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shall be prescribed in each State by the Legisla- mined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the ture thereof; but the Congress may at any time Persons voting for and against the Bill shall by by Law make or alter such Regulations, except entered on the Journal of each House respec as to the place of chusing Senators.

tively. If any Bill shall not be returned by The Congress shall assemble at least once in the President within ten Days (Sundays ex every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the cepted) after it shall have been presented to him first Monday in December, unless they shall by the Same shall be a law, in like Manner as if ha Law appoint a different Day.

had signed it, unless the Congress by their Ad Sec. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the journment prevent its return, in which Case i Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own shall not be a Law. Members, and a Majority of each shall consti Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which tute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller the Concurrence of the Senate and House a Number may adjourn from day to day, and may Representatives may be necessary (except on be authorized to compel the Attendance of ab- question of Adjournment) shall be presented to sent Members, in such Manner, and under such the President of the United States; and befor Penalties as each House may provide.

the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by Each House may determine the Rules of its him, or being disapproved by him, shall be re Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly passed by two-thirds of the Senate and Hous Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two of Representatives, according to the Rules and thirds, expel a Member.

Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Pro SEC. 8. The Congress shall have Power ceedings, and from time to time publish the To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Iin posts and same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judg. Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the maent require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of common Defence and general Welfare of the the Members of either House on any question United States ; but all Duties, Imposts and Ex shall, at the Desire of one fifth of those Present, cises shall be uniform throughout the United be entered on the Journal.

States; Neither House, during the Session of Congress, To borrow Money on the credit of the United

be shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn States ; for more'than three days, nor to any other Place To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting; and among the several States, and with the In

SEC. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall dian Tribes; receive a Compensation for their Services,

to be To establish an uniform Rule of Naturaliza ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treas- tion, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankary of the United States. They shall in all ruptcies throughout the United States ; Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Attendance at the Session of their respective Weights and Measures ; Houses, and in going to and returning from the To provide for the Punishment of countersame; and for any Speech or Debate in either feiting the Securities and current Coin of the House, they shall not be questioned in any other United States ; Place.

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; No Senator or Representative shall, during To promote the progress of Science and usethe Time for which he was elected, be appointed ful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Au to any civil Office under the Authority of the thors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their United States, which shall have been created, respective Writings and Discoveries ; or the Emoluments whereof shall have been en To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme creased during such time; and no Person hold- Court; ing any Office under the United States, shall be To define and punish Piracies and Felonies a Member of either House during his Continu- committed on the high Seas, and Offences against ance in Office.

the Law of Nations; SEC. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and originate in the House of Representatives; but Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Capture the Senate may propose or concur with Amend-on Land and Water; ments as on other Bills.

To raise and support Armies, but no Appro Every Bill which shall have passed the House priation of Money to that Use shall be for s of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before longer Term than two years ; it becomes a Law, be presented to the President To provide and maintain a Navy ; of the United States; If he approve he shall sign To make Rules for the Government and Regu it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objęc-lation of the land and naval Forces ; tions to that House in which it shall have origi To provide for calling forth the Militia to nated, who shall enter the Objections at large on execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurtheir Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If rections and repel Invasions ; after such Reconsideration two thirds of that To provide for organizing, arming, and dis. House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be ciplining, the Militia, and for governing such sent, together with the objections, to the other Part of them as may be employed in the Service House, by which it shall likewise be reconsid- of the United States, reserving to the States ered, and if approved by two thirds of that respectively, the Appointment of the Oficers, and House, it shall become a Law. But in all such the Authority of training the Militia according Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be deter- to the Discipline prescribed by Congress ;

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To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases | Agreement or Compact with another State, or whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless

ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become as will not admit of Delay. the Seat of the Government of the United States,

ARTICLE II. and to exercise like Authority over all Places

SEC. 1. The executive Power shall be vested purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of in a President of the United States of America. the State in which the Same shall be, for the He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, Dock. Years, and, together with the Vice President, Yards, and other needful Buildings ;-And To make all Laws which shall be necessary

chosen for the same term, be elected as follows

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as and proper for carrying into Execution the fore- the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of going Powers, and all other Powers vested by Electors, equal to the wholė Number of Senators this Constitution in the Government of the United and Representatives to which the State may be States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. entitled in the Congress : bat no Senator or

Sec. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Representative, or person holding an Office of Persons as any of the States now existing shall Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be think

proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by hundred and eight, but a Tax or Duty may be States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight appointed an Elector.

(The Electors shall meet in their respective imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant dollars for each person. The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall make a list of all the Persons voted for,

of the same State with themselves. And they shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of and of the Number of Votes for each ; which Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may re- List they shall sign and certify, and transmit quire it.

sealed to the seat of the Governinent of the No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall United States, directed to the President of the be passed.

Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be the Presence of the Senate and House of Replaid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enu- resentatives, open all the Certificates

, and the meration herein before directed to be taken.

Votes shall then be counted. The Person have No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles ex

ing the greatest Number of Votes shall be the ported from any State. No Preference shall be given by any Regula- whole Number of Electors appointed, and if

President, if such Number be a Majority of the tion of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one there be more than one who have such Majority, State over those of another ; nor shall Vessels and have an equal Number of Votes, then the bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, House of Representatives shall immediately, clear, or pay Duties in another. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, if no Person have a Majority, then from the

chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and but in Consequence of Appropriations made by five highest on the List the said House shall in Law; and a regular_Statement and Account of like Manner chuse the President. But in chusthe Receipts and Expenditures of all public ing the President, the Votes shall be taken by Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the States, the Representation from each State havUnited States : and no Person holding any office ing one Vote; A Quorum for this Purpose shall of Profit or Trust under them, shall

, without of the States, and a Majority of all the States the Consent of the Congress, accept of any pres; shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, ent, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind after the Choice of the President, the Person whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign having the greatest Number of Votes of the State. Sec. 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, there should remain two or more who have equal

Electors shall be the Vice President. But if Alliance, or Confederation ; grant Letters of L'Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by

Ballot the Vice President.*] of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver 'Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any

The Congress may determine the Time of "Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law chusing the Electors, and the Day on which impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant the same throughout the United States.

they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be: any Title of Nobility. No State shall, without the consent of the Citizen of the United States, at the time of the

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Congress, lay any Imposts

or Duties on Imports Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws and to the Office of President; neither shall ang the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid Person be eligible to that Ofice who shall not by any State on Imports or Exports, shall be have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, " for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and been fourteen Years a Resident within the

United States. and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revis

In Case of the Removal of the President from tion and Controul of the Congress. No State shall

, without the Consent of Con- Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability gress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or

* This clause of the Constitution has been annulled. See Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any twelfth article of the Amendments.



to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said

ARTICLE III. Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice Presi

Sec. 1. The judicial Power of the United dent, and the Congress may by Law provide for States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation, or In- in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from ability, both of the President and Vice President, time to time ordain and establish. The Judges declaring what Officer shall then act as Presi- both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall) dent, and such Officer shall act accordingly, hold their Offices during good Behavior, and until the Disability be removed, or a President shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services shall be elected.

a Compensation, which shall not be diminished The President shall, at stated Times, receive during their Continuance in Office. for his Services, a Compensation, which shall Sec. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all neither be encreased nor diminished during the cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Con. Period for which he shall have been elected, stitution, the Laws of the United States, and and he shall not receive within that Period any Treaties made, or which shall be made, under other Emolument from the United States, or any their Authority ;-to all Cases affecting Ambas. of them.

sadors, other public Ministers, and Consuls ;--to Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdicheshall take the following Oath or Affirmation : tion ;-to Controversies to which the United

“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) hat I wil States shall be a Party ;--to Controversies be. faithfully execute the Office of President of the tween two or more States ;-between a State and United States, and will to the best of my Ability, Citizens of another State ;-between Citizens of preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of different States,-between Citizens of the same the United States."

State claiming Lands under Grants of different SEC. 2. The President shall be Commander in States, and between a State or the Citizens Chief of the Army and Navy of the United thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. States, and of the Militia of the several States, In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other pub. when called into the actual Service of the United | lic Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall of the principal Officer in each of the executive have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shali Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Offences against the United States, except in Regulations as the Congress shall inake. Cases of Impeachment.

The Trial of all Crimes, except in cases of He shall bave Power, by and with the Advice Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such Trial and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, shall be held in the State where the said Crime provided two thirds of the Senators present shall have been committed ; but when not com concur; and he shall nominate, and by and mitted within any State, the Trial shall be at with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall such Place or Places as the Congress may by appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers. Law have directed. and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and Sec. 3. Treason against the United States, shall all other Officers of the United States, whose consist only in levying. War against them, or in Appointments are not herein otherwise provided adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and for, and which shall be established by Law: but Comfort. No Person 'shall be convicted of Trea the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment son unless on the Testimony of two Witnessed of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in Court. the Heads of Departments.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the The President shall have Power to fill up all Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Vacancies that may happen during the Recess Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or For of the Senate, by granting Commissions which feiture except during the Life of the Person at shall expire at the End of their next Session. tainted. Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the

ARTICLE IV. Congress Information of the State of the Union, Sec. 1. Full Faith and Credit shall by gived and recommend to their consideration such in each State to the public Acts, Records, and Measures as he shall judge necessary and expe- judicial Proceedings of every other State. And


may, or extraordinary Occasions, con. the Congress may by general Laws prescribe the vene both Houses, or either of them, and in Manner in which such Acts, Records and Pro Case of Disagreement between them, with Re- ceedings shall be proved, and the Eifect thereof spect to the Time of Adjournment, he may SEC. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be en adjourn them to such Time as he shall think titled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens proper ; he shall receive Ambassadors and other in the several Siates. public Ministers; and he shall take Care that A Person charged in any State with Treason the Laws be faithfully executed, and he shall Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Jus Commission all the officers of the United States. tice, and be found in another State, shall on

Sec. 4. The President, Vice President and all Demand of the executive Authority of the State civil Officers of the United States, shall be re from which he fled, be delivered up, to be re moved from Office on Impeachment for, and moved to the State having Jurisdiction of the Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crime. Crimes and Misdemeanors,

No Person held to Service or Labour in one

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State, ander the Laws thereof, escaping into

ARTICLE VII. another, sball, in Consequence of any Law or The Ratification of the Conventions of nine Regulation therein, be discharged from such Ser States, sball be sufficient for the Establishment vice or Labour, but shall be delivered up on of this Constitution between the States so ratifyClaim of the Party to whom such Service or ing the Same. Labour may be due. SEC. 3. New States may be admitted by the

Amendments. Congress into this Union; but no new State shall ART. 1. Congress shallomake no law respectbe formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of ing an establishment of religion, or prohibiting any other State; nor any State formed by the the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freeJunction of two or more States, or Parts of States, dom of speech, or of the press; or the right of without the Consent of the Legislatures of the the people peaceably to assemble, and to petiStates concerned as well as of the Congress. tion the Government for a redress of grievances.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of ART. 2. A well regulated Militia, being necesand make all needful Rules and Regulations sary to the security of a free State, the right of respecting the Territory or other Property be the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be longing to the United States; and nothing in infringed. this Constitution shall be so construed as to Pre ART. 3. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be judice any Claims of the United States, or of any quartered in any house, without the consent of particular State.

the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to to be prescribed by law. every State in this Union a Republican Form of ART. 4. The right of the people to be secure Government, and shall protect each of them in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against Invasion; and on Application of the against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Le- not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but islature cannot be convened) against domestic upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirViolence.

mation, and particularly describing the place ARTICLE V.

to be searched, and the persons or things to be The Congress, whenever two thirds of both seized. Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose

ART. 5. No person shall be held to answer for Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Ap

a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on plication of the Legislatures of two thirds of the a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, several States, shall call a Convention for pro- except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, posing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall or in the Militia, when in actual service in time be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of of War or public danger; nor shall any person this Constitution, when ratified by the Legisla- be subject for the same offence to be twice put tures of three fourths of the several States, or in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be comby Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the pelled in any Criminal Case to be a witness one or the other Mode of Ratification may be against himself

, nor be deprived of life, liberty, proposed by the Congress; Provided that no or property, without due procuss of law; nor Amendment which may be made prior to the shall private property be taken for public use, Year one thousand eight hundred and eight without just compensation. shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth

Art. 6. In all" criminal prosecutions, the acClauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; cused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and puband that no State, without its Consent, shall be lic trial, by an impartial jury of the State and deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

district wherein the crime shall have been com

mitted, which district shall have been previously ARTICLE VI.

ascertained by law, and to be informed of the All Debts contracted and Engagements en nature and cause of the accusation; to be contered into, before the Adoption of this Constitu- fronted with the witnesses against him; to have tion, shall be as valid against the United States Compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in under this Constitution, as under the Confedera- his favour, and to have the Assistance of Coun

sel for his defence. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United ART. 7. In Suits at common law, where the States which shall be made in Pursuance there- value in controversy shall exceed twenty dolof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be lars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved,

made, under the authority of the United States, and no fact tried by a júry shall be otherwise 1 shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the re-examined in any Court of the United States, Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, than according to the rules of the common law. any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any ART. 8. Excessive bail shall not be required, State to the Contrary notwithstanding: nor excessive fines be imposed, nor cruel and un

The Senators and Representatives before men- usual punishments inflicted. tioned, and the Members of the several State ART. 9. The enumeration in the Constitution, Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Offi- of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny cers, both of the United States and of the several or disparage others retained by the people. States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, ART. 10. The powers not delegated to the to support this Constitution ; but no religious United States by the Constitution, nor prohibiTest shall ever be required as a Qualification ted by it to the States, are reserved to the Siates to any Office or public Trust under the United respectively, or to the people.

Art. 11. The Judicial power of the United


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1* States.

States shall not be construed to extend to any "A resolution submitting to the Legislature Buit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted of the several States a proposition to amend the against one of the United States by Citizens of Constitution of the United States. another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Resolved by the Senate and House of Repre Foreign State.

sentatives of the United States of America in ART. 12. The Electors shall meet in their Congress assembled, (two-thirds of both Houses respective states, and vote by ballot for Presi- concurring) That the following article be prodent and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, posed to the Legislatures of the several States as shall not be an inhabitant of the same state an amendment to the Constitution of the United with themselves; they shall_name in their States, which, when ratified by three fourth ballots the person voted for as President, and in of said Legislatures, shall be valid, to all intent distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice- and purposes, as a part of the said Constitution, President, and they shall make distinct lists of namely: all persons voted for as President, and of all

ARTICLE XIII. persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the "Sec. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary number of votes for each, which lists they shall servitude, except as a punishment for crime sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat whereof the party shall have

been duly con of the government of the United States, directed victed, shall exist within the United States, or to the President of the Senate ;-The President any place subject to their jurisdiction. of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enfore and House of Representatives, open all the cer- this article by appropriate legislation.' tificates and the votes shall then be counted ; And whereas it appears from official docu.

The person having the greatest number of votes ments on file in this Department that the for President, shall be the President, if such amendment to the Constitution of the United number be a majority of the whole number of States, proposed as aforesaid, has been ratified Electors appointed; and if no person have such by the Legislatures of the States of Illinois

, majority, then from the persons having the Rhode Island, Michigan, Maryland, New York, highest numbers not exceeding three on the list West Virginia, Maine, Kansas, Massachusetts

, of those voted for as President, the House of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Nevada, Representatives shall choose immediately, by Indiana, Louisiana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Verballot, the President. But in choosing the mont, Tennessee, Arkansas, Connecticut, New President, the votes shall be taken by states, Hampshire, South Carolina, Alabama, North, the representation from each state having one Carolina, and Georgia~in all, twenty-seven vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of States ; a member or members from two thirds of the And whereas the whole number of States in states, and a majority of all the states shall be the United States is thirty-six, and whereas the necessary to a choice. And if the House of Rep before specially-named States, whose Legislatures resentatives shall not choose a President when- have ratified the said proposed amendment, conever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, stitute three-fourths of the whole number of before the fourth day of March next following, States in the United States : then the Vice-President shall act as President, Now, therefore, be it known that I, William as in the case of the death or other constitutional H. Seward; Secretary of State of the United disability of the President. The person having States, by virtue and in pursuance of the second the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, section of the act of Congress approved the shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a twentieth of April, eighteen hundred and majority of the whole number of Electors ap- eighteen, entitled"" An act to provide for the pointed, and if no person have a majority, then publication of the laws of the United States and from the two highest numbers on the list, the for other purposes," do hereby certify that the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quo- amendment aforesaid has become valid, to all rum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds intents and purposes, as a part of the Constitution of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the United States. of the whole number shall be necessary to a In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my choice. But no person constitutionally, ineligi- hand and caused the seal of the Department of ble to the office of President shall be eligible to State to be affixed. that of Vice-President of the United States. Done at the city of Washington this eighteenth

day of December, in the year of our Lord Mr. Seward's Certificate of the Anti-Slavery (SEAL] one thousand eight hundred and sixtyAmendment, known as the 13th Amendment.

five, and of the Independence of the

United States of America the ninetieth. WILLIAM H. SEWARD, SECRETARY OF STATE OF


Secretary of State. To all to whom these presents may come, greeting: [New Jersey, Oregon, California and Iowa

Know ye, that whereas the Congress of the ratified subsequently to the date of this certifiUnited States on the 1st of February last passed a resolution which is in the words following, cate, as did Florida in the same form as South namely:

Carolina and Alabama.]

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