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yet one further illustration of the almost tion and its associated doctrines of develinfinite ramifications to which natural selec- opment may be applied.

[From Macmillan's Magazine.

LIVINGSTONE'S DISCOVERIES.

WHATEVER may be the ultimate re- the Blue River, this probability does not sult of Dr. Livingstone's researches, it is amount to certainty. They have given, not to be doubted that his name will be we admit, satisfactory reasons why they for ever associated with the history of the did not follow the great sweep which the Nile. He is by far the greatest of all mod- river makes towards the west, and the exern explorers. He has ventured more, tent of which is still unknown; and though, seen more, and thrown a clearer light on proceeding northwards, they came to a the hydrography of Central Africa, than all river, which they assumed to be the same his predecessors put together. Still, a as that they had left, they may have been cloud of doubt hangs suspended over the mistaken, for, after parting company with it exit of the waters, among whose innumer- for a hundred miles, they could not be able springs he has so long wandered ; and more sure that they were dealing with the it is to clear up, once for all, the mystery same stream, than Dr. Livingstone in his of their course, that he voluntarily con- assumed identification of the Lualaba with demns himself to remain an anchorite in the Bahr-el-Gazal. unknown wilds and forests, for we know We are far from deciding dogmatically not how many years. He hopes, indeed, that the ridge of uplands, and the peaks to complete his work in two years; but con- that tower from their summit, are the sidering how much his previous stay has Mountains of the Moon; they are situated been protracted, we may fairly conclude about eleven degrees south of what Capthat his return within that period is doubt- tain Speke assumes to be the Lunar Mounful. Meanwhile, we observe with regret tains of Ptolemy; but instead of contentseveral marks of a disposition to disparage ing himself with transient glimpses of these his labors, by attempting to prove that terrene elevations, Dr. Livingstone patientthere exists no connection between the ly plodded along six hundred miles of the streams he has discovered and the river of watershed, examining and describing in Egypt. It would be unjust to say that noble language his impressions of what he Captains Speke and Grant discovered no- saw by the way. He has not beheld the thing, because they made us acquainted whole, and does not say he has; on the with the course and character of the Kit contrary, he tells us that there remains yet angûle, which is certainly one of the feed- a hundred miles of the watershed, and the ers of the Nile; but their notion, that the most important hundred miles, which he Victoria N'yanza is the source of that river, has not visited. The reader who rememis as irreconcilable with their own narrative bers the gorgeous picture which Buffon as it is with the science of geography. They has drawn of the primitive earth, may im. saw part of a lake, and heard a great deal agine himself among its wastes and wilds, about the rest of it; but they neither dis- as he peruses Dr. Livingstone's descripcovered its dimensions, nor how it is fed, tions of the spongy fountains, the morasnor how many streams fall into it, nor with ses, the shallow lakes, hundreds of miles what system of lakes it is connected at its in length, the impenetrable forests which southern extremity. All these points are the traveller skirted, the wild buffalo and still unknown, and so also is the source of elephant tracks, in which the unwary wanthe Kitangûle. Nothing, therefore, could derer often sinks to the thigh, where the be more unfounded than their pretension foot of the huge beast has been, the reedy to have discovered the source of the Nile. pools, many miles in length, resembling It is highly probable that the stream which the mangrove swamps on the coast, the runs out of the Victoria N'yanza is one tor-like peaks, impending far up among the branch, and perhaps a principal branch of hills over runnels and fountains yet unvisitthe Nile; but as they did not follow its ed. As we have already said, it is not course from the lake to its junction with our intention to be positive where the

great traveller himself is not: after all his ideas, it is obvious that certainty has not researches, he observes very modestly yet been attained, we persuade ourselves that he may be mistaken, and in that case that the public will be content to await the expresses his readiness to confess his er- result of Dr. Livingstone's final researches, ror; but if his own observations, and the which, whether they establish his previous testimony of natives whom he knows and theory or not, he will assuredly divulge to trusts, can be relied upon, all the wealth the world in their utmost completeness. of waters descending from the Lunar For some time, it is well known, the chief Mountains do certainly flow in a northerly of African travellers was supposed to be direction, whether they ultimately unite dead, his journals lost, his discoveries with the Egyptian flood or not. The handed over to oblivion. Several languid reason he gives for his own belief that it is endeavors were made by the scientific genthe great valley in which the united waters tlemen of this country to discover his fate, flow, sometimes spreading into large lakes, or afford him succor if still alive. But sometimes forming huge lacustrine rivers, causes on which we decline to dwell frusis, that the depression is hemmed in by trated their attempts, and it was left for high lands on the west as well as on the the correspondent of the New York Herald east, so that, up to the fourth degree of to explore the explorer, and show to Engsouth latitude at least, he could perceive land her bold son displaying the hereditary nothing to lessen his belief in the junction virtues of his race in the untrodden wilds of the Lualaba with the great western arm of Central Africa. The name of Mr. Stanof the Nile. Still, when his researches ley, who carried the design of the Now northward were interrupted at the fourth York Herald into execution, is now almost degree of south latitude, he had reached as well known as that of Livingstone himan immense sheet of water, which he calls self, and respected wherever it is known. the unknown lake, terminating, as he was The meeting of the explorer and his deliv. assured by the natives, in extensive reedy erer near the banks of the Tanganyika swamps, which he persuaded himself must Lake is characteristic of British coolness in the end join the Bahr-el-Gazal.

and daring. Informed by a servant of the Both Captain Grant and Dr. Beke have approach of a white man, Livingstone adwritten letters to the Times, in which they vanced to meet him, and, at the head of a maintain that Dr. Livingstone's theory is small caravan, beheld the stars and stripes impossible. An eminent German botanist, flaunting in the African breeze. He was Dr. Schweinfurth, has discovered, they say, therefore not left to conjecture from what the source of that river in five degrees north quarter his deliverance was approaching. latitude. But are they or the German bot- He is not one of those who care on which anist quite sure that the Bahr-el-Gazal has side of the Atlantic an Englishman is born, but one source ? May it not, like the or whether he happens to be called an Bahr-el-Abiad, have many springs ? so that, American or a Scotchman; it is enough without disparaging the botanist's testi- that he is one of the leading race among mony, we may believe in the practicability mankind, which he feels himself also to be. of conducting the waters of the Lualaba The communications of Livingstone himinto the Bahr-el-Gazal. But here Dr. Beke self to the Foreign Office, his letters to the interposes another obstacle, which he con- New York Herali, and those of Mr. Stansiders insurmountable: the river Uelle tra. ley, giving an account of his proceedings verses, he affirms, the line of march which in Africa, have made the public familiar the Lualaba must follow in its attempt to with the leading facts of the case; it is not unite its forces with those of the western with these, therefore, that we have to deal, branch of the Nile. But with all due re- but with some important questions, geospect for the science of travellers whether graphical and physiological, arising out of at home or abroad, we have less faith than them. Dr. Livingstone is a man of warm Dr. Beke in the astronomical observations and grateful feelings-emotional, though by which the latitude and longitude of new not demonstrative ; and as he has received places and heads of rivers are often deter- numerous benefits from the Africans of the mined. The Uelle may follow its occiden- interior, he is naturally disposed to think tal track in peace, and yet leave room for "kindly and judge favorably of them. But the north-eastern course of the Lualaba. kindness is one thing, and science another, However, as, from all these conflicting Men and women with whom he has for years maintained friendly relations, can come together to make peace with certain hardly appear to him in the same light in Arabs who had burned their chief town, which they would be viewed by a new and and I am certain one could not see more impartial observer. He tells us himself, finely formed intellectual heads in any asthat after living for a while among black sembly in London or Paris, and the faces people, you cease to be conscious that they and forms correspond with the finely shapare black; as by the same metamorphosis ed heads.' The men being fashioned after of feeling, you cease to be conscious that this type, we naturally inquire what sort of ugly people are ugly. Men who marry persons are their helpmates ? Are they plain women, if they happen to be gifted also finely formed, with intellectual heads with a loving disposition, soon forget the and elegantly proportioned bodies ? Dr. want of symmetry in their features, or of Livingstone replies : 'Many of the women proportion in their figure, and, misled by were very pretty, and, like all ladies, would the force of expression, absolutely regard have been much prettier if they had only them as beautitul. It seems to us that, let themselves alone. Fortunately, the under some such influence as this, Dr. dears could not change their charming Livingstone has been betrayed into the en- black eyes, beautiful foreheads, nicely tertaining of a far more favorable opinion rounded limbs, well shaped forms, and of the structure and appearance of the small hands and feet.' Further on, he Manyema, for example, whom he himself adds: “Cazembé's queen would be esteemdescribes as ruthless cannibals, than a phy- ed a real beauty, either in London, Paris, siognomist would consider defensible. or New York. In a village of Upper Some travellers have said that the negroes Egypt, we saw one black beauty with feapity us because we are white, and possibly tures as regular as those of a Grecian also because our heads are not woolly. statue, and hair long and flexible as that of There is no accounting for tastes; but a Greek or English woman. Inquiring among the multitudes of black pecple whom whence she came, it appeared that no one we have seen and known, no .example has could tell—somewhere from the interior, occurred of an individual who preferred the was the reply, but from what part of the intenegro countenance to that of the European. rior, it was impossible to learn. She had We are consequently disposed to demur to come huddled among a multitude of cap Dr. Livingstone's theory of the physique of tive negresses, whom she regarded with as Central Africans, whom he looks upon as much scorn as if she had been an Iapetian superior in many respects to our own coun- of the purest blood. Could she have been trymen, especially such as have applied brought from Manyema ? The complexthemselves to physiological studies. ion decided in the negative. They, as

Six years of familiarity with thick lus- Livingstone assures us, are of a rich warm cious lips,' and locks which a poodle might brown color-she was as black as ebony. envy, have sometimes led him to view us, Leaving this question unsolved, we follow descendants of the Vikings and Gauls, from Dr. Livingstone in his speculations on the a comic point of view. For instance, in original type of the negro, which, with Winthe following passage: 'If a comparison wood Reade, he is inclined to discover in were instituted, and Manyema taken at the ancient Egyptian. Here dogmatism random, placed opposite, say, the members would be peculiarly out of place, since inof the Anthropological Society of London, vestigation has not yet revealed to us who clad like them in kilts of grass-cloth, I the ancient Egyptians were. should like to take my place alongside the graphers and philosophers of antiquity Manyema, on the principle of preferring were of opinion that Africa commenced the company

of

my betters—the philoso- west of the Nile, at the line which sepaphers would look wofully scraggy. But rates the cultivated country from the Desert. though the 'inferior race,' as we compas- The Egyptians, therefore, in their view, sionately call them, have finely formed heads were Asiatics, probably of Semitic origin, and often handsome features, they are un- and closely allied to the Phænicians and doubtedly cannibals. Elsewhere, reason- Carthaginians. To study their monuments ing in the same vein, he says: “I happened carefully, and to behold in them indicato be present when all the head men of the tions of a physiological affinity with the great chief, Insama, who lives west African races, we hold to be impossible. of the south end of the Tanganyika, had Instead of round, they have almond-shaped

The geo

eyes, with lips rather thin than thick, slen- African. The Manyema women, Dr. Liv• der figures, and long, flexible hair. The ingstone says, keep aloof from the hideous

nose is not depressed, as Winwood Reade banquets of the men; but in the West Insupposes, but straight, like that of the dia Islands, more especially in Hayti, it is Arabs. Occasionally, mummies have been the women who take the lead in the pracfound with red hair; and from among tice of cannibalism, which they carry to its such individuals, victims were occasionally most shocking excess, by devouring their selected, and sacrificed to Typhon. Their own children. How barbarous nations opinions, their rites, their ceremonies, their are to be civilised, seems not yet to have philosophy, their religion, were almost been discovered in modern times. Dr. identical with those of the Phænicians, and Livingstone describes the result of his own never suggest to a philosophical student researches as the rediscovery of facts well the slightest trace of African origin. One known to antiquity; and it would be well of the least explicable problems in the for us if we could rediscover the methods science of ethnology is that repugnance to by which the Greeks and Romans civilised civilisation, or absolute incapacity to profit the races among whom they planted coloby its teaching, which, from the beginning nies. When modern Europeans settle in the of time, has characterised the black races. midst of savages, they immediately comAs far as we can discover, they have al- mence the process of extermination, which ways been cannibals; while the masses of they generally complete in a period more the population have as invariably been or less protracted; and when they fail, it slaves, whether at home or abroad. An is only when the multitudes with whom old Greek poet divided mankind into they have to deal are vastly too numerous three classes--one consisting of men who to be cut off. The Red Indians of North could discover truth for themselves; a America have dwindled from fifteen second, of men who could not discover it or sixteen millions to about a million and for themselves, but could accept it when it a half, and will soon disappear altogether. had been discovered by others; and a The natives of Newfoundland have long third, who could neither do the one nor ago retreated to the “happy huntingthe other—whom, in his rough way of grounds,' speaking, he called wretches, without use

Where slaves once more their native land behold, or value.' We would not apply this lan

No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold. guage to the black races, nor perhaps would the old poet, if he were required to So, again, in Tasmania, not a trace redeliver his opinion in prose;

but the fact is mains of its once vigorous and numerous certain, that while the nations of Semitic population ; the black race is fast dying and Iapetian origin have invented a civi. out in Australa, the cannibal in New Zealisation for themselves, the Africans have land, and if we do not extirpate the Hinremained from time immemorial unimprov- dus and Mohammedans of India, it is beed, and apparently unimprovable, at least cause the effort exceeds our strength. Were beyond a certain point. When Dr. Liv- it not for this phenomenon, we should exingstone returns to this country, and places ceedingly regret that conquest and annexhis matured views before the world, we are ation were not the result of the Abyssinian persuaded he will introduce many great Once firmly planted in those highmodifications into his ethnological theory. lands, and opening commercial relations No one knows better than he that numer- with the Africans of the interior, the proous efforts have been vainly made to dif- bability is that we should have exerted as fuse the light of knowledge among the beneficial an influence on their minds and African populations by the Egyptians, manners as they are capable of receiving. Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Persians, When Cazembé-the beauty of whose Greeks, Romans, and Arabs. But the head queen has been above spoken of-had conof the African has proved impenetrable to versed with Dr. Livingstone, he said that the darts of enlightenment, whether social, from the first specimen of the English he moral, or religious. Nothing can be more had seen, he liked them, and evinced his completely removed from the ethical system liking by treating the traveller with much of civilised mankind than the practice of consideration. He might not have liked cannibalism, which, nevertheless, appears to them so well, had his country become a be not naturally repugnant to the interior province of our colonial empire. Commerce, however, quietly insinuates into bar- ored, have straight noses, and are finely barous populations the good which con- formed. They are keen traders, and look quest endeavors to force upon them. The on the market as a great institution; to merchant, with a string of blue beads in haggle and joke, and laugh and cheat, seem his hand, is often more potent than a dra- the enjoyments of life.' The population, goon with his sword. The women befriend especially west of the river, is prodigiously the bringer of beads, and the persons whom large. • Near Lomame, the Bakuss or Bathey befriend are generally able to effect koons cultivate coffee, and drink it highly much among savages. Had Abyssinia be- scented with vanilla. Food of all kinds is come the receptacle of all such articles of extremely abundant and cheap.' HereEuropean manufacture as would be adapt- after, when Dr. Livingstone comes to ared to the tastes of the natives, many of which range his materials, draw inferences from they have never yet beheld, a peaceable pas- his own statements, and estimate the value sage would be readily granted through their of different facts, he will doubtless be able country to every Englishman. The only to paint a consistent picture of the Central races who would have had cause to regret our Africans, who contrast favorably, as far at close vicinity would have been those of the least morals are concerned, with the halfelephant and lion, whom we should cer- caste Arabs—I mean in Dr. Livingstone's tainly have destroyed in a comparatively opinion. In everything which distinguishes short space of time. The existence of the man from man they are as inferior to the real lion in any country is an indubitable proof Arab as the Chinese is to the Englishman. of a low state of civilisation; he had already Their superstitions are the lowest and most disappeared from Greece in mythical times; grovelling prevalent among the human race. in Persia and in the Nedjed, as well as in The least benighted among them are ManiIndia, he maintained his ground to our own chæans of the rudest stainp, that is, have day; but he has now become extinct in conceived some idea of a good spirit and a Asia as well as in Europe; and had we bad one, and point out a hot spring in one planted ourselves firmly in Central Africa, of their valleys as coming up directly from

war.

we have long done in the south, the quarters of the latter. Contrast with lions' skins would have become a scarce these notions the grand simple creed of article in the markets of the world.

the Muslims—La illah il Ullah— There is The necessity of our advent among the no God but God,' the words in which they cannibals of Manyema is clearly shown by express their belief in the unity of the Dimany passages in Dr. Livingstone's letters. vine essence. A few years ago, there The natives are not without industry; they sprang up a sort of revival among the cultivate the soil largely, and have carried Arabs of Arabia Proper, who burst into the useful arts so far as to be able to smelt Africa with a comparatively small number iron and copper; yet they have made but of conqu_ring bands, and swept everything small progress in the affairs of social life. before them almost as far south as our * There is not a single great chief in all settlements ; upon which the English Manyema-no matter what name the dif- bishop of the Cape observed, that he ferent divisions of people bear—Manyema, thought it matter of congratulation that the Balegga, Babire, Bazire, Bakoos—there is truths of el Islam were thus substituted for no political cohesion, not one king or king- the grovelling fetishism of the blacks But dom. Each head man is independent of this movement from the East soon slackenevery other.'

The women play a distin- ed, and has left no other trace than increasguished part in the business of these coun- ed appetite for marauding and kidnapping tries; they dive for oysters, and are expert among the inferior races, for Dr. Livingin many other kinds of industry. The prin- stone must admit that the people which cipal part of the trade is in their hands. invariably succumbs to another people are

Markets are held at stated times, and the certainly their inferiors. women attend them in large numbers,

[Chambers's Journal. dressed in their best. They are light-col

as

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