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ures of disinfection must be undertaken. (See page I.O.) Isolate sick fowls. Disinfect soil of run thoroughly. Clean and disinfect coops. In bad cases, remove the rest of the flock from the infested run. 5. Give sick fowls Epsom salts, or castor oil; feed fowls on soft food. 6. If the diarrhea is not checked, give 6 to 12 drops of chlorodyne.
DIPHTHERIA OR DIPHTHERITIC ROUP
A dangerous disease, and infected birds should be killed at 011 Ce
Symptoms. A cold, accompanied by whitish and yellowish patches on the back of the throat and in the mouth. These patches apparently form a false membrane and cannot be torn off without causing bleeding. The disease is sometimes known as canker.
Cause. This disease is often clearly a later stage of roup. It is difficult to say where one ends and the other begins. It has been claimed that the organism is the same as that which causes diphtheria in
human beings, but the weight of evidence is against this conclusion.
Treatment. Diphtheria is extremely infectious. It is best to kill the first cases at once. If the bird is of particular value, it may be isolated and the patches on the throat swabbed with 50% hydrogen peroxide or 5% creolin, with a small bit of cotton wool wound around a stick. If great care is exercised, 20% carbolic acid or 20% creolin may be painted on the patches, but neither should be allowed to touch the normal skin. Burn the swabs. Treat accompanying roupy symptoms as recommended under roup.
The term canker is also applied to certain spots or growths that occur on the throat. These are not in any way associated with diphtheritic roup, or any dangerous, contagious disease, and are due to injury or to an unhealthy condition of the mucous membrane.
Symptoms. Distention of abdomen.
Cause. Collection of liquid in abdominal cavity.
Treatment. Treatment is seldom successful. It is best and most merciful to kill the afflicted bird. If it is desired to make an effort to save the bird, carefully puncture the lower portion of the abdomen with a trocar and squeeze out the liquid. Give invalid diet.
Symptoms. Severe diarrhea with blood in the discharges.
Cause. Bacterial or other specific infection of the intestines. Occasionally the eating of some poisonous or irritating substance will give rise to blood in the excrement.
Treatment. Isolate bird, and give six to eight drops of chlorodyne on a small piece of bread. Thorough disinfection (see page IO) of water, Soil and house is necessary to prevent this disease spreading.
Symptoms. The hen goes on and off the nest straining to lay. Generally the egg may be felt through the vent. After straining for some time, she may succeed in laying the egg, and treatment should not be undertaken until it is evident that the fowl needs assistance.
Cause. Very young hens are more liable to this complaint, which arises from eggs of an abnormal size, from lack of muscular power, or from some other disorder of the Oviduct.
Treatment. It will be most merciful to kill fowls in much distress, as treatment is tedious and painful to the fowl. It has been recommended to hold the fowl's vent over steam from boiling water and then to pass an oiled finger up the vent. In bad