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Southey's Common-place Book.




Quaker Dress. "As to the thing itself,” says JEREMY Tar SAMUEL FOTHERGILL says to a young man LOR, "the truth is, it is better in contemplation who had laid aside the dress of the Society, and than practice : for reckon all that is got by it with it some of the moral restrictions which it when you come to handle it, and it can never imposed, “ If thou hadst appeared like a religious, satisfy for the infinite disorders happening in sober Friend, those companions who have exthe government, the scandal to religion, the ceedingly wounded thee, durst not have atsecret dangers to public societies, the growth tempted to frequent thy company. If thon of herèsy, the nursing up of parties to a grand- hadst no other inducement to alter thy dress, I eur so considerable as to be able in their own beseech thee to do it to keep the distinction our time to change the laws and the government. principles lead to, and to separate thee from So that if the question be, whether mere opinions fools and fops. At the same time that by a are to be prosecuted, it is certainly true they prudent distinction in appearance thou scatterought not. But if it be considered how by est away those that are the bane of youth, opinions men rifle the affairs of kingdoms, it is thou wilt engage the attention of those whose also as certain, they ought not to be made pub- company will be profitable and honourable to Jic and permitted.”


III Religion.

Forms. " That is no good religion," says JEREMY “La vraie philosophie respecte les formes TAYLOR, “whose principles destroy any duty autant que l'orgueil les dédaigne. Il faut une of religion. He that shall maintain it to be discipline pour la conduite, comme il faut un lawful to make a war for the defence of his ordre pour les idées. Nier l'utilité des rits et opinion, be it what it will, his doctrine is des pratiques religieuses en matière de morale, against godliness. Any thing that is proud, any ce serait nier l'empire des notions sensibles sur thing that is peevish and scornful, any thing des êtres qui ne sont pas de purs esprits ; ce that is uncharitable, is against the vyiaívovoa serait nier la force de l'habitude.”—Portalis.. didackahía, that form of sound doctrine which (Louis Goldsmith-Recueil, tom. 1, p. 277). the Apostle speaks of."

Religious Truths.
Faith and Opinion.

"La vérité est comme un rayon du soleil ; si "FAITH," says the “Public Friend,” SAMUEL nous voulons la fixer en elle-même, elle nous FOTHERGILL, overcomes the World: Opinion éblouit et nous aveugle : mais si nous ne conis overcome by the World. Faith is triumphant sidérons que les objets qu'elle nous rend sensiin its power and in its effects; it is of divine bles, elle éclaire à la fois notre esprit et réchauffe tendency to renew the heart, and to produce notre cæur."-SAINT-PIERRE. - Harmonies de those fruits of purity and holiness which demon- la Nature, tom. 3, p. 2. strate the dignity of its original: Opinion has filled the world, enlarged the field of speculation, and been the cause of producing fruits di

The Two Gates of Heaven. rectly opposite to the nature of faith. Opinion "Dieu a mis sur la terre deux portes qui has terminated in schism : Faith is productive mènent au ciel : il les a placées aux deux exof unity.”

trémités de la vie ; l'une à l'entrée, l'autre à la

p. 150.

sortie. La première est celle de l'innocence, la dernière est celle du répentir." — SAINT

New Opinions, how treated in Macaria. Pierre.—Harmonies de la Nature, tom. 3, The Traveller in the old Dialogue, who gives

an account of the "famous kingdom of Macaria," says, “they have such rules, that they need no

considerable study to accomplish all knowledge Christianity.

fit for divines, by reason that there is no diversity “For certain it is, Christianity is nothing else of opinions amongst them." Upon which the but the most perfect design that ever was, to Scholar with whom he is conversing asks, "How make a man be happy in his whole capacity: and can that be ?” as the law was to the Jews, so was philosophy Trav. Very easily : for they have a law, to the Gentiles, a schoolmaster to bring them to that if any divine shall publish a new opinion Christ, to teach them the rudiments of happi- to the common people, he shall be accounted a ness, and the first and lowest things of reason; disturber of the public peace, and shall suffer that when Christ was come all mankind might death for it. become perfect--that is, be made regular in “ Schol. But that is the way to keep them in their appetites, wise in their understandings, error perpetually, if they be once in it. assisted in their duties, directed to, and in Trav. You are deceived : for, if any ono structed in, their great ends. And this is that hath conceived a new opinion, he is allowed which the Apostle calls being perfect men in every year freely to dispute it before the great Christ Jesus ;' perfect in all the intendments of Council. If he overcome his adversaries, or nature, and in all the designs of God. And this such as are appointed to be opponents, then it was brought to pass by discovering; and restor- is generally received for truth; if it be overcome, ing, and improving the law of Nature, and by then it is declared to be false.”Harleian Misturning it all into religion.”—JEREMY Taylor, cellany (8vo. edit.) vol. 6, p. 383. Preface to the Life of Christ.


In the "famous kingdom of Macaria,' there The Jesuit P. RICHEome says of the law, are established laws, so that there are not too that entre toutes les parties de ceste faculté many tradesmen, nor too few, by enjoining longer la preud-hommie et bonne conscience est la plus or shorter times of apprenticeship.”—Harleian rare, et la plus requise à un advocat Chrestien. Miscellany (8vo. edit.) vol. 6. C'est pour elle que les Advocats renouvellent tous les ans leur serment à la Saint Martin, ceremonie qui monstre que c'est la qualité la

Periodical Emigrations. plus necessaire de toutes au jugement des bons The speculative politician who at the meetjuges.”Plainte Apologetique, p. 69.

ing of the Long Parliament recommended for their adoption the laws of the ideal kingdom of

Macaria, as a panacea for the disturbances of Bonum and Bene.

the state, mentions among other institutions, "a It was well said by the Scotch Jesuit, Wil- law for New Plantations, that every year a cer. LIAM Critton (Crichton?) Deum magis amare tain number shall be sent out, strongly fortified, adverbia quam nomina : quia in additionibus and provided for at the public charge, till such (actionibus ?) magis ei placent BENE et LEGITIME time as they may subsist by their own endeavours. quam bonum et legitimum. Ita ut nullum bo- And this number is set down by the Council num liceat facere nisi BENE et LEGITIME fieri for New Plantations, wherein they take diligent possit.

notice of the surplusage of people that may be

spared.- Harleian Miscellany (8vo. edit.) vol. 6, Hume's Opinion of the Stability of American

Hume says, speaking of our first plantations

Abolition of Offices and Privileges. in America, “Speculative reasoners during that "He that thinks the King gives away nothing age, raised many objections to the planting of that is worth the keeping, when he suffers an those remote colonies, and foretold that after office, which keeps and maintains many officers draining their mother country of inhabitants, to be abolished, and taken away, does not con. they would soon shake off her yoke, and erect sider that so much of his train is abated ; and an independent Government in America. But that he is less spoken of, and consequently less time has shewn, that the views entertained by esteemed in those places where that power for. those who encouraged such generous undertak- merly extended : nor observes how private men ings were more just and solid. A mild govern- value themselves upon those lesser franchises and ment and great naval force have preserved, and royalties, which especially keep up the power, may still preserve during some time, the do- distinction, and degrees of men.”—CLARENDON, minion of England over her colonies."

vol. 1, p. 444. This was written in 1758.

p. 382.


11 suspend their former just and necessary obligaDifference between Craft and Wisdom.

tions.-Elkwv Baoilean, p. 106. SPEAKING of the Parliamentary Leaders in Charles I.'s time, Hobbes says, “If craft be wisdom they were wise enough: but wise, as I

Church Dignities. define it, is he that knows how to bring his " For those secular additaments and ornabusiness to pass (without the assistance of ments of authority, civil honour and estate, knavery and ignoble shifts) by the sole strength which my predecessors and Christian Princes of his good contrivance. A fool may win from in all countries have annexed to Bishops and a better gamester by the advantage of false dice, Churchmen, I look upon them but as just reand packing of cards.”Behemoth.

wards of their learning and piety who are fit to be in any degree of Church Goverment : also

enablements to works of charity and hospitality, Aristocracy of Trade. Proneness of Tradesmen meet strengthenings of their authority in point to Disaffection.

of respect and observance, which in peaceful Great capital cities when rebellion is upon times is hardly paid to any Governors by the pretence of grievances, must needs be of the measure of their virtues so much as by that of rebel party, because the grievances are but their estates; poverty and meanness exposing taxes, to which citizens, that is, merchants, them and their authority to the contempt of liwhose profession is their private gain, are nat- centious minds and manners, which persecuting urally mortal enemies; their only glory being times much restrained. to grow excessively rich by buying and sell “I would have such men Bishops as are most ing

worthy of those encouragements, and best able B. But they are said to be of all callings to use them. If at any time my judgement of the most beneficial to the Commonwealth, by men failed, my good intention made my error setting the poorer sort of people to work. venial : and some bishops I am sure I had,

"A. That is to say, by making poor people whose learning, gravity and piety, no men of sell their labour to them at their own prices. any worth or forehead can deny. But of all® So that poor people, for the most part, might men, I would have Churchmen, especially the get a better living by working in Bridewell, Governors, to be redeemed from that vulgar than by spinning, weaving, and other such la- neglect, which (besides an innate principle of bour as they can do; saving that by working vicious opposition, which is in all men against slightly they may help themselves a little, to those that seem to reprove or restrain them) will the disgrace of our manufacture. And as most necessarily follow both the Presbyterian Party, commonly they are the first encouragers of re- which makes all ministers equal, and the Indebellion presuming of their strength, so also are pendent Inferiority, which sets their Pastors bethey for the most part, the first to repent, de- low the People.”—Eckwv Baothian, p. 149. ceived by them that command their strength.” -HOBBES, Behemoth.

Cottagers by the Wayside.

“The Lords of the soil do unite their small Leagues and Covenants.

occupying, only to increase a greater proportion “Solemn Leagues and Covenants," says of rent; and therefore they either remove, or Charles I.“ are the common road used in all give license to erect small tenements by the factions and powerful perturbations of State or high ways' sides and commons; whereunto in Church : where formalities of extraordinary truth, they have no right, and yet out of them also zeal and piety are never more studied and elab- do raise a new commodity.” Harrison, in the orate, than when Politicians most agitate des- Description of Britain, describes this encroachperate designs against all that is settled or ing upon the wayside as a fault to be found sacred in religion and laws; which by such almost in every place, even in the time of our screws are cunningly, yet forcibly, wrested by most gracious and sovereign Lady Elizabeth." secret steps and less sensible degrees from their -HOLLINSHED's Chronicles, vol. 1, p. 189. known rule and wonted practice, to comply with the humours of those men, who aim to subdue all to their own will and power under the dis Toleration of the Reformed Churches. gaises of holy Combinations. Which cords and “We find that all Christian Churches kept withes will hold men's consciences no longer this rule ; they kept themselves and others close than Force attends and twists them : for every to the Rule of Faith, and peaceably suffered ono man soon grows his own Pope, and easily ab- another to differ in ceremonies, but suffered no solres himself of those ties, which, not the com- difference amongst their own. They gave liberty mands of God's word, or the Laws of the Land, to other Churches; and gave laws and no libbut only the subtlety and terror of a Party casts erty to their own subjects. And at this day upon him ; either superfluous and vain, when the Churches of Geneva, France, Switzerland they were sufficiently tyed before; or fraudulent Germany, Low Countries, tie all their people to and injurious, if by such after ligaments they their own laws, but tie up no man's conscience : find the imposers really aiming to dissolve or if he be not persuaded as they are, let him cha

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ritably, dissent, and leave that Government and place to forbyd ymages among his crysten adhere to his own communion. If you be not flocke; where his pleasure wolde be to have of their mind, they will be served by them that the ymage of his blessyd body, hangyng on his are; they will not trouble your conscience, holy crosse, had in honour and reverent rememand you shall not disturb their government." braunce; where he wolde vouchsafe to sende JEREMY TAYLOR.

unto the kyng Abiagarus the ymage of his own face; where he lyked to leve the holy vernacle

-the expresse ymage also of his blessyd vysWeak Consciences.

age, as a token to remayne in honour among “As for them who have weak and tender suche as loved hym, from the tyme of his bytconsciences, they are in the state of childhood ter passion hytherto. Which as it was by the and minority; but then you know that a child is myracle of his blessyd holy hande expressed and never happy by having his own humour; if you lefte in the sudari, so hath it ben by lyke myrchuse for him, and make him to use it, he hath acle in the thyn corruptable clothe, kepte and but one thing to do : but if you put him to please preserved uncorrupted this xv.c. yere, fresshe himself, he is troubled with every thing, and and well perceyved, to the inwarde comforte, satisfied with nothing."-JEREMY TAYLOR. spyrytuall rejoysynge, and greate encreace of

fervoure and devocyon in the hartes of good

crysten people. Cryst also taught his holy Liberty of Preaching.

evangelyst St. Luke to have another maner “INDEED," says JEREMY TAYLOR, "if I may mynde towarde ymages, than have these herefreely declare my opinion, I think it were not tyques, whan he put in his mynde to counteramiss, if the liberty of making sermons were fete and expresse in a table the lovely vysage something more restrained than it is; and that of our blessyd lady his mother."-Sır Tuomas either such personş. only were entrusted with More's Dialoge, ff. 7. the liberty, for whom the church herself may safely be responsive, thạt is to men learned and “I WOLDE also fayne wytte whyther these pious, and that the other part, the vulgus cleri, heretyques will be contente that the blessyd should instruct the people out of the fountains name of Jesus be had in honoure and reverence, of the church and the public stock, till by so or not. If not, then nede we no more to shewe long exercise and discipline in the schools of the what wretches they be, which dare dyspyse that prophets, they may also be entrusted to minister holy name that the devyll trembleth to here of. of their own unto the people. This, I am sure, And on the other syde, yf they agre that the was the practice of the primitive church, when name of Jesus is to be reverenced and had in preaching was as ably and religiously performed honoure, then syth that name of Jesus is nothas now it is.”—Vol. 7, p. 785.

yng els but a worde, which by wrylyng or by voyce representeth unto the herer the person of

our savyour Cryste, fayne wolde I wytte of Men who would preach.

these heretyques, yf they gyve honour to the "Such a scabbed ytche of vaynglory catche name of our Lorde, whiche name is but an ymthey in theyr prechynge, that though all the age representynge his person to mannes myndo worlde were the worse for it, and theyr owne and ymagynacyon, why and with what reason lyfe lye thereon, yet wolde they longe to be can they dyspyse a fygure of hym carved or pulpetyd.”—Sir THOMAS More's Dialoge, ff. 39. paynted, whiche representeth hym and his actes,

farre more playne and more expressely.”-Sır

THOMAS MORE's Dialoge, ff. 8. Images. "TOUCHYNGE such textes as these heretyques allege agaynst the worshyppyng of Ymages,

Gold expended on Relics. very sure am I that St. Austyn, St. Hyerome, "LUTHER wyssheth in a sermon of hys, that St. Basyle, St. Gregory, with so many a godly he had in his hande all the pecys of the holy connynge man as hath ben in Crystes chyrche crosse, and sayth that yf he so had, he wolde from the begynnyng hytherto, understode those throw them there as never sonne shold shyne on textes as well as dyd those heretyques; namely, them. And for what worshypfull reason wolde havyng as good wyttes, beyng farre better the wretche do suche vylanye to the crosse of lorned, usynge in study more dylygence, beynge Cryste? Bycause, as he sayth, that there is so an hepe to an handfull, and (which most is of moche golde nowe bestowed about the garall) havyng (as God by many myracles bereth nysshynge of the pecys of the crosse, that there wytness) besyde theyr lernyng, the lyght and is none lefte for pore folke. Is not this an hygh clerenes of his especyall grace, by whiche they reason ? as though all the golde that is now bee were inwardly taught of his onely Spyryte to stowed aboute the peoys of the holy crosse, porceyve that the wordes spoken in the olde wolde not have fayled to have ben gyven to lawe to the Jewys people prone to ydolatry – pore men, yf they had not ben bestowed about and yet not to all them neyther (for the prestes the garnysshynge of the crosse. And as though than had the ymages of the aungell cherubyn in there were nothing lost, but that is bestowed the secret place of the temple), sholde have no about Crystys crosse.


13 t'Take all the gold that is spent about all the eryd and clokyd under the pretext of symplycyte pecys of Crystys crosse, thorowe Crystendome and good Crysten devocyon borne to the love of (albe it many a good crysten prynce and other holy scrypture alone. But in lytell whyle after podly people hath honourably garnysshed many the dampnable spyryte of pryde that 'unaware to vecys thereof) yet yf all the gold were gathered themself lurked in theyr hartys, hath begonne to ngyder, it wolde appere a pore porcyon in put out his hornis and shew hymselfe. For then omparyson of the gold that is bestowed upon have they longed, under the prayse of holy scripuppes; what speke we of cuppes? in which ture, to set out to shew theyr own study. che gold, albe it that it be not gyven to pore Which bycause they wolde have seme the more nen, yet it is saved, and may be gyven in almes to be set by, they have fyrst fallen to the dyswhan men wyl], --whiche they never wyll : howe prays and derysyon of all other dyscyplynes. small a porcyon wene we were the golde about And bycause in spekynge or prechyng of such all the pecys of crystes crosse, yf it were com- commane thynges as all Crysten men know, pared with the gold that is quyte cast away, they could not seem excellent, nor make it apabout the gyltynge of knyves, swordes, sporres, pere and seme that in theyr study they had done arrace and paynted clothes; and (as though any great maystry to shew themselfe, therethese thynges coulde not consume gold fast fore merveylously they set out paradoxis and ynoughe) the gyltyng of postes and hole roses, straunge oppynyons agaynst the commen fayth not onely in the palaces of prynces and great of Crystis hole Chyrche. And bycause they prelates, but also many ryght mean mennes have therein the olde holy doctors agaynst them, houses. And yet among all these thynges they fall to the contempte and disprayse of them; coulde Luther spye no golde that grevously eyther preferryng theyr owne fonde gloses glyttered in his blered eyes, but onely aboute agaynst the old connynge and blessyd fathers the crosse of Cryst. For the gold, yf it were interpratacyons ; or ellys lean to some wordes thens, the wyse man weneth, it wolde be of holy scrypture, that seme to say for them, streyght gyven to pore men; and that where he agaynst many mo textes that playnly make dayly seeth that suche as have theyr purse full agaynst them; without receyvyng, or eregyvof golde, gyve to the pore not one pece thereof, yng to any reason or authoryte of any man, but yf they gyve ought, they transake the bot- quycke or dede, or of the hole chyrche of Cryst ome amonge all the golde, to seke out here an to the contrary. And thus ones proudly perhalfe peny, or in his countrey a brasse peny, swaded a wronge waye, they take the brydyll in whereof foure make a ferthynge. Such goodly the tethe, and renne forth lyke an hed stronge causes fynde they that pretende holyness for the horse, that all the worlde can not plucke them colour of theyr cloked heresyes.”—Sir Thomas backe. But with sowing sedycyon, settyng MORE's Dialoge, ff. 12.

forth of errours and heresyes, and spycyng theyr prechynge with rebukynge of preesthode

and prelacye for the peoples pleasure, they Faith in the Virgin Mary alone at

tourne many a man to ruyne, and theirselfe one time.

also.”-Dialoge, ff. 38. Christ shewed to St. Peter "that his fayth, that is to wete the fayth by him confessed, sholde never fayle in his chyrch, nor never dyd

Thirst for Persecution. it, not with standyng his denyeng. For yet One of this sorte of this new kynde of prechstode styll the lyght of fayth in our Lady, with- ers beyng demaundyd why that he used to saye out fleyng or flyttyng. And in all other we in his sermons about, that now a dayes men fynde eyther fleyng from hym one tyme or prechyd not well the gospell

, answered that he other, or ellys doute of his resurreccyon after thought so, bycause he saw not the prechers his deth, his dere mother onely excepte : for the persecutyd, nor no stryfe nor busynes aryse sygnyfycacion and remembraunce wherof the upon theyr prechyng. Whiche thynges, he Chyrche yerely in the Tenebre lessons levyth sayd and wrote, was the fruyte of the gospell, her candell burnyng styll, when all the reme-bycatse Cryste said Non veni pacem mittere sed naunt, that sygnylyeth his apostles and dysciples, gladium : I am not come to sende peace into the be one by one put out."-Sir Thomas More's world, but the sworde. Was not this a wor. Dialoge, ff. 33.

shypfull understandyng, that bycause Cryst wolde make a devycyon amonge infydels, from

the remenaunt of them to wynnė some, therfore Scripture Divines.

these apostels wolde sowe some cocle of dyssen"I HAVE known," saith Sir Thomas More, syon amonge the Crysten peple, wherby Cryst "ryght good wyttes that hath set all other lern- myght lese some of them ? ' For the frute of ynge (except the study of scripture) asyde, stryfe among the herers, and persecucyon of partely for slowth, refusynge the labour and the precher, can not lyghtly growe amonge payne to be susteyned in that lernynge, partly Crysten men, but by the prechynge of some for pryde, by which they could not endure the straunge newelytes, and bryngngne up of some redargucyon that sholde somtyme fall to their new fangell heresyes to the infeccyon of our parte in dyspytacyons, whyche affeccyons, theyr olde fayth."-SIR THOMAŚ More's Dialoge, inwarde secret favour towards themselves cov. I ff. 39.

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