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Fort Granby on the confines of Pennsylvania, was surprised 1756. by a party of French and Indians, who made the garrison prisoners. Instead of scalping the captives, they loaded them with Fort Gran. flour, and drove them into captivity. The Indians on the Ohio by surhaving killed above 1000 of the inhabitants of the western frontiers, were soon chastised with military vengeance. Colonel Armstrong, with a party of 280 provincials, marched from Fort Shirley, which had been built on the Juniata river, about 150 miles west of Philadelphia, to Kittaning, an Indian town, the Sept. 8. rendezvous of those murdering Indians, and destroyed it. Cap- Kittaning tain Jacobs, the Indian Chief, defended himself through loop destro holes of his log house. The Indians refusing the quarter which was offered them, colonel Armstrong ordered their houses to be set on fire; and many of the Indians were suffocated and burnt; others were shot in attempting to reach the river. The Indian captain, his squaw, and a boy called the King's Son, were shot as they were getting out of the window, and were all scalped. It was computed, that between 30 and 40 Indians were destroyed. Eleven English prisoners were released.

The governor of Pennsylvania concluded a treaty of peace Indian with the Delaware Indians inhabiting the borders of the Susque-treaty. hanna, and secured the friendship and alliance of the Catawbas. A fort was built at Winchester, called Fort Loudoun; and some Cherokees joined the garrison of Fort Cumberland.3

A printing press was erected at Portsmouth, by Daniel Fowle, Printing in who now commenced the publication of the New Hampshire N. Hamp. Gazette.4

Josiah Willard, secretary of the province of Massachusetts, J. Willard died, in the 76th year of his age.5


rive at


1757. Council .it

In the month of January a council was holden at Boston, Boston. composed of lord Loudoun and the governors of the New

England provinces and of Nova Scotia. At this council his lordship proposed, that New England should raise 4000 men for the ensuing campaign ; and that requisitions proportionably large should be made on New York and New Jersey. The requisitions were complied with ; and his lordship found himself, in the

spring, at the head of a very considerable army. Admiral HolFresh

bourn arriving in the beginning of July at Halifax with a powertroops are ful squadron, and a reinforcement of 5000 British troops under Halifax.

George viscount Howe; lord Loudoun on the 6th of the same month sailed from New York with 6000 regulars, to join those

troops at the place of their arrival. Instead of the complex Proiect to operations heretofore proposed, his lordship limited his plan to a reduce Lou- single object. Leaving the posts on the lakes strongly garrisoned,

he determined to direct his whole disposable force against Louisbourg; and Halifax had, for this reason, been fixed on as the place of rendezvous for the fleet and army destined for the expedition. After the forces were collected at Halifax, information was received, that a French fleet had lately sailed from Brest ; that Louisbourg was garrisoned by 6000 regulars, exclusive of provincials; and that it was also defended by 17 line of battle ships, which were moored in the harbour. There being no hope of success against so formidable a force, the enter

prise was deferred to the next year; the general and admiral on Expedition deferred. the last of August proceeded to New York; and the provincials

were dismissed. Mohtcalm The marquis de Montcalm, availing himself of the absence of comes with the principal part of the British force, advanced with an army

of 9000 men, and laid siege to Fort William Henry. The L. George.

garrison at this fort consisted of between 2000 and 3000 regulars, and its fortifications were strong and in very good order. For the farther security of this important post, general Webb was stationed at Fort Edward with an army of 4000 men. The French commander, however, urged his approaches with such vigour, that, within six days after the investment of the fort, colonel Monroe, the commandant, after a spirited resistance,

an army to

and Allen, Biog. and Dr. Sewall's and Mr. Prince's Sermons on the occasion of his death. 1 The apportionment, made by lord Loudoun for New England, was : To Massachusetts . . 1800 men To Rhode Island ... 450 Connecticut ... 1400

New Hampshire , . 350 The quota of Massachusetts is less than its proportion would have been, but for the troops of that colony employed on the frontiers and in the marine service.



ral court

surrendered by capitulation. The garrison was to be allowed 1757. the honours of war, and to be protected against the Indians until within the reach of Fort Edward; but no sooner had the soldiers August 9.

Takes Fort left the place, than the Indians in the French army, disregarding the stipulation, fell upon them, and committed the most cruel Henry. outrages.

The general court of Massachusetts, informed by the governor Mass. genthat a regiment of Highlanders was expected in Boston, provided

“ jealous of barracks for the accommodation of 1000 men at Castle Island. their liber. This provision was made without a dereliction of the principles ties; of liberty, which no pretexts or emergencies could ever extort, from these representatives of a free people. The provision was declared to be made, not as an expense, which could " of right” be demanded of the inhabitants, but as an advance of money on the national account. An occurrence soon after putting the right to the test, a refusal was given by the Justices of the Peace to an application to quarter and billet some other expected troops, as provided by act of parliament. This refusal is presumed to have been on the principle, that the act did not extend to this country. It occasioned a short controversy with lord Loudoun, who'maintained such an extension of the parliamentary act, and peremptorily insisted on the right demanded. The general court, on this occasion, passed a law, which, lord Loudoun informed the governor by a letter, was short of his expectations.

" address the This letter the governor laid before the Assembly; and it was answered by an address to his excellency,“ in which the spirit of their forefathers seemed to revive.” They asserted, that the parts of the act of parliament, relating to this subject, did not extend to the Colonies and Plantations; stated, that they had

vernor ;

1 Minot, ii. 11-22. Marshall, i. 411–416. Mante, b. 2. Trumbull, U. S. c. 11. Smith, N. York, ii. c. 6. The British officers complained, that the troops were pillaged, and that the men were dragged out of the ranks and tomahawked, before the exertions of the marquis de Montcalm to restrain the savages were effectual. Carver [Travels, 132–136.] says, the captured troops were, by the capitulation, to be allowed covered waggons to transport their baggage to Fort Edward, and a guard to protect them; that the promised guard was not furnished: and that 1500 persons were either killed or made prisoners by the Indians. For the honour of humanity, and in justice to the French commander. whose virtues are acknowledged by his enemies. this account should not be admitted without demonstrative proof. Minot says: “ The breach of this capitulation, whether voluntary or unavoidable on the part of the French, was a most interesting subject of reproach at the time, and long continued to fill the British colonists with indignation and horror.” A great part of the prisoners, he observes, were pillaged and stripped, and many of them murdered by the savages; some reached Fort Edward in a scattering manner, and others returned again to the French. Dr. Belknap says: “ The Indians, who served in this expedition, on the promise of plunder, were enraged at the terms granted to the garrison; and, as they marched out unarmed, fell upon them, stripped them naked, and murdered all who made any resistance. The New Hampshire regi. ment, happening to be in the rear, felt the chief fury of the enemy. Out of two hundred, eighty were killed and taken.” Hist. N. Hamp. ii. 299.


1757. therefore enlarged the barracks at the Castle to accommodate

the number demanded, and passed a law for reuniting parties as near the act of parliament as the nature of the country and its settlements would admit; that such a law was necessary to give power to the magistrates, and that they were willing to make it,

when the troops were necessary for their protection and defence. and assert They, at the same time, asserted their rights, as Englishmen; and their rights. declared that, by the royal charter, the powers and privileges of

civil government were granted to them; that the enjoyment of these was their support under all burdens, and would animate them to resist an invading enemy to the last breath, as their loss or hazards would dispirit them. After conciliatory communications had mutually passed, there was the termination of a dispute, " which seemed to rise to haughtiness and asperity on one part,

and to zeal and independence on the other." Troops for The frontier settlements of all the colonies required protection. the fron.

Part of a battalion of Royal Americans, about 1000 of the Pennsylvania, 300 Maryland, and 600 Virginia provincials, commanded by colonel Stanwix, were ordered for the protection of the western frontiers; and part of a battalion of Royal Americans, commanded by colonel Bouquet, with three independent companies, and the colony troops, were to be employed for the same

purpose in Carolina. Sept. 24. The British fleet, while cruizing off Louisbourg, was surprised Violent

by a violent gale of wind, in which the whole of it narrowly escaped destruction. The Tilbury was driven ashore on the island of Cape Breton, and 225 of her men were drowned. The remainder of the crew were taken up by the French, and afterwards sent, under a flag of truce, to Halifax. The Newark drove into Halifax, aster throwing eight of her guns overboard. Others were driven to the same necessity, being, for the most part, dismasted. Admiral Holbourn, leaving only a small squadron at Halifax, made the best of his way, with as many ships as

he could collect, for England. 3 Assembly In January, the assembly of Pennsylvania voted a bill for of Pennsyl.

granting to his majesty the sum of £100,000 by a tax on all the

estates real and personal, and taxables, within the province. On Controver. submitting i to governor Denny for his sanction, he refused it. sy with the “ The proprietaries,” he observed in his message, “ are willing

their estates should be taxed in the manner that appears to them to be reasonable, and agreeable to the land tax acts of parliament in our mother country.” He stated, that “ his majesty's service, and the defence of this province, render it necessary to raise




1 Minot, ii. 24—30; PowNALL, Governor. 2 Mante, Hist. of the War, b. 2. 3 Ibid.


immediate supplies ;” and earnestly recommended it to the as- 1757. sembly to frame such a bill, as it was in his power to pass,

consistent with his honour and his engagements to the proprietaries.” The message was regarded as an invasion of the rights of the colonists; and “the representatives of the freemen of Pennsylvania, in general assembly met," remonstrated to the governor. In their spirited remonstrance they say: "We have, in the due exercise of our just rights by the royal and provincial charters, and the laws of this province, and as an English representative body, framed this bill consistent with those rights." Having assigned their reasons to sustain the remonstrance, they conclude it in these words: “We do, therefore, in the name of our most gracious sovereign, and in behalf of the distressed people we represent, unanimously DEMAND it of the governor as our RIGHT, that he give his assent to the bill we now present him, for granting to his majesty one hundred thousand pounds for the defence of this province, (and as it is a money-bill, without alteration or amendment, any instructions whatsoever from the proprietaries notwithstanding) as he will answer to the crown for all the consequences of his refusal at his peril.” This remonstrance produced no other effect upon the governor than of confirming his refusal, and of drawing from him a laboured justification, "grounded upon parliamentary usage in England, and the supposed hardship of taxing the unimproved lands of the proprietaries."

The governors of Pennsylvania thus adhering to their instruc- B. Franklin tions, not to assent to any tax bill that did not exempt the estates sent agent of the proprietaries, the assembly of that province sent Benjamin Franklin as an agent to London, to petition the king for redress. The subject was agitated before the privy council; and Mr. Franklin acceding to a proposal to enter under engagements that the assesments should be fair and equitable, a bill for levying a general tax, that had previously received the governor's assent, after the agent's departure from the province, was stamped with the royal approbation. “These disputes, by calling the energetic mind of Benjamin Franklin into a new field of inquiry, enlarged the sphere of his observation, and fitted him for those extraordinary services in which he acquired the greatest glory by contributing to that of his country.”

to London.

1 Franklin's Works, i. 178—190, and Hist. Review. The Remonstrance was signed by order of the house, “ISAAC NORRIS, speaker;" the composition is ascribed to Franklin by his biographer, who says, a resolution of the house of assembly " was digested in the form of a remonstrance, by Mr. Franklin, as the internal evidence of the language plainly demonstrates." While Franklin was engaged in negotiating with the proprietaries at London, he employed his leisure hours in drawing up a minute account of the province. He traced its history from its original settlement, with the various changes which it had progressively undergone in the form of its government. To him, as the result of this inves

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