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ART. VIII.-Miscellaneous Articles. Nemoir of Lord Castlereagh. nour of a place in the Irish cabinet. (from the New Monthly Magazine.) But it would be unjust to infer that
Robert Stewart, Viscount Castle- he owed this distinction solely to reagh, is the eldest son of the Mar- that influence. His lordship's taquis of Londonderry, his father be lents, his extreme assiduity, and bis ing elevated to the rank of a mar- persevering habits of business, pointquis in 1816. The family was first ed him out as a person eminently ennobled in 1789, when the present qualified to serve the government; marquis was created a baron, on the and he had, by this time, made bis 18th of August His first wife whom election, as to the political path he married June 3d, 1766, was Sa- which he was determined to pursue. rah Frances, a daughter of the Earl At the outset of his career, he had of Hertford, but who died on the shown some disposition towards 18th of July, 1770. Lord Castle whiggism, captivated, as young reagh was the issue of this marriage, ininds are apt to be, by the specidus and was born on the 18th of June, principles of that once popular par1769. His lordship married, second- ty. As his judginent became more ly, on the 3d of June, 1775, Fran- matured, however, he soon discovces, daughter of the late, and sister ered that his means of doing good of the present, Earl Camden, by would be increased by an alliance whom he has bad several children. with the government, and that in
Before Lord Castlereagh had at- exchanging for these means, the tained his twenty-first year he was privilege of complaint, and the asreturned to the Irish Parliament, as sumption of superior wisdom, he was knight of the shire for the county of merely renouncing a plausible but Down, where the family estates exploded patriotism, for a rational, chiefly lie. In his election, which and therefore practicable sphere of was severely contested, he was sup- action. This cbange, if change it ported by the wealth and influence can be called, which was little else of his father, who is reported to than abandoning the neutral chahave expended nearly 30,000l. in racter of an observer, the moment order to secure his son's triumph. he discerned the path in which he He was not long in Parliament be- felt he could best exercise his tafore he essayed his powers as an lents, subjected him, of course, to a orator. The subject which called charge of apostacy: a charge which forth his maiden effort, was upon the he shared in common with Mr Pitt, question, whether Ireland had a rght whose youthful mind was equally to trade to India, notwithstanding fascinated with the allurements of the monopoly of the East India com- exclusive virtue and honour, as aspany. Tbe Hon. Mr. Stewart (for sumed by the Whigs; but whose rithe Marquis or Londonderry was per faculties disdained the trickery then only a baron,) maintained the and delusion inherent in such arro affirmative of the question; and it gant pretensions. is said, he exbibited considerable In 1798, Lord Castlereagh became knowledge as well as a sound un- the chief secretary of Ireland, an ofderstanding
fice then filled by the Hon. Thomas When Lord Camden' was sent out Pelham, now Earl of Chichester. to Ireland as viceroy, his kinsman, That gentleman had, for some as might be expected, felt the influ- months, been obliged to suspend his ence of those ties by which the fa- attention to his official duties in conmilies were connected. Lord Case sequence of ill-health, and Lord tlereagh was soon raised to the ho- Castlereagh performed them temVOL, II.
porarily as his substitute. This was gree of fortitude, of presence of under the viceroyalty of Earl Cam- mind, and of discretion, which far den. At length, bowever, he found surpassed his years. That these it expedient to retire altogether from virtues exposed him to the batred the arduous station; and when the and reproaches of those who found Marquis of Cornwallis assumed the in them insuperable obstacles to the reins of the viceregal government, success of their criminal enterprises, Lord Castlereagh was formally ap- may easily be imagined; and the pointed to the chief secretaryship, calumnies which had their origin in an office which be continued to boid that disastrous period of civil strife, till 1801, when he resigned it, during have since been perpetuated by the the administration of the Earl of unforgiving passions of men, who Hardwicke, in favour of the Right fled from Ireland to save their forHon. Charles Abbot, afterwards dis- feited lives. A minister who does tinguished as the Speaker of the his duty to his king and country, House of Commons, and lately ele- wben both are menaced by traitors, vated to the peerage by the title of must expect, if he survive the conLord Colchester.
flict, to incur the bitterest enmity of The office of chief secretary of those who.n he has baffled. Hence, the Irish government, before the Lord Castlereagh has been stigmaUnion was one of great importance; tised by expatriated Irish rebels, and accordingly, if we look back to who have taken up their abode in the list of persons who filled the sit. England, as the contriver and pauation during the present reign, we tron of cruelties during the rebelshall find in it the names of many lion, which require a rebel's heart who afterwards became eminent to imagine, and a rebel's head to beamong the statesmen of their time. lieve. The whippings, the strang He was, in fact, the prime minister lings, the half-hangings, &c. which of Ireland, and stood in nearly the are currently alleged to have taken same degree of connexion, with re- place in the Castleyard, Dublin, spect to the viceroy, which the prime under the sanction of the chief seminister of England does with re- cretary, but which are not as curspect to the sovereign. Upon him rently believed, are gross exaggeradevolved the management of the tions. They never
did take place, Irish House of Commons, a task of to the extent, or in the manner, no small difficulty or delicacy, when which has been represented. But it is recollected of what materials if they had, they would not, of themthat House was commonly compos- selves, constitute a prima facie case ed, and what principles were re- of cruelty and oppression against cognised and acted upon in its man- the government of that day, or agement. In addition, however, to against Lord Castlereagh, whom it what may be considered as the or- has been the fashion, from malignant dinary exigencies of this office, there motives, to consider as synonimous were others of a still more formida- with the government. Such calable and trying character attached mities are incident to a state of civil to it, at the time when its duties commotion, where neither the eye were assumed by Lord Castlereagh. of authority, nor the power of the The rebellion, which had long agi- law can always be effectual. They tated Ireland, now began to deve- form the melancholy consequence of lop itself in all its most aggravated crime which, when general, too ofqualities, and to rage with all the ten devolves punishment upon the calamitous symptoms of a civil war. innocent; for what can stop the pasIn this crisis of his country's fate, sions and resentment of a multitude Lord Castlereagh exhibited a de acting from public and private feel.
ings? It would be impossible to de- A high gallows, and a windy day, vise any plan, any scheme of go. To Čorney, Pitt, and Castlereagh. vernment, any degree of vigilance, competent to restrain or punish un- By Corney, was meant the Mar. authorised excesses, when a nation quis of Cornwallis, who continued is agitated and torn by internal fac- Viceroy of Ireland from the year tion and open rebellion. Before, 1798 to 1801. then, the severities exercised by the It may be mentioned as a striking Irish government[admitting the most instance of the youthful character exaggerated accounts of them to be of his lordship, while taking a leadtrue,] are stigmatised as sanguinary ing part in these momentous transand needless, let it be satisfactorily actions, that he was frequently deshown that proceedings of a more signated by the epithet of stripling, lenient and conciliatory character in the Irish House of Commons, durcould have been wisely and safely ing the stormy discussions upon the adopted. If this cannot be shown, Union; and Mr. Plunkett, in the and we firmly believe it cannot, we course of one of his speeches, inade may lament the constrained rigor of use of the following expressions: insulted authority, but we cannot “I was induced to think that we condemn it.
bad, at the head of the executive goThe Union was another of those vernment of this country, a plain measures which increased the ar- honest soldier, unaccustomed to, and duous responsibilities of the office of disdaining, the intrigues of politics; Irish secretary, during the period and who, as an additional evidence when Lord Castlereagh filled it. It of the directness and purity of his is obvious that in this brief Memoir views, had chosen for his secretary of his lordship, it would be impossi- a simple and modest youth, (puer ble for us to enter into any consi- ingenui vultus, ingenuique pudoris,) deration of this great national event, whose inexperience was the vouchor to mark the progress of those vio. er of his innocence; yet, am I bold lent passions engendered by it, which to say, that during the viceroyalty the lapse of twenty years has not of that unspotted veteran, and durbeen sufficient to subdue. Suffice ing the administration of that unas. it to say, that his lordship’s parlia- suming stripling, within the last six mentary conduct, during the time weeks, a system of black corruption of its discussion in the Irish legisla- bad been carried on, &c.”—It was ture, was such as held forth the in a similar way that Mr. Pitt was strongest promise of that political taunted by Sheridan, Fox, and eminence to which he has since at others, with his youth, wben he first tained. Coupled, however, as his assumed the office of prime minister. name inevitably was, with the stern When the Union was carried, and measures which led to the suppres- the Irish Parliament blended with sion of the rebellion, and with those that of England, Lord Castlereagh which deprived Ireland of her Par- quitted his native country for the liament, it may be supposed that he latter, animated by the ambition of incurred no ordinary share of po- signalizing his talents in the coun. pular odium. Some idea of the ex- cils of the united empire. Having tent to which this disfavour was been returned to the Imperial Parcarried, may be formed from the fol- liament, he took an active part in lowing emphatic toast, which was the debates, and gradually won upcommonly drunk, at that period, by on the confidence of the House. the United Irishmen, and the disaf. When Mr. Pitt retired from the sitfected generally in their convivialuation of prime minister, in 1801, a meetings:
change of administration of course
took place; and Lord Castlereagh under the auspices of the late Duke accepted, under Mr. Addington, the of Portland, who was nominated office of President of the Board of prime minister. Lord Castlereagh Control for the affairs of India, suc- then resumed his former situation as ceeding in that department, Lord secretary of state for war and coloViscount Lewisham, now Earl Dart- nies: and in which he continued till mouth. In May, 1804, Mr. Pitt 1809, till the unfortunate misunderrelurned to power, and his lordship standing between himself and Mr. continued to hold bis appointment Canning, induced him to resign. It with much credit to himself, and is not our intention to enter into great advantage to the interests of the complicated merits of this quesour Indian possessions. Shortly af- tion; but we have no hesitation in terwards, he succeeded to the more stating it, as the result of a mature important office (more important in examination of the whole transacreference to the period of which we tion, that Lord Castlereagh was are speaking) of secretary of state entirely justified in the view he took for war and colonies; but when the of it. We do not mean to say that lamented death of that great minis. Mr. Camping was any party to the ter took place, in January, 1806, be duplicity, which was practised upon retired, with his colleagues, to make his noble colleague; but that there room for the Whig ministry of Mr. was duplicity, or something very Fox. He was succeeded in his of- nearly approaching to it, and that, fice by the late Mr. Wiudham, who, too, at the expense of Lord Castleon moving the thanks of the House, reagh's honour and feelings, is unin December, 1806, to Sir John questionable. There is every reaStuart, for his services at the battle son, however, to believe that Mr. of Maida, took occasion to bestow Canning was himself deluded. The some liberal compliments upon Lord duel that followed, and all the cirCastlereagb, under whose adminis- cumstances attending it, are too tration the enterprize had been fresh in the memory of the public to planned.
require any thing more than this Lord Castlereagh did not long brief allusion to the unpleasant remain out of office. Mr. Fox died event. in August, 1806, only a few short Lord Castlereagh was succeeded months after the decease of his il- in his office by the Earl of Liverlustrious rival. An effort was made pool, and he remained unattached to supply his loss, and keep the par- to his Majesty's government till the ty in their places; but all their ta- year 1812, when, upon the assassilents could not prevail. The coun- nation of Mr. Percival, another mi. try soon became disgusted with their nisterial change took place and Lord conduct; for it was now glaringly Castlereagh accepted the seals of obvious that their pretensions to the Foreign Office, which he has superior political virtue, as compar- ever since continued to hold. ed with their opponents, were mere The distinguished character which illusion. The Catholic question at he sustained, as a negotiator, at last destroyed them, more, perhaps, Chatillon, at Paris, and at Vienna, from the inflexible manner with after the abdication of Bonaparte, which they endeavoured to force it has placed his name higher in the upon their sovereign, than from its scroll of diplomatic fame than ever intriosic unpopularity, though that was attained before by any British was considerable. When the Whigs minister. When his lordship reretired, after their short glimpse of turned from Paris, in June, 1814, power, patronage, and profit, a new and laid upon the table of the House ministry was formed in April, 1807, of Cominons, the treaty of peace between France and the Allies, he "A new improvisatore has made was received, upon his entrance in- bis appearauce at Rome. We had to the House, with loud acclama- heard much of his prodigious talents, tions from all sides. Even the sul- and went to see him yesterday. len spirit of Whiggism relaxed, and When the company had assembled, lost something of its arrogant self- subjects were requested and given ishuess, while it acknowledged the by a variety of persons, some of extraordinary abilities displayed by whom were known to us, and who the noble lord as a pegotiator. The could not have an understanding sagacity, the firmness, and the pro- with the improvisatore. All those found policy which be evinced, subjects were thrown into a box, subsequently, at the first Congress which was sent round to ladies prinof Vienna, (whose sittings were in- cipally; and those who chose (they terrupted by the escape of Bona- happened to be foreigners) drew the parte from Elbe,) impressed upon subjects, four in number, on which the continental sovereigos and their the improvisatore was to exert bis ministers a high notion of his cha. talents that night. He then (Tomracter.
maso Scriggi) entered the room,As an orator, Lord Castlereagh for these preparative arrangements is not greatly distinguished. His bad been made in his absence,-and style is difficult, and his language I own I was strongly prepossessed not always correct. But the acute against him at first. He is a well and comprehensive views which he made little inan, about 25 years old, takes of almost every subject, am- with the shuffling gait and mincing ply compensate for the absence of step of a woman in man's clothes, any embellishments in his mode of with nice yellow morocco shoes, and discussing tlicin. He is always lis- white pantaloons and waistcoat; a teged to with great attention, and lily white hand, with diamonds that whatever differences of opinion may put out your eyes; an embroidered subsist between him and his oppo- shirt collar, like lace falling over his nents, the inild and conciliatory tone shoulders; no neckcloth, a bare neck, which he invariably adopts his with a handsome expessive face, polished manners and insinuating shaded with abundance of black hair courtesy-neutralise all asperity of and luxuriant whiskers. He took feeling. It very rarely happens the subjects and read them over; that he is animated into any thing they were, “ The dispute about the like fervour, though we have occa- armour of Achilles, "--" The creasionally seen him thus excited. The tion of the world,”--and “Sophoneffect was not unpleasing. On the isba.” He paused and then began, contrary, it rather inspired a wish without recitavio, singing, or musiin the observers, that he could of- cal accompaniment of any sort, and tener devest himself of a coldness, went on without besitation or seemborderiog upon apatby, wbich must ing effort, only occasionally repeatweaken his influence over a popu- ing the same verse twice over. The lar assenibly.
two first subjects took him an hour It only remains to mention, that and an hall, with very little pause his lordship married, in the year between. I lost too much to give 1794, Ainelia Hobart, youngest any opinion on what he said, the daughter and co-heiress of John, se- manner, indeed, took up, at first, cond Earl of Buckinghamshire. so much of any attention, as to make
me lose more of the sense than I Account of an Improvisatore; io sbould otherwise have done;--that a letter from an English traveller manner was admirably good, voice, at Rome.
action, and expression of counte