Imágenes de páginas

X School Daily Program

Y School
Daily Program



One Third X School One Third X School Classes in 24 Class One Third X School

8 Classes

8 Classes SCHOOL Rooms, 210' for 8 Classes

in HOURS Arithmetic, Lang.


Playground, Gym- Manual Training. uage, History and



Science, Music,

Swimming Pools Library, Shops
8.30-9.20 Grades 1 to 8

Grades 6, 7, 8 Grades 1, 2 Grades 3, 4, 5.

Entire X School at Luncheon
12.00 - 1.00 Grades 1 to 8
1.00 - 1.50

Grades 1, 2 Grades 3, 4, 5 Grades 6, 7, 8
2.40 - 3.30

3, 4, 5 1, 2

6, 7, 8 3.30 - 5.00

6, 7, 81


Entire X School.24

1 to 8 10.10-11.00

1 to 8 1.50 - 2.40

Entire Y School, 24

One-Third Y School One Third Y School Classes in 24 Class One-Third Y School

8 Classes

8 Classes SCHOOL Rooms, 210' for 8 Classes

HOURS Arithmetic, Lang.


Playground, Gym- Manual Training. uage, History and



Science, Music,

Swimming Pools Library, Shops

Grades 3, 4, 5 Grades 1, 2 Grades 6, 7, 8

1, 2 Grades 3, 4, 5 6,7,8
10.10-11.00 Grades 1 to 8
11.00-12.00 1 to 8
12.00. 1.00

Entire Y School at Luncheon
1.00 - 1.50

Grades 6, 7, 8 Grades 1, 2 Grades 3, 4, 5
1.50 - 2.40 Grades 1 to 8)
2.40 - 3.30 1 to 8
3.30 - 5.00

Grades 6, 7, 8


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It is necessary to departmentalize only one-third of the classes. In the academic work of both schools 24 teachers are required for eight periods, a total of 192 teaching periods. Four teachers are required for the auditorium for 6 periods, a total of 24 teaching periods. The academic work and the auditorium thus require 216 teaching periods. Since one teacher teaches 6 periods during the five hour school day, 36 teachers will be required to teach the 216. periods of the academic and the auditorium work of both schools.

Many teachers have classes in both schools. . The two duplicate
schools are hardly apparent in actual operation and principals con-
sider the two schools one organization.

When you have enough accessories in the form of shops, laborator-
ies, studios, gymnasiums, playgrounds, swimming pools, libraries, au-
ditoriums, etc., to accommodate one-half of the school while the
other half is in class rooms.-you may use half of your class room, or
an equivalent cost, for the accessories.

The above daily programs are only schedules for rotating classes
between regular class rooms and accessory facilities. Children can-
not use accessory facilities unless they get out of the straight jacket
school seats and into places where the special facilities are.

Pupils and teachers have the same time in both schools. Both X
and Ý Schools use the same facilities. Neither school could use any
facility any more, if other school were not there. Both schools have
better facilities every hour of the day because both schools are there.
You can afford better schools when you do not need so many.

Grades 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 have six hours in school. Grades 6, 7 and 8
have six hours in school and may remain for after school play, 3:30-

Teachers have five and one half hours for class work and assembly
of pupils.

By departmentalizing work in both schools 36 teachers do all the
work in Academic and. Auditorium departments, 4 take charge of
the playground and gymnasiums, and 11 do the library, science,
music and shop work. Fifty-one teachers are thus required for a 48
class school. The 51 teachers include the librarian, the playground
attendants and the special teachers. Supervisors are not needed.

Student Assistants are used by all teachers in all departments of the
school, thus securing a very desirable type of vocational training and
at the same time relieving teachers.

Charts illustrating the Gary plan, shown in the Gary exhibit. The Gary system means practically two schools in one, schools “X” and “Y” alternat

ing in the use of the different parts of the school plant.

Statistics, 1913–14Industrial work only:
Value of equipment--

$23, 000 Supplies for year--

$13, 500 Salaries paid instructors

15, 345

$28, 845 Value of productive output_

$27, 875 Cost for specialized shopwork.

$970 Student-hours of instruction..

71, 511 Cost per student-hour-

$0.014 Industrial work in the crening schools:

All shops available two nights a week for adults.
Some shops in use four nights a week.
Night students encouraged to take mechanical drawing, science, and mathe-

matics related to their daywork, rather than shopwork. Shop practice valuable for experience which can not be had in their

Seventy-five per cent of enrollment are men from industries.

Cost of combined night school work 10 per cent of cost of day school.
Average attendance, industrial evening schools:
Mechanical drawing (three centers) --

40 Shop and advanced mathematics (three centers)

60 Industrial science (two centers) -

25 Applied electricity (two centers) Automobile theory and repair for three months only (one center) - 23 Printing (two centers).

20 Plumbing (two centers).

1.5 Machine shop (one center).

10 Pattern making (one center)

Irregular. Foundry practice (one center)

Irregular. Forging (one center)---

Irregular. Sheet-metal work (one center)

Irregular. Sewing, cooking, millinery, arts and crafts, and free-hand drawing have

large attendance, but more from social and recreation than industrial

motive (five centers). Cost of industrial training, night school:

Student-hour cost ranges from 8 to 20 cents; not allowed to exceed 20 cents. Cost of plant: Building

$300, 000 Equipment

25, 000 Site and playground

75,000 Per capita cost of plant

150 Per capita cost: Instruction

$3.00 Operation

. 30 Maintenance




3. 90 Average number of students per teacher

35 The following is a summary of the “ claims ” made for the Gary plan:

What we ciaim for the Gary plan in industrial education:

Economical, efficient, vocational guidance for all.
Industrial training when needed, and by whom needed.
Makes possible increased facilities for grades, high schools, and continua-

tion schools. Keeps children in school longer. Gratifies the child's desire which every

12 to 14 year old boy has for a “real job.” Directs more students into the technical institutes, and sends others into

life with a better understanding of industrial work. Develops a spirit of democracy on part of high-school students. Experience has proved that graduates stand in front rank on college

entrance requirements. That the whole plant can be used all the time for all the people.


ARGENTINA. The education exhibit of Argentina in the Palace of Education consisted of numbers of attractive screens containing views of primary, secondary, and technical schools, and higher institutions of learning, together with legends and charts setting forth the present development of public instruction in Argentina, with special reference to outdoor activities for school hygiene. Charts called attention to the fact that “Primary instruction is compulsory and free in Argentina for all children from 6 to 14 years of age.” Private schools are under the supervision of the national education board. All public schools are secular. The Federal Government of Argentina spends for its normal, secondary, and special schools $10,528,980, or $1.55 per capita.

One chart illustrated the training of teachers, through regular normal schools, normal schools for physical training, normal schools for secondary education, pedagogical departments of universities, and normal schools for the teaching of modern languages. The latter type of school is described as an institution“ distinctly Argentinian,” where “all languages are taught in their own tongue for the sake of practice." Entrance requirements are the same as for the regular normal schools, and the graduates teach modern languages in secondary schools. The growth in provision for teacher training during the past 20 years was shown, especially with reference to primary teachers: In 1894 there were 35 schools, 1,316 students, and a total expenditure of $816,500; in 1914 there were 70 schools, 8,974 students, and a total expenditure of $1,270,000.

The following summary is from a special pamphlet prepared by the department of education of Argentina for distribution at the exposition:


Primary education in Argentina owes its present state of development to Domingo F. Sarmiento, who was a personal friend and student of Horace Mann.

Primary education in the Provinces (States) of Argentina is the concern of State authorities, who work in harmony with the educational bodies of its cities, towns, and villages. The exception to this consists in the control by the national board of eclucation of the primary schools of the Federal city of Buenos Aires and such other exceptions as will be mentioned further on.

1 Other nations gave attention to education in the special buildings housing their official exhibits. Thus the French pavilion contained an exhibit of colored charts showing the growth of the schools of Paris since 1879.

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