soine previous theories of scribed ; and, subsequently, similar phenomena in Cælen- inflammation, summarizes the facts which serve to estabtera, Echinoderma, and Worms are cited, and illustrated lish what Metschnikoff calls the biological theory of by original drawings. It is shown that in these Inverte- inflammation, and repels some attacks recently made on brates the phagocytes attack and invest, either singly or it. The theory is formulated in these words: “Inflamin fused masses, not only inorganic particles, but large mation must be looked upon in its entirety as a phagoparasites, and also intrusive parasitic Bacteria. Thence cytic reaction of the organism against irritative agentshe passes to organisms—the Mollusca, Arthropoda, and a reaction which sometimes is carried out by wandering Tunicata-—which have a well-developed blood-system. phagocytes only, sometimes with the assistance of the He shows that here, too, there are no special “ vascular” vascular phagocytes or with that of the nervous system.” phenomena excited by conditions which in higher Verte- The last words refer to the intervention of the vaso-motor brates produce “inflammation," but solely a phagocyte nervous centres. reaction ” or resistance. Numerous cases of infectious Medicine, says our author in order to gain her bacterial and fungal diseases in Arthropoda are described, assigned objects must make use of knowledge drawn and the action of the phagocytes in combating the in- from all less complicated branches of science; and trusive parasites by ingulfing and digesting them is amongst others from that biology which studies organisms demonstrated. Even when we come to the Vertebrates, in their living state and their natural evolution. it is shown that, in regions of the median fin of the tad- The services rendered will be reciprocal. General pole of the Axolotl, an inflammation can be excited biology, he points out, can gain great advantage by which is purely phagocytic, and in which the blood- embracing in the sphere of its studies the morbid phenovessels and their contents take no part.
mena now relegated to the pathologist. Too often biology The peculiarity, however, of inflammatory processes in finds difficulties in the study of the processes of evolution adult and higher Vertebrata is, that the blood vessels because the phenomena are presented to the observer in come into play. The amaboid corpuscles floating in the an already accomplished form. To observe with clearblood by active movement (of a chemiotactic nature), ness the play of the general law of natural selection, we push their way through the walls of the capillaries (diape must study the less stable phenomena, the less perfected desis) in the region which is infected or injured, and join organizations-in a word, the phenomena in which natural their forces to those of the tissue phagocytes in investing selection can be observed every day. Now it is precisely and destroying the injurious particles.
the phenomena of disease and the reactions connected A detailed study of the leucocytes of the blood and with it-the struggle between the organism and its lymph of Vertebrates follows, which are distinguished as aggressors—which offer the best opportunity for a close (1) lymphocytes, (2) uninuclear, (3) eosinophil, and (4) study of the operation of natural selection. neutrophil or multinuclear leucocytes. Metschnikoff
It has been impossible to do justice to this remarkable shows that the two varieties of leucocytes which play the book in a short review. It has the special quality of chief part in inflammation-viz. the uninuclear and the carrying conviction to the reader's mind by the fact neutrophil—are endowed with a marked chemiotactic and that every assertion is supported by a number of wellphysiotactic sensibility, are capable of amaboid move
chosen observations or experiments which are described ments, and apt to ingulf and to digest various foreign with a lucidity and precision characteristic of a man bodies, notably many kinds of living Bacteria. In the thoroughly familiar with the minutest details of the things Amphibia he shows that the multinuclear leucocytes can of which he speaks.
It is to be hoped that it may have, transform themselves into the uninuclear form, and be amongst other consequences, that of silencing certain come fixed cells of the connective tissue. In Vertebrates medical “educationists," who deny that zoology is a generally, uninuclear leucocytes can be transformed into
necessary or useful accompaniment of the chemical and epithelioid and giant cells. What is true of leucocytes physical study of living things. Its pages contain conis also true of other migratory cells.
vincing proof that medicine has gained more real knowThe ninth, tenth, and eleventh lectures deal with such ledge and practical help from modern zoology than topics as the endothelium of vessels, the dilatation of from the elaborate experimentation on higher Vertebrates vessels, chronic inflammations-tubercle being taken as a which is directed by narrow-minded ignorance of the type--serous inflammation, bactericidal power of serous
simpler expressions of animal organization. humours and exudations; and the antitoxic property of the serum. A most important and interesting study of
E. RAY LANKESTER.
' I cannot let pass this opportunity of pointing out an evolutional parallel in the history of phagocytes which tends to harmonize to some extent the views of those who insist on the bactericidal and the anti-toxic properties of serum, with Metschnikoff's view that the phagocytes are of prime importance. In the recent debate at the Pathological Society of London, it was pointed out by several speakers that even if it be admitted that the serum and exudations have, in relation to certain special cases, these properties or rather contain substances having these properties--those substances must be derived from the living cells of the organism, and probably from leucocytes. The parallel to which I refer is that of intra-cellular and cavitary digestion. The alimentary canal of some lower animals is lined by phago.
cytes, which individually ingulf solid particles of food, and digest them by means of ferments, acids, &c., formed within the phagocytes. A later stage of evolution of the digestive system consists in the discharge by these cells of the food-dissolving substances elaborated by them into the common liquid occupying the cavity which they surround. The food dissolving substances are no longer found exclusively in the cells, but in the liquid which bathes them. Yet no one ascribes a special power to the gastric juice, or hesitates to trace its qualities to the transformed intra-cellularly-digesting cells. So with bactericidal and anti-toxic juices: they must be traced (when their existence is proved) to the modification of the modus operandi of intracellularly-digesting phagocytes.
TWO BOOKS OF AFRICAN TRAVEL.
value of his descriptions of their permanent charac
teristics. He had a remarkable power of winning the Travels in Africa during the Years 1879-83. By Dr. confidence and respect of the people, and thus had many
Wilhelm Junker. Translated from the German by opportunities of forming a trustworthy estimate of their A. H. Keane, F.R.G.S. (London: Chapman and intellectual and moral faculties. Upon the whole, the Hall, 1891.)
impression they produced upon him was not unfavourable. My Second Journey through Equatorial Africa. By He seems to have been especially pleased with some
Hermann von Wissmann. Translated from the German aspects of the character of the Mangbattus, his observaby Minna J. A. Bergmann. (London: Chatto and tion of whom enabled him to say that the “tender side” Windus, 1891.)
of negro feeling had been called in question unjustly. TH! "HE first of these two books deals with a part of the The women of this tribe hold a relatively high position.
period during which the late Dr. Junker carried on They are allowed to take part with the men in public his second series of explorations in Central Africa. On gatherings, and some of them were occasionally able to his return to St. Petersburg in September 1878, after his act as Dr. Junker's interpreters. The Mangbattus have first journey to the Egyptian Sudan, he had no intention a decidedly artistic faculty, which they display most of paying another visit to that region. Nevertheless, effectively in the making of iron weapons. They have a within a year he was hard at work preparing for a similar kind of knife which seemed to Dr. Junker “unsurpassed expedition, and on October 10, 1879, he found himself on for the beauty and originality of its numerous forms” board the steamer which took him to Alexandria. With and their spear-heads “ present an amazing variety of as little loss of time as possible he made for Khartum, types in the size and shape of the barbs, teeth, and tips.” whence he started by the Ismailia, on January 31, 1880, They also“ display surprising technical skill in the artistic for Mesbra Er-Req, on the Bahr el-Ghazal. This part
treatment of diverse wooden utensils and earthenware of the journey was made extremely tedious by the vessels, which, as in all these negro lands, are turned out “sudd," or grass-barriers, through which the steamer had without the aid of the potter's wheel.” Dr. Junker's to force its way. The vegetation of which “sudd” is geographical observations relate to a comparatively composed grows luxuriantly in back-waters; and great small area, but their thoroughness gives them a unique masses of it are brought by winds or by flood-waters into place in the literature of African exploration; and the river. These masses may either drift harmlessly with naturalists will read with interest everything he has to the currents, or coalesce into formidable barriers. Some say about the flora and fauna of the districts he traversed. times they become so compact that a steamer cannot Scientifically, Major Wissmann's book is of less impenetrate them, and they must be broken up by special portance than Dr. Junker's. It records his experiences apparatus. This is especially the case in the Bahr el-Jebel. during his second journey through Africa, which was In the Bahr el-Ghazal the barriers are troublesome enough, undertaken in 1886, when he was still in the service of but are not of quite so tough a texture.
the King of the Belgians. His instructions were to open At Meshra Er-Req Dr. Junker met Gessi Pasha, who various parts of the interior of the Congo State ; to investiwas at that time Governor of all the Equatorial Provinces. gate, and, as far as possible, counteract, the proceedings of The two men had a warm regard for one another ; and slave-hunters; and to report on the countries bordering after a little delay, due to Gessi's numerous engagements, the Congo State towards the south-east. He made in the they made an excursion together to Dem Soliman, the first instance for the Bashilange country, where he re most important of the Arab settlements visited by Dr. mained for some time, exploring the region and settling Junker in the negro lands. Here they parted, never to various political affairs. In November he left Luluaburg see one another again, for Gessi died about two years at the head of a caravan consisting of 900 persons, who afterwards at Suez. From Dem Soliman Dr. Junker accompanied him eastward to the neighbourhood of travelled in a south-easterly direction to the territory of Nyangwe, on the Upper Congo, whence they were taken Ndoruma, a native chief, who, although rather fickle, was back to their native country by Lieutenant Le Marinel, of considerable service to him. In this territory, on the At Nyangwe Major Wissmann was detained by Zefu, banks of the Werra, Dr. Junker established a station Tippu Tib's son, but ultimately he was allowed to depart, called Lacrima, where he remained about two months and reached the east coast by Lakes Tanganyika and He then proceeded southward, crossing the Welle, and Nyassa, and the River Shire. residing some time with Prince Mambanga, from whose The most important parts of the work are those reterritory he went eastward to Tangasi. Before the end lating to the outrages committed by the infamous slaveof 1880 he was back at Lacrima, which he had left in hunters; but there are also a good many valuable passages charge of his companion, Bohndorff. In the course of in which the author embodies the results of ethnographical 1881 Dr. Junker travelled among several different tribes, study. Among other peoples described by him are the arriving about the end of the year at the domain of dwarfs whom he met in the primæval forest. They rePrince Bakangai from Hawash station. At this point the minded him of portraits he had seen of Bushmen. They narrative stops, to be continued, no doubt, in another were" of a brown-yellowish colour, or rather light yellow, volume, although on this point nothing is said either by with a brown shadowing.” Their demeanour was “timidly the translator or by the publishers.
modest," and he had to be careful not to touch them, as So many changes bave taken place since 1881 in the they were always ready to take to their heels. An agreeregions visited by Dr. Junker that his account of the able impression was made by the rounded figures, fresh mutual relations of the native tribes is now, of course, complexions, and graceful, easy, quiet movements of the out of date ; but that does not in any way diminish the young, but the old "might literally be called painfully ugly"-a fact which seems to be due to their poor food with intellects so shattered that, instead of taking their and roving life.
places in the front rank of English statesmen, as their Both books are illustrated, and each is supplied with a abilities entitled them to do, they sought rest for their
brains in the quiet lives of country gentlemen. In my map. The map accompanying Dr. Junker's volume does
own modest sphere, I well remember the refreshment not indicate his routes, which the reader, therefore, often occasionally derived from five minutes' sleep on a deal finds some difficulty in tracing.
table, with Babbage and Callet's 'Logarithms' under
my head for a pillow.” PROFESSOR TYNDALL'S LATEST BOOK. We next find him as a master at Queenwood College, New Fragments. By John Tyndall, F.R.S. (London : Hants, where he had Frankland for a colleague. Longmans, 1892.)
“Queenwood College had been the Harmony Hall of WE JE have here a miscellaneous collection dealing the Socialists, which, under the auspices of the philwith various subjects-scientific, theological, bio- anthropist, Robert Owen, was built to inaugurate the
Millennium. The letters 'C. of M.,' Commencement of graphic, and autobiographic. Some of the papers are lectures delivered at the Royal Institution or elsewhere, work of the house."
Millennium, were actually inserted in Aint in the bricksome are magazine articles, and a few have been added for the present volume.
Having saved some two or three hundred pounds, he
went with Frankland in 1848 to study science in GerThe personal recollections of Thomas Carlyle will be read with interest, especially the account of his journey many, and selected Marburg as a place where he could
live cheaply amid agreeable surroundings. Here, if the to Edinburgh and the delivery of his Rectorial address. The article on Pasteur sketches with keen apprecia- past, we must believe that he worked without weariness
mists of intervening years have not unduly magnified the tion the remarkable series of investigations which, begin- for sixteen hours a day. There were about three hundred ning with the optical properties of unsymmetric crystals, students. Bunsen was the Professor of Chemistry, and were diverted by circumstances to the life-history of microscopic organisms, and the nature of fermentation.
appears to have given great prominence to chemical The sketch of the remarkable career of Count Rumford physics. His lectures included the electric telegraph,
and a very full exposition of Ohm's law; and in the derives increased interest from local information gathered during a visit to the scenes of Rumford's boyhood in department of heat he made complimentary references New England.
to Joule. The lecture on Thomas Young contains a vivid de
In process of time our student began to make original lineation of his personal qualities, and, besides tracing of water-jets. It included the remark that the musical
investigations, and his first paper was on the phenomena his achievements in physical science, gives a very clear and intelligible account of the methods by which he sound of cascades and rippling streams, as well as the succeeded in deciphering the Egyptian hieroglyphics. due to the breaking of air bladders entangled in the
sonorous voice of the ocean, was mainly if not wholly In the accompanying narrative, his openness and plain
water. dealing are strongly contrasted with the crafty suppressions of his rival, Champollion, who, being a professional England, but soon returned with his friend the late Prof.
After taking his degree at Marburg, he came over to antiquarian, appears to have thought it intolerable that
Hirst to Germany, where he studied at Berlin under he should be beaten in his own special province by an outsider.
Magnus, and met Dove, Ehrenberg, Mitscherlich, Du To many readers, the most interesting portions of the
Bois-Reymond, Wiedemann, Clausius, Poggendorff, and “ Fragments" will be those which are autobiographic.
The happy associations of University life strengthened An address, delivered at the Birkbeck Institution in 1884, contains a sketch of Prof. Tyndall's early career,
the predilections which originally attracted him to Gerfirst as a draughtsman in the Ordnance Survey, then as
many, and he professes great admiration for the German an Ordnance surveyor in the field, next as a railway sur
character, which, alike in science and in war, aims not at veyor in the rush of work which sprung from the “railway glory, but at the discharge of duty. mania.” Here is a specimen of his recollections of that
Further gossip of an autobiographical kind is furnished
under the head of “Old Alpine Jottings," which occupy date:Among the legal giants of those days, Austin and recruiting exhausted nature, after intellectual toil, by
the last seventy pages of the volume. Here we find him Talbot stood supreme. There was something grand, as well as merciless, in the power wielded by those men in arduous climbing on icy slopes, over fearful precipices, entangling and ruining a hostile witness ; and yet it often and under a fusillade of boulders shooting down from seemed to me that a clear-headed fellow, who had the the heights above. coolness, honesty, and courage not to go beyond his Perhaps the most vigorous piece of writing in the book knowledge, might have foiled both of them. Then we
is that which is placed first-a lecture on Sabbath obhad the giants of the civil engineers -Stephenson, Brunel, Locke, Hawkshaw, and others. Judged by his power of
servance, delivered in 1880 before the Glasgow Sunday fence, his promptness in calculation, and his general Society; and we must not omit to mention the second readiness of retort, George Bidder as a witness was un article, which gives a very full account of Goethe's work rivalled. I have seen him take the breath out of Talbot on colour. It pays a high tribute to Goethe's acuteness himself before a Committee of the House of Lords. as an observer, but gives an unsparing exposure of his Strong men were broken down by the strain and labour
weakness as a scientific theorist. of that arduous time. Many pushed through, and are still amongst us in robust vigour. But some collapsed ;
The volume, though not ambitious, contains much while others retired with large fortunes it is true, but pleasant reading.
J. D. E.