and ã. (b) X and R data sheets. A separate performed at a point where no further data sheet shall be maintained for each change in the variable can occur. item. When a single item is simultane- Sample units or subgroups shall be ously produced on more than one proc drawn separately for each code, conessing line, it is desirable to maintain tainer size, and style. one data sheet for the item. In such (b) Subgroup sampling. Sampling by instances, the processing line designa- subgroups consists of drawing more than tion shall be recorded with the cor- one sample unit at approximately the responding data. same time. This type of sampling is reThe X and R data sheets shall provide quired in the use of the conventional for recording the following information: X and R determinations for variables. (1) The time a sample unit or sub- When a single code is processed on group has been drawn; more than one line sumultaneously, it is (2) The X values; desirable to obtain a subgroup represent(3) The total values of all the X ing a single line, alternating the lines values in the subgroups when conven- each time a subgroup is drawn for that tional averages are used; code. If the processing procedure pro(4) The values for hi, R, Ē, MI, X, hibits obtaining a subgroup representing a single line, it shall be necessary to sample by code only, omitting line iden(c) X and R control charts. Control tity. Each subgroup thus obtained will charts consist of an X chart and may generally represent more than one line and consequently reflect variations in the consist of an R chart. When both are code as a whole but not variations for a used they are contained on the same sheet with the limits for the X chart on single line. (c) Sample unit sampling. This prothe top portion and the limits for the cedure consists of drawing a single samR chart on the lower portion with a ple unit at random at specified intervals space separating the two such that plot from a production. This type of sampling tings from one does not overlap those may employ the use of a moving average of the other. and is applicable to a variable or a procSeparate control charts shall be maintained for each item. More than one day's ess when subgroup sampling is not feasible. production of an item may be plotted on a single control chart. $ 52.207 Measurements, calculations, ho (1) X charts. (i) The X charts for and recording data. two-sided specifications shall consist of (a) General. Immediately after the lines and values properly representing sample unit or subgroup has been taken, both the upper and lower reject and measurements and calculations shall be made and recorded on the appropriate warning limit(s), and may require the form as required. use of minimum and maximum specifi (b) Recording data on the Y and R cation lot averages. data sheet. The data to be recorded on (ii) The X chart for one-sided specifi the X and R data sheet is as follows: cations shall consist of lines and values (1) The time the sample unit or subproperly representing, as applicable, the group is taken; upper or lower reject and warning lim- (2) The value for each individual it(s), and the minimum or maximum measurement (X value); specification lot average. (3) The total value for all the X values (2) R charts. When the R chart is in the subgroup, when applicable; used, it shall consist of lines and values (4) The average value (X) for each properly representing Ř', Rmax, and the subgroup, when applicable; lower limit for R. For subgroup sizes of (5) The Mi value for each subgroup, when applicable; 6 or less the value of the lower limit for R will always be zero. (6) The range value (R) for each sub group, when applicable; (38 FR 10447, Apr. 27, 1973; 38 FR 12729, May 15, 1973) (7) The sample median value (MI) when the median is used; PROCEDURE (8) The sample average value ( ) $ 52.206 Sampling. when required; and (a) General. In order to obtain the (9) The average range value (R) when most reliable results, sampling should be applicable. (c) Recording data on the X and R the case of the option for conventional control chart. The data to be recorded averages must be obtained and recorded. on the X and R control chart is as Acceptability of the lot with respect to follows: the sample median or sample average (1) Individual measurements (X val- may then be determined in accordance ues). The values representing the in- with acceptance criteria as prescribed dividual measurements of each subgroup under $ 52.209(a) of these standards. (X value) shall be plotted on the X chart. (38 FR 10447, Apr. 27, 1973; 38 FR 12729, The distance between the smallest and May 15, 1973] largest value of the individual measure $ 52.208 Application of sampling al. ments in the subgroup may be used for lowance. R in lieu of plotting the range on the R The amount of sampling allowance is chart. It is desirable to plot all the values obtained from the sampling allowance for a subgroup on the same linear seg chart in these standards. The actual ment of thec hart. Identical values are value for the sampling allowance is obplotted adjacently in such a manner as tained from the point of intersection of to associate such values with the sub & horizontal line drawn from a point on group in which they occur. the vertical axis representing the sample (2) The median. When the median size to the diagonal line for the item inoption is used, the median for each sub volved. The value on the horizontal axis group shall be identified on the X chart corresponding to the vertical line nearin such a manner as to make it readily est to this point of intersection is the distinguishable from the rest of the sampling allowance. value in the subgroup. When a subgroup The sampling allowances are applied consists of an even number of individual to the specified lot averages to allow for measurements, the median represented deviations from these averages that are by the arithmetic mean of the two middle inherent in any sampling procedure. values shall also be plotted on the X These allowances are applied to the specchart in such a manner as to associate it ified lot averages only when the sample: with the subgroup from which it was average ã or ñi) is less than I'm calculated. or greater than I'mır. When this ocWhen the median option is used for a curs, the specification average is adjusted particular production, it is not permis- by subtracting the allowance from X'msa sible to change to the option for conven- or adding to I'm. whichever is aps tional averages during the same shift. plicable. (3) Subgroup averages (X values). $ 52.209 Acceptance and rejection When the option for conventional aver criteria. ages is used, the average of each subgroup is calculated and recorded on the (a) Conventional averages and the X and R data sheet. The subgroup aver median. (1) Acceptance. A lot shall be age is then plotted on the À chart in accepted as meeting specified requiresuch a manner as to associate it with ments for a variable provided that: the subgroup from which it was calcu (i) All X values are equal to or greater than LRL and equal to or less than URL; lated. When this option is used, it is not (ii) All Mi or X values are equal to or permissible to change to the median option during the same shift. greater than LRL; and equal to or less than URL=; (4) The range (R value). The range of each subgroup, when required, shall be (ili) hi or Ž is equal to or less than plotted on the R chart. X'max adjusted and equal to or greater than I'min adjusted; and (5) The average median (Mi value) (iv) The condition under paragraph and sample average (z value). When (a) (2) (i) of this section does not exist. the plotted values obviously indicate the (2) Rejection. A lot shall be rejected acceptability of the lot, need not for failure to meet specified requirements be obtained. When the plotted values for a variable under the following confor Mi or or both indicate the accepta ditions: (1) Failure to meet any of the requirebility of a lot may be questionalbe, Mi in ments under paragraph (a) (1), (i), (u), the case of the median option, or in or (üi) of this section; or Vii or (ii) AU Mi or X values are less than I'min or greater than X'mas. (b) Moving averages. (1) Acceptance. A lot shall be accepted as meeting specified requirements for a variable provided that: (i) All X values are equal to or greater than LRL and equal to or less than URL; (ii) All X values are equal to or greater than LRL, and equal to or less than URL; (iii) X is equal to or less than I'max adjusted and equal to or greater than X'min adjusted; and (iv) The condition under paragraph (b) (2) (ii) of this section does not exist. (2) Rejection. A lot shall be rejected for failure to meet specified requirements for a variable under the following conditions: (i) Failure to meet any of the condtions under paragraph (b) (1) (1), (i), and (iii) of this section; or (ii) All X values are less than X'nin or greater than Ä'max. [38 FR 10447, Apr. 27, 1973; 38 FR 12729, May 15, 1973) SAMPLING ALLOWANCE CHART $ 52.210 Sampling allowance chart. Subpart-U.S. Standards for Determination of Fill Weights AUTHORITY: Agricultural Marketing Act, 1946, sec. 205, 60 Stat. 1050, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 1624. SOURCE: $ $ 52.221 to 52.232 appear at 38 FR 10450, Apr. 27, 1973, unless otherwise noted. GENERAL $ 52.221 Purpose. These proposed standards supplement the proposed U.S. Standards for Inspection by Variables so as to adapt them to the determination of fill of container, based on fill weights, for canned fruits, vegetables, and related products. $ 52.222 Explanation. (a) The variables inspection standards may be used, where applicable, by any food processor for quality control purposes. Certification by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) of fill weights based on these standards, however, is applicable only under on-line inspection when a USDA inspector is present at time of packing and maintains appropriate records of the filling process. (b) The procedure for determination and certification of fill of container, based on drained weights, may be used in the case of lot inspection as well as in-line inspection. This procedure, where applicable, is outlined in the U.S. standards for the respective products. $ 52.223 Options. The options of the median or conventional average may be used for determining compliance of fill weights with a specified minimum average fill weight. $ 52.224 Type of specification and applicable limits. (a) For the determination of fill weights, a low-sided specification applies. (b) The specification limits, and values for such limits, are specified in those U.S. Standards for Grades of canned fruits, vegetables, and related products which incorporate the fill weight procedure. Suggested specification limits, and the values for such limits, for those products for which fill weights have been established-but are not yet incorporated in the USDA grade standardsmay be obtained as supplements to these standards upon request to: Chief, Processed Products Standardization and Inspection Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Division, AMS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250. (c) All of these limits, whether stated in the USDA grade standards or supplements hereof, are to be applied in accordance with the proposed U.S. Standards for Inspection by Variables. PROCEDURE $ 52.225 Preparation of forms. (a) Prepare the data sheet and control charts prior to the start of a processing period. Draw lines representing the X'min, LRL, and LRL values applicable for the product, container size, and style on the appropriate linear segment of the X chart in such a maner as to be clearly visible when posted in the plant. Lines representing LWL; and LWL may be drawn on the chart at the option of the user; however, all the values representing each limit (Xmin, LWLX, LRLX, LWL and LRL) are placed on the X chart adjacent to the appropriate limit and identified (in brief form) as X', WL3, RL, WL, or RL accordingly). (b) When the R chart is used, it is desirable to place it on the lower portion of the control chart, using the bottom as zero, which is the lower limit for R. (c) Space the limits for R' and Rmax on the appropriate linear segment above the zero line. The upper portion of the control chart is then used for the X chart. (d) Attachment 1 is an example of an X and R data sheet. Attachment 2 is an example of a control chart which combines the X chart and the R chart. However, use of the R chart is not required. The X chart illustrates the use of the median option as prescribed in the proposed U.S. Standards for Inspection by Variables. The dots plotted on the X chart represent the X values for the subgroup. The encircled dot represents the median of each subgroup. For easier identification the circle should be in a different color than the dots. [38 FR 10450, Apr. 27, 1973; 38 FR 12729, May 15, 1973) $ 52.226 Posting control charts. It is desirable to post the control charts in such a place in the plant as to be clearly visible to the filler operator as well as other responsible plant personnel. The control charts serve as an aid to responsible plant personnel in controlling the filling process. 8 52.227 Determination of tare of containers. (a) General. Variations in the weight between individual empty containers (tare) must be taken into consideration when determining fill weights. These variations may be accounted for by procedure 1 or procedure 2 of this section. (b) Procedure 1. Determine tare weights of each container size at least twice a week. In addition, determine tare weights whenever it is suspected that the present tare weight is no longer applicable. Some of the more common reasons for checking tare weights are changes in supply of containers, thickness of tin plate, and type of container. (1) The number of empty containers taken at random from a given lot of containers to determine the average tare weight is as follows: For containers equivalent to: No. 22 container and smaller not less than 10 empty containers. Larger than No. 242 not less than 15 empty containers. (c) Procedure 2. Preweigh a container (preferably stainless steel or other noncorrosive material) of suitable capacity and use this container as the standard tare. Drain the contents of the filled container as prescribed in $ 52.229 and transfer drained fruit or vegetable ingredient to the preweighed tare. 8 52.228 Sampling. (a) Subgroup size. Unless otherwise specified, the subgroup size shall be five sample units. (1) The control chart values, except for X'min, will always be based on the specified subgroup size. When a subgroup size other than that specified is used, the values for the applicable limits must be changed accordingly. (b) Time and point of sampling. The subgroups are drawn at a point in the process where no further change in the fill weight of the fruit or vegetable ingredient can occur. (c) Sampling frequency. Unless otherwise specified, the sampling fre quency for all canned fruits, vegetables, and related products, for which fill weights have been established shall bo approximately every 45 minutes. (1) The sampling frequency should be arranged to obtain subgroups at varying intervals and drawn in such a manner that the filler operators will not know when a subgroup will be drawn or which containers will be in the subgroup. This is important so that a nonbiased sample will be selected which will reflect the normal filling process. [38 FR 10450, Apr. 27, 1973; 38 FR 12729, May 15, 1973] $ 52.229 Measurements. (a) Immediately after the subgroup has been drawn, invert each container on the hand or sieve and allow the product to drain until free from liquid, but in no case less than 10 seconds. In this step, do not remove the product from the container when procedure 1 as prescribed in $ 52.227 is used. The sample units are then weighed and the net weight of the fruit or vegetable ingredient (total weight minus tare weight) for each sample unit is recorded on the X and R data sheet. (b) In the case of procedure 1 if it is suspected that the weight of individual empty containers deviate from the average tare weight to cause an individual measurement to fall slightly below (or slightly above) LRL, the following procedure may be used: (1) After the X value has been obtained as previously described, empty the contents of the suspected container and wipe it clean and dry. (2) Weigh the suspected dry container. The amount of deviation is the difference between the weight of the individual container and the average tare weight. (3) Adjust the suspected X value by the amount of deviation thus found. (c) When adjustments for tare weight are made for individual measurements that fall slightly below LRL, adjustments must also be made for individual measurements that are slightly above LRL. $ 52.230 Calculations and recording data. (a) Immediately after the measurements have been obtained, the required |