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NAVAL oBSERVATORY. 61
the regular sum; and from this time on regular yearly sums were granted for support and improvements.
The following year, 1849, the generous appropriation of $218,200 was .made for the support of the Academy. The largest appropriation made by Congress was $358,400, in 1866. This was for the purpose of purchasing additional grounds and erecting new buildings at the close of the War. The appropriation from that year on was gradually lessened until 1869–70, when it was $182,500. The appropriation for the sixteen years following this date averaged $175,000 a year. The total general appropriation made by Congress for the support of the Naval Academy, down to the year 1886, inclusive, amounted to over five million dollars.
Soon after the establishment of this school in 1845, the Navy Department transferred to it a number of books which had been in use in the navy-yards and men-of-war. This formed the nucleus of the present library. Since 1852 additions have been constantly made by allowing a yearly sum out of the congressional appropriations for contingent expenses of the Naval Academy.
The increase in the library by decades has been as follows: December 31, 1855, 4,751 volumes; December 31, 1865, 9,593 volumes; December 31, 1875, 17,678 volumes."
The total amount expended upon the library is estimated at $35,180.”
THE UNITED STATES NAVAL OBSERVATORY.
The United States Naval Observatory, though not situated at AnInapolis, will be considered under this head, on account of its close cooperation with the Naval Academy. The object of its establishment was to encourage scientific pursuits in lines that would especially benefit commerce and navigation. As early as 1810 Congress was memorialized to establish a national observatory, the object urged at the time being the location of a first meridian in the United States. This petition was followed by numerous others; but nothing tangible was secured until 1830, when a bureau for the care of instruments and charts of the Navy was established through the influence of Lieut. L. M. Goldsborough. In 1833 Lieutenant Goldsborough was succeeded by Lieutenant Meeks, of the United States Navy, who erected at his own expense an observatory sixteen feet square.
A bill was passed by Congress, approved August 31, 1842, author. izing the Secretary of the Navy to contract for the building of a house for the charts and instruments of the Navy on a plan not exceeding in cost twenty-five thousand dollars. In June, 1871, Congress authorized
* Soley: History of the Naval Academy, 135, *Ibid., 136.
the superintendent of the observatory to contract for a large refractor at a cost not exceeding fifty thousand dollars. In the following year Congress appropriated fifty thousand dollars for this purpose, and one hundred thousand dollars more for the erection of a tower and dome for this instrument.
Regular sums were set apart out of the Navy appropriation from time to time for the support of the Naval Observatory. In 1860, $59,3601 were granted for its support; $65,9002 in 1871 (these estimates include the expenses in getting out the Nautical Almanac for these years); and in 1880, $22,5003 (for observatory alone).
Along with the observatory has grown up a special library, partly through gifts and donations and partly through appropriations. In 1881 the observatory library numbered eighty-five thousand volumes.
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.
EARLY HISTORY OF THE LIBRARY.
The National Library, or Library of Congress, was established in 1800, a short time before the seat of government was changed to Washington. It had its origin in the needs and demand of Congress for books and information. Previous to 1800, when the National Legislature assembled at Philadelphia, it had no library of its own, but was dependent upon private libraries of the different members and the gratuitous use of books tendered by the Library Company of Philadelphia.
The first appropriation made by Congress for the purchase of books was on the 24th of April, 1800. Under “An act to make further provisions for the removal and accommodation of the Government of the United States” the sum of five thousand dollars was appropriated for the purchase of such books as might be necessary for the use of Congress at the city of Washington, and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them and placing them therein.* The books, pamphlets, maps, etc., purchased in pursuance of this act form the nucleus of the Congressional Library.
A reports submitted to the House December 21, 1801, by John Randolph, of Virginia, chairman of the committee appointed to take into consideration the care of books, formed the basis of the first systematic statute organizing the Library of Congress. This act 6 located the Library of Congress, created the office of librarian, and vested his ap. pointment in the President of the United States, placed the regulation of the library under the supervision of the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House, and further, regulated the taking of books
See Ex. Doc. for 1860. ? Ibid., 1871.
4 Laws of United States, V, 376.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.
from the library. The expenditure of funds for books was placed under the direction of a joint committee consisting of three members from each House.
In 1814, when the Capitol was burned, the library, consisting then of three thousand volumes, was entirely consumed with it.
The first movement toward the starting of a new library was made by Thomas Jefferson, then in retirement at Monticello. While President he had taken deep interest in the establishment of the old library, and a few months after it was destroyed he made the generous offer of his own private library to Congress, at cost. Congress, after considering the matter, appropriated $23,950 for the purchase of this valuable collection numbering in all six thousand and seven hundred volumes.
The annual appropriation during these early years was one thousand dollars, but in 1818 the appropriation was raised to two thousand dollars ? per annum, and again raised to five thousand dollars 3 in 1824, at which amount it remained for twenty or thirty years.
The Library was removed in 1824 4 from the temporary brick building occupied by Congress to a room in the central Capitol building, still occupied as the central Library hall.
METHODS OF INCREASE.
There are five ways by which the Library of Congress increases regularly, viz, by deposits from the Smithsonian Institution, purchase, copyright, donation, and exchange.
APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS.
The Library continued to grow until, in 1855, it numbered fifty-five thousand volumes. In December of that year thirty-five thousand volumes were destroyed by fire. In the following year Congress appropriated $72,500 for the reconstruction of the Library rooms, and $75,000 for the immediate purchase of books. The regular appropriation of seven thousand dollars per annum, which had obtained for a number of years, was increased in 1861 to ten thousand dollars.
In 1866 the Library received a valuable accession in the shape of forty thousand volumes (principally scientific works) from the Smithsonian Institution. Since then deposits have been made from that source regularly each year.
An appropriation of one hundred thousand dollars was made by Congress in 1867 for the purchase of the Force Library, a collection of sixty thousand articles in books, pamphlets, etc. Smaller collections and special books are purchased each year with the funds regularly appi priated.
i American State Papers, Miscellaneous, I, 377.
3 Ibid., IV, 60.
By the copyright law of March 3, 1865, one copy (later two) of each publication for which the Government grants a copyright is required to be deposited in the Library of Congress. By an act of Congress approved July 8, 1870, the entire registry of copyrights within the United States, which was previously scattered all over the country in the offices of the clerks of the United States district courts, was transferred to the Library of Congress. The advantage gained by this change was important. It secured the advantage of one central office, where all works published throughout the country could be found ; and besides, from this time on the copyright fees were paid into the treasury instead of being absorbed, as they formerly were, by the clerical expenses of the offices of the district courts. Thus by this latter means a considerable sum is saved each year to the Library for the purchase of books and other regular expenses. Some idea of the addition of books to the Library by means of the copyright system, as well as the income through copyright fees, may be received from the following table :
The Law Library of Congress, though located in a different room, is under the charge of the Librarian of Congress and subject substantially to the same regulations as the general Library. This Library numbered thirty-five thousand volumes in 1876.
GROWTH OF LIBRARY.
During the period 1860–84 the Library of Congress has increased more than eightfold. In 1860 it contained 63,000 volumes ; in 1866, 100,000; in 1872, 246,000; in 1878, 374,022; and in 1884, 513,441.2
THE NATIONAL MUSEUM AND SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.
There is perhaps no more striking example of the encouragement of learning by a state than that presented by the history of the Nationa.
1 Librarian's Reports in Senate documents, 1870–79.
THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. - 65
Museum at Washington. In giving assistance to this generally known though not well known institution, the Government has aided the cause of education and the spreading of universal knowledge in a most catholic manner. - -
THE IMPORTANCE OF MUSEUMS IN EDUCATION.
As the late Prof. Joseph Henry well remarked, “there is scarcely any subject connected with science and education to which more attention is given at the present day than that of collections of objects of nature and art known under the general denomination of museums. This arises from their growing importance as aids to scientific investigation and instruction.”
It is generally conceded that the primary object of a museum is to furnish scholars with materials with which to work; but the Museum at Washington has been a means of instruction to the people at large and a great national educator. It has not only furnished the means for the “increase and diffusion of knowledge among men” as individuals, but it has been the strong support and ally of learned societies, the example and pattern to museums throughout the several States and foreign countries, and, through the Smithsonian agency, a promoter of knowledge throughout the world.” One can not come from a visit to the average college or university museum where objects are buried, or where the museum has been a receptacle for all sorts of unclassified material which found little place elsewhere, and enter the National Museum without being impressed with a new idea of the true use of a museum. It is more than a storehouse; it is learning illustrated and classified; or, to use Professor Goode's definition, “a museum is a carefully selected series of labels, each illustrated by a specimen.” Under the influence of such ideas as this and the liberal views of men like Professors Henry, Baird, and Langley, the museums throughout the country are beginning to have a new appearance and effect a new work.
Great as has been the work of the National Museum already, its opportunities at the present and for the future in forwarding the interests of education are being multiplied each day. While scientific research continues, while public lectures are given, while the system of exchanges goes on, and questions are answered citizens throughout the United States, from three hundred to three hundred and fifty thou
1 Smithsonian Report, 1870, Ibid., 1885, 5.
* “Not only are collections sent to other institutions for study, but there are always from ten to twenty specialists at work in the building availing themselves of the hospitalities of the establishment. At present the entire natural history collections of the National Museum of Mexico are here under the charge of two principal naturalists of that country.” Dr. G. Brown Goode in The Chautauquan, 1885. A suggestive article by Dr. Goode, on “Museum History and Museums of History,” appears in the Papers of the American Historical Association, vol. iii, 497-519.
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