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The honour of knighthood has been conferred on Dr. George presentation, the present President of the Geologists' AssociaBuchanan, F.R.S., on his retirement from the post of Medical tion, Rev. Prof. J. F. Blake, after suitably referring to Mr. Officer to the Local Government Board.

Hudleston's eminent services to geological science, expressed

the particular pleasure he felt that it should have fallen to his The friends and admirers of the late Mr. H. W. Bates,

share to hand a testimonial so richly deserved to his old colF.R.S., propose to give substantial expression to their regard league and fellow-worker. Mr. Hudleston, in the course of for his character. A fund is to be raised for presentation to his a well-chosen reply, referred to the curious coincidence that of widow. Any communications relating to the matter should be the authors of the joint work of Blake and Hudleston many addressed to S. W. Silver, 3 York Gate, Regent's Park, N.W.

years ago, the one was President of the Geologists' Association

and the other of the Geological Society during the same year. A BRANCH of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society has

The contents of Mr. Hudleston's museum, now in course of been established in London. At the first meeting, which was held on Monday, Prof. James Bryce delivered an address on

arrangement, excited considerable interest, particularly the “The Migrations of the Races of Men considered historically." minerals

, many of the choicest specimens of which are from the The Marquis of Lothian, President of the London branch, private collection of the late Prof. J. Tennant, and also the occupied the chair. He said they had no intention of compet

extensive series of British Jurassic Gasteropoda collected by the

author for the monograph now in course of publication by the ing, or in any sense of vying with, the Royal Geographical

Palæontographical Society. Society. The Scottish Society had branches in Glasgow, Dundee, and Aberdeen ; and it had been felt that another might MR. J. P. BARRETT, chief of the department of electricity in be appropriately formed for the benefit of members in London, connection with the Chicago Exhibition, has issued a pamphlet

containing all the information that can be needed to enable The Committee appointed to consider the question of grants intending exhibitors to proceed intelligently. He will be glad to University Colleges in Great Britain have issued their Report to give special information to any one who may want it, and The principle on which they consider that the distribution of invites correspondence. the grant to the Colleges now sharing it should be made for the remainder of the quinquennial period is as follows: (1) they

A BODY called the Scientific Alliance was recently organized

at New York. award a grant to each College, varying according to the nature

It consists of six societies engaged in the and extent of its University work; (2) a grant for every pro- promotion of research, and two others will probably soon fessor or other teacher receiving more than £250 per annum ;

be added. The six societies are the New York Academy of (3) a percentage on the College income from all sources. A

Sciences, the Torrey Botanical Club, the New York Microtable is printed, giving the present grants, which the Committee scopical Society, the Linnean Society of New York, the New York wish to be continued ; and the grants which they wish to be Mineralogical Club, and the New York Mathematical Society. added.

According to Science, these societies do not in any way sink

their individuality or surrender any part of the management The rebuilding of the College of Agriculture, Downton, ren.

of their own affairs. Their union is merely in the way of dered necessary by the destructive fire of last year, has now been co-operation for the advancement of science, and for mutual so far completed that the premises will be ready for occupation encouragement, carried out through a central representative body, and use next term.

known as the Council, having advisory powers only. The

Council is made up of the president and two other delegates The Director of the new Imperial German Zoological Station from each society. A monthly bulletin is issued under the at Heligoland will be Dr. Heincke, of Oldenburg, a recognized authority of the Council, announcing the proposed proceedings authority on fish and fisheries. As his first assistant he will have of all the societies, and a copy of this bulletin is sent to every Dr. Clemens Hartlaub (son of Dr. G. Hartlaub, the well-known member. The bulletin contains an invitation to the members to ornithologist of Bremen), who will take charge of the scientific attend any of the meetings. An annual directory is issued, and branch of the establishment. Since the death of Dr. Philip it is proposed that there shall also be an annual report on the Carpenter, Dr. Clemens Hartlaub has become one of our leading work done. Science says that the brief experience of the authorities on starfishes. He has just published in the Nova Alliance has convinced the members that still closer union Acta of the Imperial Leopoldino-Caroline Academy, an elaborate is necessary, and this feeling has led to a movement for memoir on the Comatulidæ collected by Prof. Brock in the the securing of a permanent building as a home for all the Moluccan Seas and deposited in the Göttingen Museum. In societies. It is hoped that a building may be erected in a central the course of this article nine species of the genera Antedon and part of New York, “large enough to afford each society rooms Actinometra are described as new to science.

for its ordinary meetings, for its library and collections, as well On March 26, the members of the Geologists' Association, capable of seating twelve hundred people, to be used by all the

as facilities for research, and also to contain a lecture hall, assembled at the house of Mr. W. H. Hudleston, F.R.S., societies in their public work.” President of the Geological Society, in order to inspect the hand. some private museum he has attached to his residence. The We have referred in the astronomical column to the astrono. occasion was rendered particularly interesting by the fact that mical observations recorded in the “Washington Observations the Council of the Association had decided to take this oppor. for 1887." We will here briefly summarize the contents of this tunity of presenting to Mr. Hudleston an illuminated address volume with regard to the other observations there tabulated. expressing its sense of the helpful interest he had always shown Appendix I. contains a report upon some of the magnetic obserin the work of the Association. Among those present were vatories of Europe, which was made by C. C. Marsh, who was many former Presidents and officers of the Association, who now commissioned to pay special attention to the instruments, buildrank as leaders of geological science. Although at least one ings, methods of observing, and the question of the reduction of hundred persons had been concerned in the arrangement of the the observations. In this report, which was considerably cut testimonial, the secret was so well kept that the presentation short, owing to the author having to proceed to sea on his came as a complete surprise to its intended recipient. The sig. return, much interesting and valuable material has been collected natories of the address had been selected to represent all grades which should be consulted by all those who are connected with of past and present workers of the Association. In making the the taking of such observations, and with the construction of

magnetic observatories. The plates which accompany the added greatly to its collections and its library; and has also text show plans of heating and ventilating the Pavlovsk and obtained larger permanent funds for its support. Potsdam Observatories, the cellar and ground plans of the latter,

In a report on the Great Skua in Shetland during the season and details of instruments used in other Observatories. In the

of 1891, printed in the new number (the second) of the Annals second and third appendices will be found all the magnetic and meteorological observations made in the years 1890 and 1883-87 attention which was called to the persecution of the Great Skua,

of Scottish Natural History, Mr. W. E. Clarke says that the respectively: these are brought together in a way that will

at the close of the disastrous breeding season of 1890, was the be found most convenient for reference, while several plates showing the mean diurnal variations of some of the magnetic and influence of ornithologists and others on behalf of the

means of doing much good. It aroused and secured the interest elements have been added. All the above-mentioned observa- bird's future welfare and its preservation as an indigenous tions have been reduced in the usual way, and the results British species. He notes that the number of Skuas resorting obtained are here tabulated.

to Foula annually during the summer may be estimated at not On Thursday and Friday, last week, a tornado passed over less than 120 individuals. Of these, two-thirds are to be the North-Western States of America and caused enormous reckoned as breeding birds. damage and great loss of life, in some cases whole towns being

MESSRS. MACMILLAN AND Co. have issued a second edition devastated. It is said to have been the most far-reaching and destructive storm ever known to have occurred in these regions. Phenomena and Causes of Insular Faunas and Floras.” The

of Mr. A. R. Wallace's well-known “Island Life, or the Texas, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Nebraska suffered most.

work has been carefully revised throughout, and, owing to the In the Annual Report for 1892 of the Berlin branch of the great increase to our knowledge of the natural history of some German Meteorological Society, Prof. G. Hellmann gives an ac

of the islands during the last twelve years, considerable additions count of his continued experiments on the effects of exposure on

and alterations have been required. rainfall records, and on the determination of the distance apart

The paper on the opium question, recently read by Mr. G. that rain-gauges should be erected in order to obtain an accu.

H. M. Batten before the Society of Arts, is printed in the rate account of the rainfall of any district. Simple as the current number of the Society's journal. It is followed by a question appears, the experiments, which have been carried on

report of the animated discussion to which it gave rise, and by for seven years, have not sufficed to give a definite answer.

statements which would have been submitted to the meeting by Very considerable differences are found in the amounts recorded various gentlemen if there had been time. Mr. Batten cites the at stations comparatively close to each other. This result is opinion of a number of “independent persons of high character partly owing to the effect of wind, especially in the case of snow. and reputation,” to the effect that "the daily use of opium in The following are the most important conclusions derived from moderation is not only harmless but of positive benefit, and fre: the experiments :-(1) The more a rain-gauge is exposed to the quently even a necessity of life"; and that “this moderate use wind, under otherwise similar circumstances, the less rainfall it is the rule, and excess the exception.” Persons who have records, and the higher a gauge is placed above the ground, the arrived at an opposite conclusion have had an experience, he less rain it catches, as the disturbing influence of the wind is thinks, almost entirely confined to towns and the sea coast. greater than on the surface of the ground. But if properly “They knew little or nothing of the millions of the healthy, inprotected from the wind, a gauge will give useful results dustrious population in the interior of the country to whom the in an elevated position. The usual instructions to erect the use of opium is as common, as moderate, and as beneficial as that gauge as openly as possible are therefore incorrect. (2) Even in of beer is to the people of England." a flat country, differences of 5 per cent. occur in different months, at stations a quarter of a mile apart; in stormy weather,

A writer in Nature Notes, calling attention to "the iniquity especially during thunderstorms, the difference may amount to of rooting up wild flowers to sell them to English dealers," says 100 per cent. The amounts recorded at neighbouring stations he could name a district in the Basses Pyrénées, where not a agree better together in spring and autumn, and also in re- single wild daffodil is now to be found. The flower was once latively wet years. Further experiments are needed, if pos- abundant there, but an English resident chose to bargain with a sible by means of anemometers erected at the same level as the well-known dealer, to furnish him with roots; and this has been rain-gauges, to determine more accurately the effect of wind on attended by grave injustice to France. both rainfall and snow.

MR. G. C. GREEN records in Nature Notes for April a curious In connection with the celebration of the fourth centenary of reminiscence with regard to a pair of jackdaws kept by him at the discovery of America by Columbus, the Italian Botanical Modbury Vicarage, South Devon, about twenty years ago. Society invites the attendance of botanists of all countries at a They had been taken from the nest, and during the first summer Botanical International Congress, to be held at Genoa, from the their wings were slightly clipped. After this their wings were 4th to the Irth of September. In addition to the meeting for allowed to grow, and they lived at full liberty in the garden. scientific purposes, there will be excursions on the shores of the They were perfectly tame, and would come at call and feed out Mediterranean and in the Maritime Alps ; and during the same of the hand, would come into the house, and in the morning time will also take place the inauguration of the new Botanical knock at the windows to ask for some breakfast. In the spring Institute built and presented to the University of Genoa by the they used to Ay away and join their wild companions, make their munificence of Mr. Thomas Hanbury, of La Mortola, and the nests, and rear a family ; but when this was over they came opening of an Exhibition of Horticulture. All communications back to the garden again, fed from the hand, and were as tame should be addressed to Prof. Penzig, of the University of Genoa.

as ever. But the curious thing was, that after one or two seasons

they brought another jackdaw with them, presumably the young HARVARD UNIVERSITY is indebted to the munificence of of one of them, which was just as tame as themselves, although Prof. George L. Goodale, the Director of the Botanic Garden nothing had ever been done to tame it, so that it was impossible at Cambridge, Mass., for a remarkable development of the to tell which were the original favourites, and which was the botanical establishment of the University during the last ten new one. Moreover, when after a few years one of these jackyears. It has acquired a large fire-proof Museum, to contain not daws was accidentally killed, another was brought by the other only its collections, but its lecture-rooms and laboratories ; has two.


MR. W. W. Smith, writing to the new number of the Ento- collecting of photographs and information which could be utilized mologist from Ashburton, New Zealand, says that he has for in the preparation and delivery of the annual lectures popularly twelve years successfully used hellebore as an insecticide. It is known as “the Michaux forestry course.” About 150 good used annually by many orchardists in the South Island for de negatives were obtained, and there are about 75 satisfactory stroying the larvæ of Tenthredo (Selandria) cerasi. Mr. Smith illustrations of the trees, physical geography, and topouses it in the proportion of half an ounce to a bucket of water. graphy of the islands visited. The trip lasted three months. When he notices the newly-hatched larvæ on the leaves, he care- Dr. Rothrock was particularly struck by the contrast between the fully and effectually syringes the trees with the solution, choosing Bahamas and Jamaica. In the course of some interesting obsera calm day for doing so. The larvæ are equally common on the vations printed in the latest instalment of the Proceedings of the cherry-, plum-, and pear trees, and rapidly destroy the foliage American Philosophical Society, he points out that the Bahamas if they are not checked or destroyed. One good syringing are low and show no considerable elevation, while Jamaica suffices. When the trees are syringed early, the imago sawlly reaches a maximum altitude of 7360 feet above the sea-level. is prevented from laying eggs further on the foliage, and by this The soil of the Bahamas is scanty, and consequently cultivation course much labour is avoided. He does not go over the trees entails fertilization. That of Jamaica is of great depth, and its syringing a second time with pure water, as the particles of continued productiveness is evidence of a vast natural fertility. powder left adhering to the foliage are invariably washed off by The Aora of the Bahamas shows marked resemblance to that of rains before any of the fruit ripens.

Florida. The fora of Jamaica is essentially tropical, save at

such altitudes as suit plants of cooler regions. In such places MR. J. W. FEWKES contributes to the January number of the

are found the common chickweed (Stellaria media), the white American Naturalist, just received, an interesting paper on the clover (Trifolium repens), associated with plants from the cooler ceremonial circuit of the cardinal points among the Tusayan parts of southern regions. The maugrove (Rhizophora mangle), Indians. During the progress of the secret ceremonials which

common to the tropical seas around the glohe, attains in Jamaica are performed in the Kib-vas or Estufas at Hual-pi, and other compared with that in Florida and in the Babamas) a surprising pueblos of the old province of Tusayan, it is customary for a

height. Near Port Morant are large jungles, where the trees priest to pass on the north side of the fire-place as he approaches attain a height of at least 60 feet. Dr. Rothrock calls atthe altar, and on the south as he passes from the altar to the

tention 10 possible tannin production from the mangrove. ladder. This custom is conscientiously followed by the older No tree in North America, he says, at all approaches the priests, especially when taking part in important ceremonials ;

mangrove in the percentage of tannin it contains. That the and Mr. Fewkes has seen novices, and even old priests, corrected

mangrove should have remained so long unutilized is due to the and sent back when they had violated this simple Kib-va custom.

difficulty of obtaining its tannin free from colouring matter. The four directions do not correspond with the true cardinal

Dr. Rothrock thinks that in the near future, owing to exhaustion points. The so-called Kwi-ni-wi-ke of the Hopi is neither the

of other tannin-producing trees, the arts will be forced to draw magnetic nor the polar north, but about north-west, or 45° west

upon the mangrove, even if an improved chemistry is not able of north, and the other points vary in the same ratio. Mr.

to free it from this objectionable colour. The natives obtain a Fewkes thinks that a ready explanation of this is found in the

red-brown dye from the bark by simply steeping it in water. orientation of the Kib-vas, which, in turn, depends on the extension of the mesa upon which Hual-pi is situated-or, MR. T. SOUTHWELL, Norwich, records in the April number speaking more accurately, as he says in a note, on the direction of the Zoologist that he was lately informed, by Mr. D. C. of the lines of fissure of the rock of which the mesa is builtįup. Burlingham, of the occurrence of a male Greenland shark, The ceremonial circuit is constantly followed in the preparation (Lamargus borealis), which measured 14 feet 2 inches in length of so-called medicine. When a priest pours the liquid of which

and weighed 11 tons, at Lynn, on the 21st of January last. It was it is made into the terraced rectangular bowl, preparatory to

sound stranded on a sand-bank on the east side of the Bulldog placing the other ingredients in it, he pours the fluid first on the Channel, and was brought up to Lynn by a fishing.smack, being north side, then on the west, then on the south, then on the still alive when Mr. Burlingham saw it. It was subsequently east side of the bowl. The ceremonial circuit is followed in exhibited at Cambridge, and its owner intended to take it to connection with many other observances noted by Mr. Fewkes. Huntingdon, Peterborough, and elsewhere. This species is of He also remarks that the following colours correspond to the rare occurrence on the Norfolk and Suffolk coast, and the four cardinal points (bearing in mind that the Hopi north is present example is only the fourth of which Mr. Southwell has really north-west): north, yellow; west, blue (represented ceremonially by malachite green); south, red; east, white. The

Dr. E. RÁTHAY states that the galls of Cynips calycis, propriest of the antelope assemblage, in making the sand mosaic

duced on Quercus pedunculata, attract, by their viscid secretion, picture a few days before the snake dance, first makes the yellow

a number of small ants, which he believes to be advantageous border, then the green, then the red, then the white. The

to the tree, in killing quantities of caterpillars and other insects north line of the yellow is followed by the west of the same

which are its natural enemies. He illustrates the value of this colour, then the south, then the east. The same sequence protection by the statement that the inhabitants of a single ants' occurs when he outlines and makes the body of the semicircular

nest may destroy in a single day upwards of 100,000 insects. clouds in the centre of the mosaic (dry painting). The lightning serpents of the four colours are made in the same order of the

In the Bullettino of the Italian Botanical Society, Signor F, colours. It is interesting to note, as Mr. Fewkes says, that the Pasquale proposes a new theory of the morphology of the ceremonial circuit is opposite that of the sun in its daily course

carpel in flowering plants, founded on an extended observation in the sky. He thinks it is probably more than a coincidence

of the course of the vascular bundles. According to him, a that it is the same circuit which the snake and antelope priests carpel is not a single modified leaf, but is the result of the contake when they move about the place, and the latter carry the

crescence of three, less osten of two, leaves, which take part in snakes in their mouths.

the formation and in the nutrition of the ovules and of the

seeds. The carpel is therefore a triphyllome, of which one leaf Last year Dr. J. T. Rothrock received from the American (the inferior one) is sterile, and the other two (superior) are Philosophical Society a grant of 300 dollars to defray part of fertile ; and between these there is an intimate fusion, with the expenses of a trip to the West Indies. The object was the complete anastomosis of the vascular bundles. Each fertile


leaf is composed of a membranous portion, the placental the resulting liquid therefore presumably possesses the comhemiphyll, and an ovular hemiphyll, which is entirely trans- position CzH;FCI.,, an assumption confirmed by a determination formed into the ovules with their sunicles, together with the of vapour density which yielded the number 4'50, the vapour style and stigma. The placental hemiphyll also takes part in density calculated from this formula being 4:51. The compound the formation of the pericarp and septa. The ovules originate is indeed a derivative of glycerin, its constitution being probably from the whole of the ovular hemiphyll, and not merely from CH,Cl-CHCI-CH,F, and may be termed dichloro-fluorthe carpellary margins or teeth.

hydrin. We notice the appearance of a very useful work, in Russian, The second new compound is analogous to the one just by Prof. Samokvasoff, on Russian prehistoric antiquities, described, and resembles it very closely in properties. It is obunder the title of “Foundations of a Chronological Classifica- tained by the direct union of bromine with allyl Auoride. If a tion of Antiquities, and Catalogue.” As seen from the title, lew drops of bromine are allowed to fall into a vessel filled with the work consists of two parts : a catalogue of the very rich allyl Auoride, the latter is rapidly: absorbed with considerable collection of the Russian Professor, partly illustrated, and a rise of temperature, the red colour of the bromine simultaneously general description of the various epochs which may be disappearing. To prepare the liquid in quantity, allyl fluoride is distinguished in the relics of the past on the territory of Russia. allowed to stream slowly into a quantity of bromine contained He has no difficulty in showing that the Slavonians of the first in a cooled flask, the operation being continued until the red centuries of our era were by no means mere savages. The colour of the liquid has entirely disappeared. The colourless burial places of that period, usually situated close to the earthen liquid thus obtained distils without decomposition at 1620-163o. forts, some of which must have required the work of a consider. The data afforded by ,determinations of the bromine content able population, contain hundreds and thousands of graves, so and the vapour density point to the formula C,H,F Brz. Both that it is certain that the Slavonians of that period were living the liquids above described appear to be very stable compounds, in large societies, and had their fortified towns. The same for even during their distillation the glass vessels containing burial customs prevailed over large areas, but the treasures now them exhibit no signs of etching. They are miscible with ether, unearthed from various graves show that differences of wealth and ' and readily soluble in absolute alcohol, but they are almost social position existed at that time as well. Considerable amounts perfectly in soluble in water. They possess pleasant odours, of Greek, Roman, and Arabian gold and silver coins were found somewhat reminding one of chloroform, and are sweet but in the graves, the metal alone of the coins found in some graves burning in taste. They are incombustible, but at a high temattaining, at its present prices, the value of several hundred

perature the vapours burn with liberation of hydrofluoric and pounds ; while numbers of objects of art, of Greek, Roman, hydrochloric or hydrobromic acids. Byzantine, and Arabian origin, are proofs of the brisk foreign trade which took place at that time. The graves of the pagan

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the Slavonians contain fax, woollen, silk, and gold-embroidered past week include a Guinea Baboon (Cynocephalus sphinx %), tissues; ornaments in gold, silver, bronze, and bone ; iron a Bateleur Eagle (Helotarsus ecaudatus), a Puff Adder (Vipera weapons and parts of armament; gold, silver, bronze, iron, and arielans) from South Africa, presented by Mr. Keith Anstruther ; clay vessels, and so on; while the sickles and the grains of a Japanese Deer (Cervus sika 9 ) from Japan, presented by Sir wheat, oat, and barley which were found in the graves of South Douglas Brook, Bart. ; a Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax) Russia, together with small idols and other objects devoted to from Australia, presented by Miss Carr; a Tawny Owl pagan worship, are proofs of agriculture having been carried on (Syrnium aluco), European, presented by Mr. E. A. Rocheda ; during the pagan epoch.

a Puff Adder (Vipera arietans) from South Africa, presented

by Mr. D. Wilson ; two Common Vipers (Vipera berus), British, Two new liquids containing Auorine have been synthesized presented by Mr. W. H. B. Pain ; a Shielded Eryx (Eryx by M. Meslans. They are halogen derivatives of glycerin, and thebaicus) from North Africa, deposited; four Topela Finches were obtained by allowing allyl Auoride, a gaseous substance (Munia topela) from China, a Black-necked Swan (Cygnus recently described by M. Meslans, to react with chlorine and nigricollis) from Antarctic America, purchased. bromine. Allyl fluoride, CzH;F, is readily prepared by the gradual addition of allyl iodide to dry silver fluoride. It is a colourless gas of peculiar odour, which burns with a luminous

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. Aame upon ignition, with liberation of vapour of hydrofluoric acid. When a jet from which chlorine is escaping is brought

The Relative Motion of 61 CYGNI.—The large proper into a vessel filled with allyl Auoride, combination at once motion of 61 Cygni, combined with its remarkable duplex

character, renders it an object of great interest. Doubts have ensues, and drops of a colourless liquid commence to be deposited been expressed, however, as to whether the two components are upon the walls of the vessel. In order to obtain the liquid in really connected by a bond of mutual attraction, and it has been greater quantity a large flask is employed, through the caoutchouc assumed that they will gradually separate and traverse widely stopper of which pass two tubes, cne delivering chlorine and different paths in space. Prof. A. Hall has brought together the other allyl fuoride. Considerable heat is developed during and distance of the star since 1825, and has investigated them

all the observations which have beea made of the position-angle the act of combination, hence the flask is immersed in a bath of with a view of setting this question (Astronomical Journal, cold water. A slight excess of chlorine is maintained during No. 258). The result is in favour of the physical connection of the reaction, and the liquid which rapidly collects is consequently the two stars, but all that can be said of the period of revolution coloured green ; but when sufficient has been accumulated the is that it is very long. The mass of the brighter star appears to supply of chlorine is first arrested in order that the excess of be 3-4 times that of the companion. that gas, which produces the green coloration, shall be con- THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SUN.-Numerous attempts verted to the colourless liquid by the still-issuing allyl fluoride have been made to determine the sun's temperature, and ihe and the liquid thus decolorized. The colourless mobile liquid results obtained range from 1500°10 5,000,000. The enormous

difierences that exist between the different estimates result from so obtained is then submitted to distillation, when practically the fact that different laws have been assumed to represent the the whole passes over into the receiver between 122° and 123" rate of radiation. M. H. Le Chatelier communicated the If the synthetical preparation is conducted volumetrically, it is latest contribution to the subject at the meeting of the Paris found that equal volumes of allyl Huoride and chlorine unite ; , Academy of March 28. His experiments show that the intensity

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of the radiations emitted by an incandescent body of which the secular change in the latitude is here considered as too improbemissive power is unity is expressed by the formula

able for acceptance with our present data, so that the apparent variations are here supposed to be due to the changes in the

instrument or habits of the observers. In the section on the T'

latitude of the Royal Observatory, he finds that the co-latitude The temperatures employed range from 680° 10 1770°, and these, derivable from observations of the sour polar stars during the with the observed intensity of radiation, have been used to plot period 1877-86 is greater by o":31 than that derivable froin a curve. By extending the curve and measuring the intensity of observations of all circumpolar stars. At the .conclusion of this the radiation from the sun, an estimation of 7600° as the effective investigation he gives a table showing the corrections to the solar temperature is obtained. The term effective temperature north polar distances, derived annually from the observations is used to express that temperature which a body having an with the Greenwich transit circle, to reduce them to the instruemissive power equal to unity should possess, in order to send out mental standard of the present paper, and the Pulkowa resractions. radiations of the same intensity as the sun. The real temperature

WASHINGTON OBSERVATIONS, 1887.-All the observations of the photosphere is higher than 7600°, because its radiations are absorbed by the cooler solar atmosphere, and it may be, also,

which were made during the year 1887 at the United States because the emissive power of the sun is less than unity.

Naval Observatory are included in this volume. The intro

duction, besides giving the report of the Superintendent on the COMET Swift, March 6.-The following ephemeris for this state of the Observatory generally, contains all the detailed infor comet is given in Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3082, formation relative to the methods of computing the observations 12h. Berlin mean time :

made with the transit circle, meridian transit instrument, and the 1892.


26- inch and 9.6-inch equatorials. The principal work of the April 8 2i 16 41

transit circle during this period has been upon the sun, moon, +0 33:6

and planets, and miscellaneous stars. These last, included stars 9 21 20 18

I 34'2

of the American Ephemeris for clock corrections, &c.; stars 21 23 54

2 343

whose occultations were observed at this Observatory, and by the 21 27 28

various American parties that observed the 1874 transit of 21 31 0

4 32'7

Venus ; those selected for standard stars in the formation of the 13 21 34 30

5 30'9

catalogue made from 1846-49; and stars of the B.A.C. be. 14 21 37 59

6 284

tween 120° 0' and 131° 10' N.P.D. that have not been observed 15 21 41 25

7 252

three times in R.A. and declination at Washington. The Wolf's Comet, 1891 II.-In Astronomische Nachrichten, meridian transit instrument was devoted to the determination of No. 3082, an ephemeris for this comet is given by Herr Dr. the errors of the standard mean time clock in connection with Thraen, of which the following is an extract (12h. Berlin mean the transmission of time, and 1645 transits were taken. The time) :

clock's rate was found satisfactory, its variations following closely 1892. R.A.


those of the barometer. The 26-inch and 9:6-inch equatorials

have been also used, the former for observations of double stars April 8 5 53 19:13

- 12 43.2 and small stars in the Pleiades, the latter for comets. Besides 9 5 54 49:39

-0 7 21.8

these, many other magnetic and meteorological observations 5 56 19.84


are recorded, but a brief account of them will be found in the 5 57 50:48

+0 3 0'9
5 59 21629

+0 8 2 1
6 0 52'27

6 2 23:43

+0 17 44'3
6 3 5478

+0 22 25'1

FEW recent articles in botanical literature can compare in Periodic PERTURBATIONS OF THE FOUR INNER PLANETS.

interest and importance with that contributed by Dr. Mel

chior Treub to the tenth volume of the Annales du Jardin -- In the astronomical papers which are prepared for the use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac (vol. iii., part v.),

Botanique de Buitenzorg, “On the Casuarinaceæ, and their

Position in the Natural System.” The startling announcement most valuable computations of the periodic perturbations of the longitudes and radii vectores of the four inner planets of the first

is made of the occurrence of a mode of fertilization of the ovule order as to masses are contributed. Prof. Newcomb, under whose essentially different from that which takes place in other flowering directions these computations were made, tells us in the intro

plants. ductory note that in the preparation of the fundamental data for order, are about twenty-three in number, and are trees, nearly

The species of the genus Casuarina, which alone make up the the new tables, all the coefficients, which are included in the expressions for the general perturbations, were redetermined: trees,” characterized by their jointed, almost leafless branches.

all natives of Australia, where they are known as “ beef-wood the values obtained for them agreed well with those obtained by From the catkin-like inflorescence of very imperfect Aowers, Leverrier, and prove that their accuracy is placed beyond doubt.

they are generally placed among Incompletæ or Monochlamydeæ, To eliminate any errors that might have been made, duplicate computations were undertaken, and the results of them both are

near to Myricacez and Juglandaceæ. The female flower is given in the final expressions for the perturbations in longitude. has at the base an ovarian cavity, in which are formed (in

composed of two carpels, without either caly or corolla, and It may be stated that the complete theory is not here pub

C. suberosa) the two ovules with parietal placentation, but conlished, the secular variations, perturbations of the latitude, and those of long period in the longitude, not being printed, owing Corresponding to the style in most plants, is an axial mass of

nected from the first with its summit by cords of cellulose. to their unfinished state.

tissue which M. Treub calls the stylar cylinder, surrounded by N.P.D.'s OBSERVED with GREENWICH AND WASHINGTON a peripheral region containing tracheides, and terminating in TRANSIT CIRCLES.-Prof. Newcomb, under whose direction two elongated stigmas. The two ovules are unequal in size, these computations were made, gives in vol. ii. part vi. of the and coalesce in their growth by their placental portions; the same series of papers just referred to an interesting discus- connection between them and the base of the stylar column is sion on the differences that have been found in these observa. called the bridge ; they are also connected with the base of the tions. Those made with the Greenwich circle cover a period ovarian cavity by their funicles. of thirty-six years, from 1851-87, while the Washington The processes which take place within the ovule up to the observations are included in the years 1866-86. The author time of the formation of the embryo-sac are very different from has a firm basis here, on which he can rely, for in the those hitherto observed in Angiosperms. Several large hypoformer series the same methods of reduction and observation dermal cells, the archespore-cells, at the summit of the pucellus, were in use for this entire period without interruption. He divide tangentially; and two of the cells thus produced towards inquires first of all into the conclusions which can be gathered the inner side, the primordial mother-cells, divide further, giving from the stability of the instrument, from both direct and reflec- rise to a thick cylinder of large cells occupying the centre of the tion observations, and finds that the R-D corrections are mainly nucellus, the sporogenous tissue, surrounded by flattened cells due to fexure. The constant of refraction and the possible corresponding to the “Tapetenzellen" of Goebel. The cells periodic error due to those in the graduation of the circle of the sporogenous tissue are equivalent to the mother-cells of are then dealt with, together with corrections for reductions to the embryo-sac in other Angiosperms. These cells divide transthe equinox during the years 1851-56. The hypothesis of the versely into large megaspores (macrospores); the small inactive

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