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the year.

Tars, &c. of Great Wars, &c. of Continental Britain,

States of Europe. 1817. Revolutionary move

ments in Germany

and Sweden. Army of occupation

in France.

1818. War in India.

War between Spain British troops con- and her American

tinue in France. colonies. Assistance to the re- War in Turkey with volted colonies of the Wahabies. Spain ; Lord Coch- Disturbances at Conrane takes command stantinople. of the navy of the Quarrel between Bapatriots.

varia and Baden.

1819. War in India at the War between Spain cominencement of and her American

colonies. Assistance to the re- Serious disturbances volted colonies of

in Spain. Spain.

Insurrections in Tur

key.

1820. Lord Cochrane and a War between Spain

body of British sea- and her American men capture Valdi- colonies. via, and make an War between the expedition against Dutch and Sumatra. Lima.

Revolutions in Spain

and Portugal. Insurrections in Pied

mont and Naples. Revolt of Moldavia

and Wallachia.

1821. Conflicts in India. War between Spain Policy of Great Britain and her American

adverse to the Holy colonies. Alliance.

War between Turkey Assistance to the re- and Persia ; also

volted colonies of between Turkey and Spain.

Greece. Revolutionary move

ments in Spain and

Italy.
Austrian military ope-

rations in Italy.

1822. Assistance to the re- Turkey at war with

volted colonies of Persia and Greece. Spain.

Spain at war with her Quarrel with China. colonies.

French army marches

to the Pyrenees.

1823. Burmese War. War between Spain Imminent danger of and her colonies.

Wars, &c. of Great Wars, &c. of Continental. Britain.

States of Europe.

1824. Burmese War.

War between Turkey Ashantee War.

and Greece. Lord Byron's expedi- War between Spain

tion against Le- and the South Amepanto.

rican Republics. Recognition of the in- War between the

dependence of the Dutch and Celebes revolted colonies of and Sumatra. Spain.

1825. Burmese War.

War between Turkey Ashantee War.

and Greece. Siege of Bhurtpore. Dutch War with Java.

Insurrections in Spain.

1826. Burmese War.

War between Turkey Ashantee War.

and Greece. War in India.

War between Russia Expedition of British and Persia.

fleet and troops to Spain prepares for war Portugal.

with Portugal ; insurrections in both

countries.

1827. Rupture with Turkey. War between Russia Operations of British and Turkey.

army in Portugal. War between Turkey Dispute with Runjeet and Greece (asSingh.

sisted by the Great Powers).

Civil War in Spain.

1828. War with Turkey War between Russia British army in Por- and Turkey. tugal

Expedition of French

troops to Greece. Civil War in Spain

and Portugal. War between Naples

and Tripoli.

1829. Dispute with China. War between Russia

and Turkey. Russian invasion of

Circassia.

Civil War in Portugal.

1830. Dispute with China. War between Holland

and Belgium.
War in Poland.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.
French War in Algeria.
Revolution in France.
Civil War in Spain

war with France. War between Turkey Lord Byron's expedi- and Greece. tion to Greece. Invasion of Spain by

a French army. Russia makes war in

Circassia.

and Portugal. Insurrection in Al

bania. Convulsions in Ger

many, Italy, an i Switzerland.

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Wars, &c. of Great Wars, dc.of Continental Britain.

States of Europe.

1831. War in India.

War between Holland Expedition to the and Belgium. Scheldt.

Hostilities between Dispute with China.

France and Portugal. French expedition

against Holland. War in Poland. Russian War in the

Caucasus.
French War in Algeria.
Revolt of Mehemet

Ali.
Civil War in Portugal.
Insurrections in

France, Germany,

and Italy.

1832. War with Holland. War between Holland

and Belgium (assisted by Great Bri

tain and France). War between Turkey

and Egypt. French Warin Algeria. Russian War in the

Caucasus. Insurrections in Italy;

Austrian troops OC

cupy Bologna.

Civil War in Portugal,

1833. Dispute with France. War between Turkey English protestagainst

and Egypt. Treaty of Constanti- Cracow occupied by nople between Rus- Russia and Austria. sia and Turkey.

French Warin Algeria. Dispute with the Russian War in the Caffres.

Caucasus.
Civil War in Spain

and Portugal. Insurrections in Ger

many and Italy.

1834. War in India.

French War in AlHostilities with the geria. Caffres.

Russian War in the Affray with the Chi- Caucasus. nese.

Civil War in Portugal. Disturbances in Ca- Occupation of Ancona nada.

by Austria. Treaty for expulsion of

Don Carlos and Don
Miguel.

1835. British troops arrive French War in Algeria in Spain.

Russian War in the Dispute with China. Caucasus.

Civil War in Spain.
Insurrection in Alba-

Wars, dc. of Great Wars, &c. of Continental Britain.

States of Europe.

1836. Battle between Bri- Civil War in Spain.

tish troops and the French Warin Algeria. Carlists.

Russian War in the Rebellion in Canada.

Caucasus. British merchants ex- Revolt of Cracow, pelled from Canton. crushed by Russia

and Austria.

1837. War in Canada with Civil War in Spain.

rebels and Ame- French War in Algeria.

rican sympathisers. Russian War in the British troops in Spain.

Caucasus.

1838. War in India.

War between France War in Canada.

and Mexico. British troops in Spain. War of the French in

Algeria.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.
Civil War in Spain.

1839. War with India. War between France War with China.

and Mexico. British troops in Spain. Revolt of Pacha of

Egypt.
Civil War in Spain.
French Warin Algeria.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.

1940. Affghan War.

War between Turkey War with Egypt.

and Egypt. War with China. Civil War in Spain. Expedition of British French War in Alfleet to Naples.

geria. British troops in Spain. Russian War in the Disputes with France Caucasus.

and with the United
States.

1841. War in India.

Civil War in Spain. War with China. Civil War in part of Dispute with the Uni- the Turkish Empire. ted States.

French War in Al

geria. Russian War in the

Caucasus.

1842. War in India.

Civil War in Spain. Hostilities with the War between Turkey Wars, de. of Great Wars,dc. of Continental Britain.

nia.

Boers at the Cape. and Persia.
War with China. French War in Al-

geria.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.

1843. War in India.

Otaheite occupied by Annexation of Natal the French. to the Cape.

Insurrections in the

Turkish Empire.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.
French Wars in Al-

geria, and Senegal. Great Britain. Austrian army enters

States of Europe.

1844. Insurrections in India. War between France Quarrel with theSikhs. and Morocco. Arrest by the French Insurrection in Spain.

of the English Con- Russian War in the sul at Tahite.

Caucasus.
French Wars in Al-

geria, and Senegal.

1845. Sikh War.

Insurrections in Italy. Attack on the pirates French War in Alof Borneo.

geria. Labuan occupied by Russian War in the the British.

Caucasus. Dispute with the United States.

1846. Sikh War.

Civil War in Portugal. Engagement with New Annexation of and inZealanders.

surrection in Cracow. Expedition to the Agitation in Hungary. Tagus.

French War in AlDissensions with geria.

France in conse- Russian War in the quence of the Spa- Caucasus. nish marriages and Revolt of Sleswig and

the affairs of Greece. Holstein (encouRevolt of Boers at the raged by Prussia) Cape.

from Denmark. Revolution in Switzer

land. QuarrelbetweenGreece

and Turkey.

1847. War with Caffres and Civil War in Spain, Boers.

Portugal, and SwitWar with China.

zerland. Insurrections in India. Disturbances in Italy ;

Austria occupies

Ferrara. Insurrection in Poland. French War in Alge

ria, and with Cochin

China.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.

1848. War in India.

War between DenCaffre War.

mark and the DuEnglish Ambassador chies (aided by Prus

commanded to leave sia), Madrid.

War between Austria

and Sardinia. War in Hungary: War in the Duchy of

Posen.
Revolutions in France,

Austria, Prussia,
Italy, and several

German States.
Insurrections in Spain

and Italy.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.
French Warin Algeria.

Wars, &c. of Great Wars, dc.of Continental Britain,

States of Europe.

1849. War in India.

French occupy Civita Disturbances in Ca- Vecchia, and besiege nada.

and storm Rome. Admiral Parker enters War in Hungary Besika Bay.

War in the Duchies of

Sleswig and Hol

stein.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.
French Warin Algeria.

1850. Blockade of the Piræus War in the Danish

by the British fleet. Duchies. Caffre War.

Insurrection in GerWar in India.

many and Italy. Destruction of Chinese Prussia on the brink junks.

of war with Austria Dispute with France ;

concerning Hesse French Ambassador Cassel. recalled.

Russian War in the Angry despatch ad

Caucasus. dressed to Great Bri- French War in Altain by Russia. geria.

French troops occupy

Rome.

1851. Caffre War.

Insurrection in PorInsurrection of Hot- tugal. tentots.

Coup d'état of Louis Expedition to Ran- Napoleon. goon.

French War in Al

geria.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.
French troops occupy

Rome.

1852. Second Burmese War. French War in AlCaffre War.

geria.
Russian War in the

Caucasus.
French troops in

Rome.

1853. Preparations for War War between Russia with Russia.

and Turkey. Insult to British sub- French War in Aljects at Madrid. geria.

French troops in

Rome.

1854. War with Russia. Russia at War with

Turkey, France, and

the Principalities. Insurrections in Italy

and Spain. Rupture between Tur

key and Greece. French War in Al

geria. French troops in

Rome.

Wars, &c. of Great Wars, &c.of Continental Comparing these statistics with ante-
Britain,
States of Europe.

cedent periods of history, it does not 1855. War with Russia. Russia at War with appear that there is evidence of a gradual Insurrection of Santals Turkey, France,

cessation of warfare and other serious in Bengal.

Sardinia, and Great violations of the peace of nations. The Disturbances at the Britain.

table does not exhibit one year from Cape.

French War in Al-
geria.

1815 to the present date in which ourown French troops in country has not been either engaged in Rome.

actual hostilities in some part of the world, 1856.

or in some quarrel or proceeding likely to Peace with Russia in Russian War in the

end in war.

Much less does it show a March, against the Caucasus. wishes of the British Insurrections in Spain. single year in which all Europe was at nation. Insurrectionary move- peace.

Nor is the significance of recent War with Persia.

ments in Italy. wars to be estimated by reference solely War with China. Rupture between Prus

to the amount of blood and treasure they Rupture with Naples. sia and Neufchâtel. Oude annexed. French

have cost ; for the struggles of Russia troops in Rome.

with Turkey, the campaigns of the French 1857.

in Algeria, Senegal and Lombardy, War with China. Russian War in the the conflicts of Great Britain in India Indian Mutiny:

Caucasus.

and with China, and the aggressions of War, in the early part French troop in of the year, with Rome.

Spain upon Morocco, are of moment Persia.

rather as prophetical than as historical Insurrection at Sarā

facts. Besides, it should be remembered wak.

that the period from 1815 to 1854, 1858.

which has been so erroneously referred Serious differences Dispute between with France. France and Portu

to as giving proof of the peacefulness of War with the Sepoys. gal.

the modern spirit, began at the terminaWar with China. French fleet des- tion of the greatest war in the history of Bombardment of Jed- patched to Lisbon.

mankind; one which by its very sevedah.

Russian War in the
Caucasus.

rity necessitated a long forbearance from
French
troops in

hostilities on a great scale, adding as it Rome.

did, for example, more than £600,000,000 1859.

to the debt of Great Britain, and exPreparations by sea France and Sardinia

hausting France of all her soldiers. and land against at war with Austria. invasion ; organiza- Revolts in Central

Contrasting one age with another, tion of Volunteer Italy.

Great Britain seems never to have been Rifle Corps.

France and Spain at so free from war in this century as in Rebel army in Nepaul.

with Cochin

Sir Robert Walpole's time. From the Hostilities with the China. Chinese. Russian War in the

treaty of Utrecht in 1713 until 1739, Island of San Juan Caucasus.

the peace was only broken by occasional occupied by Ameri- War between Spain hostilities with Spain of no considerable can troops. and Morocco.

importance, and Walpole's administraFrench bombard Te

tion is commonly regarded as crowned tuan. French troops in

by almost unbroken peace. But the Rome.

nineteenth bears in this respect a still less 1860.

favourable comparison with the sevenExpedition to China. War between Spain teenth century. From the accession of Distrust of the designs and Morocco.

James I. until the civil wars, England may of France.

French expedition to Defensive preparations China.

be said to have enjoyed continued peace,

, continue.

French troops in Lom- for such operations as the expedition to

bardy and Rome. Rochelle scarcely deserve a place in the Annexation of Savoy and Nice by France.

history of war. Going farther back to the Carlist rising in Spain.

hundred years between the battle of BosInsurrection in Sicily.

worth and the commencement of the

war

were

struggle with Spain in Elizabeth's time, cause of their analogy to a process which considering too the bloodless and is still going on in Europe, and still theatrical character of Henry the giving rise to problems of which no Eighth's campaigns, and the unimport- peaceful solution has yet been found ance of the military annals of the two possible for the most part,-knots, as next reigns, we hardly exaggerate in it were, which must be cut with the saying that England was free from war sword. from the union of the Roses until the The efforts of the English sovereigns equipment of the Spanish Armada. in the middle ages for the annexation of Contining ourselves to English history, Wales, and the reduction of Scotland to it would thus appear that the portion of the position of a dependency, were the the nineteenth century already elapsed necessary antecedents of a political unity has been less peaceful than the corre- of Great Britain, corresponding with its sponding period of each of the two pre- natural or geographical unity, and conceding ones. And, indeed, it may be ducive both to the internal peace of the doubted whether any prior hundred island, and to its security from foreign and twenty years since the Conquest aggression. It was absolutely indispenproduced so many battles as

sable for the civilization of England fought between 1740 and 1860.

that the Heptarchy should be consoliA writer, already referred to, remarks dated, and it was equally so that Ireland, that, "in the middle ages, there was Wales, and Scotland, should become never a week without war.”

But if we

integral parts of a united kingdom. It are to reckon all the feuds of the barons is obvious that the causes and chances and squires in comparing the frequency of war would be infinitely multiplied of medieval with modern hostilities, we were these three countries still separate must weight the scale of the latter with and independent States, and that their all the bloody revolutions, rebellions, union with their more powerful neighand insurrections of modern times, and bour was requisite for the tranquillity with greater justice in consequence of and improvement of all, while it was prethe tendency of these elements of dis- ceded by struggles which, so far from order, peculiar to our era, to produce being peculiar to barbarian or the middle international strife or war in a wider

ages, find almost exact parallels in the sphere.

latest annals of human progress. Nor It is not an impertinent fact that from is it unworthy of remark that Edward I., 1273 until 1339 England remained the ablest prince since the Conquest, throughout at peace with the Continent, applied himself with equal zeal and if at least the years 1293 and 1297 be ambition to the reduction of Wales and excepted; in the former of which there Scotland, and to the establishment of was a collision between the French and law and order throughout England. In English fleets, although their respective like manner the complex movement countries were not otherwise at war; which in one word, fruitful of mistakes, and in the latter, Edward I. conducted we call civilization, while bearing over an expedition to Flanders, which ended the globe the seeds of future

peace,

has without a battle. It is true that in this a

entailed all the maritime, colonial, and period there were intermittent hostilities commercial wars of modern Europe. with Wales and Scotland. In a mili- The art of navigation discovered upon tary sense the Welsh wars of England the ocean a new element for the practice hardly deserve more notice than those of of hostilities. It was certainly not in a the Heptarchy. But there is a point of barbarous age, or by barbarous weapons, view from which the conflicts with that the Colonial Empire of Great Wales and Scotland, and those of the Britain was established. And what but Heptarchy, alike possess political import- the commercial spirit of the nineteenth ance, and have a bearing upon the century has carried the cannon of Great question now under consideration, be- Britain into China ? Surely it was not

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