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It thus appears that the total white and free colored population of the • United States, in 1850, amounted to 19,987,763 persons—19,553,268 of whom were white, 434,495 colored, 17,708,316 natives, 2,244,774 foreigners, and 34,673 whose birth-place was unknown. Of the natives, 17,279,929 were white, and 428,387 colored; of the foreigners, 2,240,684 were white, and 4,090 colored; and of unknown birth, 32,655 were white, and 2,018 colored. This white and free colored population, it appears, further, was thus distributed in the slave-holding and non-slave-holding States and Territories :
SLAVE STATES. - AGGREGATE. Native born,..........
..17,279,929 Foreign,...... ...................1,924,011 .....................316,673..
.. 8,702........... ....32,655 Total,... .15,278,614......... .6,547,993.
The proportion of foreign to white and free colored native, in different sections of the country, may be stated to have been as follows, in 1850 : Eastern States,....
...........12.65 per cent
..12.75 Of the native white population, 13,103,650 still resided in, and 4,176,225 resided out of the States in which they were born. Connecticut, South Carolina and Vermont, had more than half as many native born residing in other States, as remained at home; Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky and Tennessee, nearly one-balf, and Massachusetts, New Jersey and Maryland, about one-third. No less than 726,450 persons were living in slave-holding States, who were natives of non-slave-holding States, and 232,112 persons living in non-slave-holding States, who were natives of slave-holding States. Whilst more than one-fourth of the free persons born in the Southern States had left those States for other parts of the Union, only one-sixth had left the Eastern and Middle States, about onetenth the Southwestern, and one-fortieth the Northwestern and the Territories. The following table, taken from the Census of 1850, will explain this fact more fully :
Of the foreign white population, numbering 2,240,535 persons, in the United States, in 1850, there were from Ireland 961,719, being over forty-two per cent. of the whole number;, from Germany, 583,774, being over one-fourth of the whole number; and from England, 278,675, being near one-eighth of the whole number. The Irish, German, and English, it will be thus seen, constituted considerably over two-thirds of the entire foreign population. Of the remainder, 147,711 were from British America ; 70,550 from Scotland; 54,069 from France ; 29,868 from Wales ; 13,358 from Switzerland ; 13,317 from Mexico; 12,678 from Norway ; 9,848 from Holland ; 5,772 from the West India Islands; 3,645 from Italy ; 3,559 from Sweden; 3,113 from Spain ; 1,838 from Denmark; 1,543 from South America ; 1,414 from Russia ; 1,313 from Belgium; 1,274 from Portugal; 946 from Austria; 758 from China ; 588 from the Sandwich Islands ; 141 from Central America ; 106 from Turkey ; 86 from Greece ; 34 from Sardinia ; and the balance from other countries,
and unknown. Of the immigrants who arrived in 1851 and '52, there were 278,793 Irish; 188,009 German; 59,828 English; 14,942 Scotch ; 14,842 French ; 10,954 Swiss; 4,720 Welsh ; 4,001 Norwegian ; 3,012 Hollanders; 2,938 Swedes ; 976 Italians; 840 West Indian ; 557 Belgians; 728 Spaniards; 341 South American ; 328 Poles; and the remainder in small numbers from other countries. During the first six months of 1855, there arrived at New York 69,476 immigrants, 22,801 of whom were Irish, and 26,824 German.
But few of the Irish appear to be engaged in agricultural pursuits ; they are chiefly in the commercial and manufacturing States. Of the 961,719 in the country in 1850, there then were 857,345 residents in the free States and Territories, being about 88 per cent. of the whole number; and of those there were 196,609 in the manufacturing States of New England, being 23 per cent. of the number in the free States. In the commercial and manufacturing States of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, there were 525,926, being within a fraction over 61 per cent. of the number in the free States, and leaving but 134,810 scattered over the agricultural States and Territories of the West and Northwest, being only about 16 per cent. of the number in the free States and Territories, and the greater portion of those were probably engaged as laborers on canals and railroads. Of those in the slave States, numbering 104,374, there were 70,200 in the States of Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri and Virginia, being 69 per cent. of those in the slave States.
So with the English; they, too, were mainly in the Eastern, Middle and Northwestern States. Only 25,575 of the whole number were in the slave States, 19,211 of whom were in the States of Virginia, Maryland, Louisiana, Missouri, Kentucky and Texas. Those in the free States numbered 253,100, of which number 31,240 were in the New England States, being 12 per cent. of the number in the free States; 134,245 in the Middle States of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, being 53 per cent. ; 87,615 in the Western and Northwestern States, being only 35 per cent., of which number 25,660 were alone in Ohio,
The Germans were found in greater numbers in the agricultural States, and but comparatively few of them in New England. Of the number in the country, 456,439 were in the non-slave-holding States, and only 127,335 in the slave States. Of those in the free States, only about 7,000 were in the six New England States, being but one out of every sixty-six of their number in the free States. In the Middle States of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, there were 210,360, being over 46 per cent. of the number in the free States; in New York alone, there were 120,609, being near one-fourth ; and in the Western and Northwestern States and Territories about 240,000, being over 50 per cent., of which 112,022 were in Ohio. Of the 127,335 in the slave States,