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Rammohun Roy and Edinburgh Magazine.
575 ciple, instructs him in Sungskrit, whe- possessed of wealth and power, to ther pure or corrupt, in the current perceive their own defects." language of the country, or by any other means.'
“Amongst foreigners, those Euro- Rammohun Roy and Edinburgh Mapcans who believe God to be in every
gazine. sense one, and worship him ALONE [As every thing relating to Ramin spirit, and who extend their bene- mohun Roy is interesting to our readvolence to man as the highest service ers, we extract from the Edinburgh to God, should be regarded by us Magazine (Constable's) for Septemwith affection, on the ground of the ber, the following account of him, object of their worship being the same drawn up apparently by a personal as ours. We should feel no reluce friend. Some parts of this cominunitance to co-operate with them in re. cation contain only what has been ligious matters, merely because they already before the public in our pages, consider Jesus Christ as the Messen- but as it bears an authentic shape, we ger of God and their Spiritual Teach- judge it best to preserve it entire. er; for oneness in the object of wor. The letter is followed in the Edinship and sameness of religious prac- burgh Magazine by some remarks tice should produce attachment be which we cannot but regard as distween the worshipers.
creditable to the editors of that work. Amongst Europeans, those who So much inconsistency and unacbelieve Jesus Christ to be God him- quaintedness with the subject is rarely self, and conceive him to be possessed to be met with in any one paper in of a particular form, and maintain any magazine of the present day. Father, Son, and Holy Ghost to be the writer first states his opinion that one God, should not be treated in an such persons as Rammohun Roy "are unfriendly manner. On the contrary, the most appropriate, if not the only we should act towards them in the instruments,” by which Christianity same manner as we act towards those can be introduced into India ; and of our countrymen who, without then he expresses his deep regret that forming any external image, meditate the reformer“ in his eagerness to upon Ram and other supposed incar- fly to the greatest possible distance pations, and believe in their unity. from idolatry, should have passed
“ Again, those amongst Europeans into the opposite extreme, and emwho believing Jesus Christ to be the braced Unitarianism.” Would then Supreme Being, moreover construct the Editor have had the convert stop various images of him, should not be somewhere within the confines of hated. On the contrary, it becomes idolatry? He says, indeed, that Unius to act towards those Europeans in tarianism "strips Christianity of all the same manner as we act towards its distinctive doctrines, and is, in fact, such as believe Ram, &c., to be in- nothing else but natural religion maskearnations of God, and form external ed,” &c.; not knowing, we dare say, images of them. For, the religious that Unitarians believe in the divine principles of the two last-mentioned mission of Christ, in the resurrection sects of foreigners are one and the of the dead and in a future state of same with those of the two similar righteous recompence. But, he adds, sects among Hindoos, although they that.“ Unitarianism has invariably are clothed in a different garb. gravitated to scepticism," and there
“When any belonging to the second fore concludes, in opposition to his and third classes of Europeans endea- previous judgment of the sole fitness your tò make converts of us, the of such persons as Rammohun Roy believers in the only living and true to introduce Christianity into India, God, even then we should feel no that it would be better that Chrisreseptment towards them, but rather tianity should never find its way in compassion, on account of their blind the world at all, thun that a forin of ness to the errors into which they it should predominate, which disthemselves have fallen. Since it is penses with the miraculous evidence almost impossible, as every day's ex. of its divine origin," &c. Yet this perience teaches us, for men when very "form" of Christian doctrine,
thus strangely misrepresented, he pro- judges living, to be stronger and clearer ceeds to exhibit to his readers in an than any thing yet produced on the extract of three pages from Ramıno- side of the question which he has hun Roy's “ Second Appeal,” de- espoused. signed to prove the natural inferi- From what period we are to date ority of the Son to the Father.” To his renunciation of the Brahinunical save his consistency, he premises that Holy Mysteries, or Secular Privileges his object in selecting the passage is and Honours, is not ascertained; but “ merely to exemplify the manner in he has for many years been observed which the learned Bengalee handles to take an active solicitude in spreadhis subject;" and to re-assure any ing through small tracts in the native Scotsmen who inay be afflicted with languages, portions of the Vedas and doubts in consequence of reading Shastris, which oppose Idolatry, and Rammohun Roy's argument, he says the cruel and unauthorised devotion with inarvellous simplicity, “with of widows to death on the funeral regard to the doctrine it proposes to piles of their lusbands. The Bible, establish, Bishop Horsley, and, sub- however, has been his favourite study; scquently, Professor Porson," (yes, and there are few, perhaps, who rereader, Professor Porson !) “have al- tain more accurately, or coinprehend ready taken from under it every prop more clearly, its important contents. by which it was, or can be upholden.” He is conversant, too, with the works Is it possible that “ Orthodoxy” in of most of our celebrated divines ; Scotland can depend upon such learn- and, by his Lordship’s own invitation, ing and such logic for its preservation? had some particular conferences with ED]
the late learned Bishop of Calcutta, • Mr. Editor,
on the subject of the Christian reli
gion; and though he was not con“TEVE attention of theologians, vinced by the Bishop's opinions and been called to this extraordinary and the Right Reverend Prelate's erudienlightened Bengalee, in consequence tion, piety and urbanity, in terms of of the extensive reading, intelligence, respect and admiration. It is a well and zeal he has displayed in combat- known fact, that the Rev. Mr. Adams, ting the attacks made by the Seram- [Adam,] sent out by the London* Bappore Missionaries upon his religious tist Missionary Society to Calcutta, writings in favour of Christian Unita- for the express purpose of converting rianism, the doctrine which he has Rammohun Roy to the tenets of his himself adopted, it inay very probably sect, was himself converted, and still prove acceptable to your readers, to continues a disciple of Christian Unireceive some authentic particulars of tarianism, through the arguments einthis singular character, with a list of ployed, and the perusal of the authors his writings.
recommended by the redoubted Ex“Rammohun Roy was by birth a Brahinun; being at present the ofiBrahmun, the highest dignity in In- ciating minister in a Unitarian chapel dian society; but being, from an early in Calcutta, built by a subscription age, accustomed to be near Euro- raised by Rammohun Roy and his peans, he saw the advantage, and friends. Yet such is the humility and availed hiinself of the opportunity, of generosity of Rammolun Roy's sentibecoming master of the English lan- ments, that he never makes idention, guage, to which he afterwards added much less a boast of this triumph, Latin and Hebrew. With the Arabic, ardently supplicating God to render Persic and Sungscrit tongues, toge- religion destructive of differenees and ther with the several vernacular dia- dislike between man and man, and lects of Hindooztan, he is perfectly conducive to the peace and union of familiar.
inankind.' (Vide Appeal to the Chris“His proficiency in English is best tian Public, p. 32.) To the diffusion shewn by the style of his composition, as the powers of his mind are by the
* The epithet London is not used by force of his reasonings, which have this Society as any part of its denominabeen declared, by one of the ablest tiou. En. M. R.
Rammohun Roy and Edinburgh Magazine.
577 of useful knowledge and science, the shall not fail to avail himself of it, should freedom of the press, and civil and Providence enable him to visit that land religious liberty, he is a firm, but ra- in which, and which alone, he places his tional friend. Of this, a note which hope for either civil or religious liberty he addressed to the author of the pre, R. R. with a visit; he is a nice young
-'s Moonshee favoured sent outline, without the slightest aid or preparation, bears decisive evi. man, possessed of good abilities. R. R.
has the pleasure of sending a few copies dence.
of his pablications, and three numbers of “ The note in question, which we the Brahmunical Magazine, the producshall here insert, was a reply to a tion of a friend, of which he begs 's gentleman who lately saw him in Cal. acceptance. + cutta, and relates to the institution of «R. R. fervently wishes a speedy a Native Subscription School which and agreeable voyage, and the enjoyment that gentleman had originated high up of the company of his friends in England. the couotry, but which, after a pro
“February 15, 1823." mising commencement, was blighted,
“ But the lively interest he took in though not destroyed, by the inge- the progress of South American emannious subtleties and engrossing selo cipation, eminently marks the greatfishness of priestcraft, conscious of
ness and benevolence of his mind, and its own unrighteous usurpations, and which, in India, as elsewhere, is eager of the detestable barbarities inflicted
was created, he said, by the perusal to denounce and resist every step by Spain to subjugate, and afterwards towards intellectual improvement, or continued by the Inquisition, to retain the correction of superstition.
in bondage that unhappy country. “ Rammohun Roy presents his compli. • What !' replied he, (upon being ments to , and begs to return the asked why he had celebrated by illuPersian prospectus which kindly minations, by an elegant dinner to sent him two days ago. R. R. is sorry about sixty Europeans, and by a speech to learn that
's humane attempt g'as for the present failed to meet with
composed and delivered in English success ; but he hopes that friends of by himself, at his house in Calcutta, literature and liberty will not be dis- the arrival of important news of the heartened by this unhappy circumstance :
success of [the] Spanish patriots,) justly observes, Rome was not • What ! ought I to be insensible to built in a day. R. R. feels obliged by the sufferings of my fellow-creatures
-'s kind offer of hospitality, and he wherever they are, or howsoever un
• " Referring to his design to visit Europe."
+ " List of Rammohun Roy's publications, referred to in his note of February 15, 1822. 1 Translation of the Ishopanishad, one of the Chapters of the Jajur Veda, esta
blishing the Unity and Incomprehensibility of the Supreme Being; and that his
worship alove can lead to Eternal Beatitude. 1 Ditto of the Cena Upanishad, one of the Chapters of the same Veda. 1 Ditto of the Vedant, or Resolution of all the Veds, the most celebrated and revered
work of Brahmunical Theology, establishing the Unity of the Supreme Being,
and that he alone is the object of Propitiation and Worship. 1 Translation of the Monduk-Opuoishud of the Uthurvu-Ved. 1 Ditto of the Kuth-Opunishud of the Vjoor-Ved. 2 Defence of Hindoo Theism, in Reply to an Attack of an Advocate for Idolatry at
Madras. 2 Translation of Two Conferences between an Advocate and an Opponent of the
Practice of “ Burning Widows alive." 1 Brief Remarks regarding Modern Encroachments on the Ancient Rights of Females,
according to the Hindoo Law of Inheritance. 1 The Precepts of Jesus, the Guide to Peace and Happiness, extracted from the
Books of the New Testament, ascribed to the Four Evangelists. With Transla
tions into Sungscrit and Bengalee. 2 Appeals to the Christian Public, in Defence of the Precepts of Jesus. 3 Braumunical Magazines. The Missionary and the Brahmun. By a Friend and
Countryman of Rammohun Roy,
connected by interests, religion or Memoir of the late Rev. John Flemlanguage?'
& ing, of Craigs, Minister of Colinton. « For the recent commencement of
(From the Edinburgh Magazine, for the Bengalee and Persian newspapers
September.) in Calcutta, much, if not all, is due to Rammohun Roy's patronage and
[We borrow this memoir from the exertions; and many of the best arti- work here named, not only because cles published in them are ascribed to the subject of it, as an enlightened his pen. His argumentative talents and liberal divine, is entitled to some are of the first order, and are aided record in the Monthly Repository, but by a remarkable memory, exceedinginarks on the preceding extract should
also because we wish not that our repatience, and the gentlest temper. leave an impression upon our readers He cherishes a grateful sense of the unfavourable to the Northern perioditain has communicated to his country, sal, which is evidently a compilation formerly a ready prey to the lusts of by very different hands, and which tyrants, the rapine of banditti, and the of the most distinguished friends to
reckons amongst its contributors some at the same time, fully yet candidly truth and freedom in Scotland. Ep.] alive to the imperfections in the Bri Theweker limited the sphere of tish Government of India, more attributable, he conceives, to the negli- their actions, whose lives may not be gence or incompetence of its servants, come an object of interest, when they
are fairly and truly delineated. If a dearing private virtues and inappre man has been gifted by nature with ciable public qualifications of the talents or abilities which have been Marquis of Hastings, as a soldier, a obscured by indolence, we may learn statesman and a citizen, he greatly from it the duty of exertion; if he admires, and distinctly acknowledges; has been actively and usefully benefor he considers his eventful and glo- volent, the good may profit by his rious administration as having con- example the sole sas bahagi ferred immediately, more benefits, and," The Rev. John Fleming, the subconsequently, more happiness and jeet of the present memoir, was born prosperity, on Hindoostan, than was on the 31st of August, 1750, at the ever done before. He has long had farm-house of Craigs, in the parish of an intention of visiting Europe, solely Bathgate, West Lothian. His father to enlarge his knowledge and experi- was an industrious farmer, who, to ence, and gratify a laudable curiosity; his paternal property of Craigs, added but it is at present unknown when he another farm in the same parish, called will be able to carry his scheme into Torbane : he died while Mr. Fleining execution. His age may be, perhaps, was a boy, and left him the owner of forty-five; in person, he is tall and these two farms, which, at that period, stout, with a most intelligent, pleasing though now very much increased in and commanding countenance. He value, produced a yearly rent of little possesses a very handsome private for- more than fifty pounds sterling. The tune, the greater portion of which is mother of Mr. Fleming, who appears devoted to useful or charitable pur- to have been a person of great merit, poses; one-third of his income, it is was left a widow, with another son said, being assigned to his relations, and daughter; and on this limited inanother third employed in works of come, she not only educated her family benevolence, and only the remaining respectably, but added to the commonthird reserved for his personal ex- stock by her own industry. 30 penses."5am ut i
Mr. Fleming commenced his eduguid jou to Doninhas e SI cation at the parish-school at Bath“ He is partial to the society and con- gate. In his fourteenth year, he enversation of English gentlemen, counting
tered the University of Edinburgh, in the list of his particular and intimate Here he gave early promise of becomfriends, many of the first wealth and re-ing an excellent Latin scholar; he spectability in Bengal." 29.01 geiras also made considerable progress in the
Greek language, which he continued Memoir of the late Rev. John Fleming, of Craigs, Minister of Colinton. 579 to cultivate dnring the rest of his life, was well qualified for the discharge of by the reading of Homer and the this duty. Greek Testament; but the Latin clas- “ Ten or twelve years of Mr. Flesics, and the philosophy of ancient ming's life were passed in this obRome, were the favourite objects of scure, though useful manner; and this his study.
interval afforded him, also, that leisure “ Having been originally destined for reading and reflection, which were for the clerical office, on the comple- afterwards so conspicuous in the action of the prescribed course of study quirements of his mind. Now, howat the University, he was licensed to ever, a new occupation opened to him, preach by the Presbytery of Linlith- which promised more lucrative emgow.
ployment than that of the mere cul“By the early decease of his father, tivator of his paternal acres. About the management of the small property the year 1786, le becaine factor for to which he succeeded devolved upon Neil
, Earl of Roseberry, and his resihim; and not having any immediate dence was transferred to that nobleview to preferment in the Church, he man's estate of Barnbougle, near turned his attention, in a great degree, Queensferry. There he spent some to the improvement of his paternal years, and had the opportunity, under
His natural sagacity, and his Lordship's tuition, of acquiring superior education, soon led him to much knowledge of the world and of perceive that the state of agriculture actual business, being employed alterin his native parish was capable of nately as farmer, merchant, accountgreat improvement; and he lost no ant or lawyer, as the case required. time in inaking himself acquainted This, trust he executed with great with the best modes of draining and judgment and fidelity, and in the enclosing, and the other farming opera. course of it, he had many opportunitions, which of late years have added ties of bringing forward deserving 60 much to the wealth and resources men as farmers or overseers, greatly of the country. At this period, le to the benefit both of the proprietors often guided the plough, worked with and the country, his own hand in the labours of agri- His situation in life was now, culture, and devoted himself with great however, to be more permanently enthusiasm to the cultivation of this fixed; for in the year 1789 he was primitive science : and at a later re- presented by the Earl of Roseberry to riod of life, it was his constant maxim, the Church of Primrose, or Cairnton, tbat to make two blades of grass, or in the Presbytery of Dalkeith, situated corn, spring up, where one only had about ten miles south of Edinburgli, formerly grown, was conferring a solid where he officiated as pastor for a benefit on the community,
period of fifteen years. “ The success of his farming ope- “ In the discharge of his ministerial rations soon induced his neighbours, duties, Mr. Fleming was distinguished in defiance of their peculiar preju- by exemplary diligence; and his indices, to adopt his improvements, and terest for the welfare of his parishattracted also the attention of the ioners was not exclusively contined to great landholders of the county. At their spiritual concerns, but extended this time, and in the midst of these also to their worldly comfort and occupations, he was the friend and prosperity. In this respect the Scotpatron of merit, so far as his limited tish Clergy are pre-eminent, and canopportunities permitted, and was look- not be too much commended. They ed up to as a sound adviser, in those have the advantage of holding a rank cases of difficulty or distress which highly respectable in the society of occurred among the poor around him, which they are members, with the or within the sphere of his influence. rare addition of not being too far He was also frequently referred to as removed from the middle and lower an arbiter in the disputes which oc. ranks, to prevent their being useful curred among his neighbours, in their to both, by their advice or assistance, domestic as well as their agricultural in the common affairs of life. Mr. concerns; and from the solid judg- Fleming, therefore, did not hesitate ment and benevolence of his character, to apply his extensive knowledge to with his knowledge of rural affairs, he the discharge of every duty which he