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was, as already recorded, organized, with PERU, CHILI, AND THE UNITED Señor García Calderon at its head, and under STATES. After the failure of the peace conthe protection of the Chilian authorities, Cal- ference held on board the United States steamderon "pledging himself to conduct his gov- ship Lackawanna at Arica, on October 22, 25, ernment upon principles not opposed to the and 27, 1880, in pursuance of the offer by this fundamental conditions demanded by Chili for Government of its good offices as an arbitrator the final arrangement of peace." The failure between the belligerents, there is nothing of of this and other efforts to the same end is note to record on diplomatic relations with briefly stated in the following extract from a the Republics of Perū and Chili, until June circular which the Minister of Foreign Affairs 26, 1881, when, in accordance with instrucof Chili addressed to the diplomatic agents of the tions from Secretary Blaine, Minister Chrisrepublic abroad, under date December 21, 1881. tiancy formally recognized the government

Thus it is that Chili could not conclude a peace with of the Provisional President, Señor García Piérola, who, after his defcat at Miraflores, proved Calderon. In July Minister Christiancy prehis inability to form a serious government outside of sented his letters of recall, and on the same Lima, and finally fell, overthrown by the intrigues of Calderon and the rebellion of his soldiers ; nor with day the new Minister, General Stephen A. García Calderon, who, lacking authority in the first Hurlbut, presented his credentials to Presiperiod, and who, when beginning to acquire it, per- dent Calderon at the little village of Magdaverted it in the name of an intervention * irreconcila- lena, Lima being then in the hands of the Chible with the honor and the sovereignty of nations such lians. On the 25d of August, Aurelio García y as Chili and the United States. The last acts of Cal- García, Minister of Foreign Affairs under Piéditions of peace, and the abuse against Chili and Peru rola, addressed to Minister Hurlbut a letter of which he was guilty in encouraging a supposed for- dated “The Ministry, Ayacucho," a town in eign intervention, obliged our military authorities to

the interior, where Piérola had set up the semmake an end of the attempt at government made by blance of a government after his flight froin García Calderon in February last.

Lima. The purpose of this letter was to perOn learning that Montero had adhered to suade General Hurlbut to recognize Piérola as the Arequipa and Puno declaration in favor of “the constitutionally proclaimed President" Calderon, the Chilian Government ordered the and lawful head of the government in Peru. arrest of Calderon and his minister, Galvez, In reply our Minister assured Señor García y who accordingly were taken to Valparaiso in García that it would scarcely become him to enNovember. Piérola, abandoned by Montero ter into a discussion upon the internal affairs of (then in Cajamarca in the north), and probably Peru, “but," continued he," as in your letter to also by Cáceres, who had been appointed by me you have opened the road to such discussion, the Arequipa Congress second Vice-President I propose frankly to express iny opinion, so of the Republic, Montero being the first, re- wording it as to wound as lightly as possible." turned to Lima, and publicly declared his He then points out that in seizing the supreme intention to renounce all further pretensions to power and assuming an authority unknown to power (December). Señor Don Adolfo Guer- the Constitution, Pierola committed revolutionrero, late secretary to General Lynch, had been ary and lawless acts. The resolution he carappointed political chief of Lima. As an- ried out was “a crime against liberty"; the nounced in President Arthur's message to Con- dictatorship was "a tyranny which was autogress in December, special envoys were sent to cratic and despotic in its construction, its title, Pera and Chili “with instructions which it is and its acts." Minister Hurlbut's letter conhoped will bring these powers into friendly tinued as follows: relations." These envoys, Messrs. Blaine and Trescott, arrived at Callao on December 22d. mitted to that autocracy in the belief that it would

Oppressed by an invader, the populace of Peru subIt was presumed that Mr. Blaine would, on conduct to victory. Foreign nations recognized it as reaching Santiago, take charge of the United a de facto government, but they never recognized its States legation left vacant by the death of origin or its system. Under the Constitution the AyaGeneral Kilpatrick.

cucho National Assembly has no right to exist, and

its resolutions possess nó legal power beyond that of The part played by Bolivia in the long con

the opinions uttered by an equal number of private test is little short of inexplicable. The decia- citizens. Consequently, its confirmation of the full ration of war was the outgrowth of a quarrel and autocratic faculties of the ex-dictator, under his between Chili and Bolivia, about the owner new title of President, gives no greater legal weight ship of a strip of desert. Peru not only took to his authority or pretensions.

For this reason, and much to my regret, I find mysides with Bolivia, but actually threw out the self compelled to inform you that the decrecs are barchallenge to Chili, and, with little effective aid barous and inhuman which have been recently issued from Bolivian contingents, has borne the brunt in Ayachuco with respect to the persons and propof the war, and expiated her folly with her erties of those who do not recognize Señor Piérola, ruin; while Bolivia, save the almost inevitable measures beyond the pale of the law. These unnatsacrifice of her sea-board, undoubtedly damag- ural decrees, in my opinion, afford conclusive proof ing to her commercial interests, will have sus that the government with which you are connected tained no serious losses, territorial or financial. owes its existence entirely to force and not to public

opinion. The government presided over by Señor See the article Peru, CHILI, AND THE UNITED STATES, Garcia Calderon does not pretend to be regularly and in this volume.

perfectly established. It is provisional. It is sup

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