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made from the 1874, and the remaining 446 from the 1882 transit. the bitter winds and frosts, desolate bituminous lakes ; a region Taking each series of measurements of each transit separately, where for the most part there is neither fuel nor fodder; an and applying the corrections of Leverrier's tables,

Engadine of Asia, wiih nine months winter and three months

cold weather ; the home of the wild sheep, the summer baunt Transit of 1874 Dec. 8 Aa = + 4669 AS

+ 2:30

of a few wandering shepherds; nomads' land if not no man's 1882 Dec. 6

+913

+ 1'99

land. Long ago Marco Polo described it well. That is the he obtains the following values for the parallax

scene of Mr. and Mrs. Littledale's adventures; that is the

region where the emissaries of three nations are now setting up Transit of 1874 + = 8:873

rival claims. “ The half-way house to heaven” is a Chinese 1882 8.883

appellation for the Pamirs. "Crelum ipsum petimus stultitiâ

our and the Russian soldiers and diplomats may now almost say Both the above numbers are subject to the mean errors #o".062

of one another. For the tales of summer pastures of extraand + 0.037 respectively, and are computed in the first case

ordinary richness, told to Marco Polo and repeated to Mr. from 307, and in the second from 444 measurements.

Littledale, reser, so far as they are true at all, only to isolated By taking now the two series toge:her, and finding the most

The country in question cannot feed the caravans that probable number, he obtains the following result subject to the

cross it ; far less could it sustain the baggage animals of an iwo adjoined errors-

| army on the march. No one in his senses could consider that 8 880

in itself the Pamir is a desirable acquisition. Any value it may Vean error =

From the north there is +0'032

have is in relation to adjoining lands.
Probable error =
+ o'022

comparatively easy access to it from Russian Turkistan. From

the cast the Chinese and their subjects climb up the long ascent A comparison of the above results with those of other ob- from the Khanates, and pass through easy gaps in the encircling servers, taking the transits of 1874 and 1882, may be gathered horseshoe of mountains on to the portions of the tableland they from the following list

claim. From the south, a route which seems from Mr. LittleTransit 1874.

Transit 1882.

dale's experience to be anything but a military route, leads over

glaciers, passes, and through well-nigh impassable gorges into Harkness 8 888 Auwers

8883

Gassin and Chitral, and so to Kashmir. To the south-west Todd 8.883 Cornu

8.86

easier routes, little known or little described as yet, lead into French measures 8.88 Harkness

8.842

the wild regions of Kaffiristan and Afghanistan. We do not Stone 8:88 Faye

8:813

here deal with politics, but we do deal with the geographical Auwers 8.873 | Toid

8.803

and cartographical facts on a knowledge of which politics and Tupman 881

policy ought to be—but unfortunately for our country have not Airy 8.76

always been--based. Certain portions of the Pamir have been

more or less closely attached to Afghanistan. The Amir lays PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS.—The Publications of the claim to Wakhan, Chignan, and Roshan, tracts stretching along Potsdam Astro-Physical Observatory, No. 27, contains a series the sources of the Oxus. It is obvious that England will claim of photometric measurements made by Dr. Miller at a station

an interest in these, but probably, owing to the deficiencies in on the Säntis, situated 2500 metres above sea-level, with a

exact knowledge of the geographers of Cabul, we have not as Zöllner's photometer. The observations extend over two

yet formulated publicly our claims. months, and they show that the form of the curve of extinction

In 1873 the Russian Government, at the time of their advance from the zenith to a point very near the horizon is satisfactorily 10 Khiva, undertook never to pass the Oxus. Shortly afterrepresented by Laplace's Theory. But a comparison of the

wards, Sir Henry Rawlinson argued with great force that the curves calculated separately for the various days of observation

Murgabi, the stream that cuts the Pamirs in two, and not the shows considerable differences, which approach and even exceed

Pandja, which flows along their southern skirts, was the true 0-4 of a magnitude near the horizon. The superiority of the

and proper source of the Oxus. Seven years ago, in the negoSäntis station over Potsdam as regards conditions of atmospheric tiations which followed the Penjeh incident, the negotiators transparency is very striking. For a star in passing from the

deliberately lest this portion of the frontier out of their calzenith to an altitude of about 2' has its light diminished nearly by a culations. whole magnitude more in the plain than on the top of the Why, undeterred by the experiences of which that entertainmountain. From the observations, according to Laplace's ing traveller and Anglophobe, M. Bonvalot, had lately given so Theory, the loss of light produced by the atmosphere in the alarming a picture, should an Englishman and his wise cross this zenith at Säntis is about 12 per cent. ; or, in other words, a star desert ? Mr. and Mrs. Littledale are eager in the pursuit of viewed from a point above the atmosphere would appear brighter rare game. They were old travellers ; they had sojourned in by about 0:14 of a magnitude. Since the corresponding value the forest wildernesses of the western Caucasus; they had, on for Potsdam is 0.2 magnitude, it follows that the absorption a previous occasion, penetrated Central Asia. A pair of horns produced by a stratum of atmosphere between sea-level and a

were to them what a bit of rock from a maiden peak is to height of 2500 metres amounts to o'o6 magnitude. Before others. this value, however, can be accepted as definite, simultaneous

And lastly, why did Mr. and Mrs. Litiledale go from north observations of stellar magnitudes must be made at stations to south? Why did they, being English, make Russian territory lying closer together than the two between which the comparison

their starting point? Thereby bangs a tale. Because our is instituted.

Anglo-Indian Government prohibits all independent travel in its trans frontier lands. Something may be said for this course,

but it does not stop there. It also gags its own official explorers. THE PAMIRS.

It carries yearly farther and farther the policy deprecated by

Sir H. Rawlinson in this hall, when he said : “Russia deserves AT the meeting of the Royal Geographical Society on all honour for her services to geographical science in Asia. I

Monday the paper read was on a recent journey across the only wish I could say as much for ourselves as regards our own Pamir by Mr. and Virs. Littledale. In introducing the paper,

frontiers." Mr. Douglas Freshfield made some remarks on the subject No one, least of all the Council of this Society, would ask for generally.

the publication of any tactical information our military authori. The l'amir or Pamirs (Mr. Freshfield said)—for Pamir is a ties desired to withhold. But the military authorities go along generic term, the different strips of tableland are distinguished with us in asking for an intelligent censorship in place of a by separate names-is a vast tableland averaging 12,000 feet in wholesale system of suppression of the mass of knowledge, height and 200 miles in length by 120 to 150 miles in breadth, general and scientific, acquired by the servants of the State in ringed by a rough horseshoe of mountain ranges, and inter- our frontier and trans frontier lands. We believe, and the sected by snowy ridges and shallow trenches that deepen west- Council have represented to H.M. Government, that the present wards, where the streams of the Oxus descend towards Bokhara. practice is not in accordance with the existing official rules, that The numerous photographs taken by Mr. Littledale exhibit a it was intended and has been ordered that expurgated copies of characteristic type of landscape :--tent-shaped, glacier-coated all official reports of public interest should be given to the ridges, bare heights naked of verdure and shorn of forests by public. They hope that the departments concerned will before

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long be instructed to give practical effect benceforth to any such 2. $150, to Samuel Rideal, E:q., of University College, instructions that may exist, and thus that the forward march of

London, England, for investigations on the absorpEnglish power may once more, as it should, be accompanied by

tion of heat by odorous gases. a general advance of scientific knowledge.

3. $75, to H. M. Howe, Esq., of Boston, Mass., for the Leaving Samarcand early in Jay, Mr. and Mrs. Littledale

investigation of susible slags of copper and lead drove in Russian post.carts up the beautiful valley of the Syr

smelting. [Trans. Amer. Institute of Mining EnDaria, which reminded them in parts of the Vale of Kashmir,

gineers, Feb., 1890.] as far as Osh, the last post-station. Here they organized their 4. $500, to Prof. J. Rosenthal, of Erlangen, Germany, for caravan for their great adventure, the crossing of the Pamirs

investigations on animal heat in health and disease, into Kashmir. They had the advantage of previous experience

[Sitzungsber, Ki Akad. Wiss., 1888, 1309-1319; of Cennal Asian travel, and of the cordial assistance of the

1889, 245--254. Arch. Anat. ll, Physiol., Suppl. Russian Commandant, Colonel Deubner, who could hardly

1888, 1-53.) have done more for the travellers had they been his own nearest 5. $50, 10 Joseph Jastrow, Esq., of the Johns Hopkins relatives. Alter much hesita'ion from the difficulty of obtaining

University, Baltimore, Md., for investigations on the any trustworthy information as to the state of the Alai passes,

laws of psycho-physics. [ American Journal Psythey selected the Ta'dik, 11,600 feet, before crossing which,

chology', 1890, III., 43-58.) they left behind the last tree and bush they were to see untill 6. $200, to the Natural History Society of Montreal, for the reaching the valley of the Gilgit.

investigation of underground temperatures. (CanaCrossing the Alai plateau they proceeded by the Kizil Art

dian Record of Science.) Pass to Karakul Lake. Thence their route led over passes of 7. $210, to Messrs. T. Elster and H. Geitel, of Wolfenbüttel, 15,500 feet, in sight of the great Mustag Alla to the Murgab

Germany, for researches on the electrization of gases or North Oxus, which they struck at 12,300 feet, their correct

by glowing bodies. [Sircungsber. k. Akad. IViss. elevation between the Alai and Sarbad. Another pass of 14, 200

Wien., xcvii., Abth. ii., 1175-1264, 1889.] feet led over the Alichur Pamir--where Ovis poli horns lie about 8. $500, to Prof. E. D. Cope, of Philadelphia, Penn., to assist in hundreds—to the Boshgumbaz Valley. The pass of the same

in the preparation of his monograph on American name was found impracticable. Mr. and Mrs. Littledale made

lossil vertebrates. a long detour to visit the Victoria Lake, one of the sources of 9. (Withdrawn.) be South Oxus, for purposes of sport. Thence they turned 10. $125, to Edw. E. Prince, Esq., of St. Andrews, Scotland, eastwards and crossed by ihe Little Pamir Lake into the Valley

sor researches on the development and morphology of Wakban. When near Sardab they met with their first

of the limbs of Teleosts. [“ Inaugural Dissertation," nisadventure, and this was the encounter with the troops of our

Pp. 24, Pls. II., Glasgow, 1891.] ally the Ameer. The civil authorities detained Mr. and Mrs. II. $250, to Herbert Tomlinson, Esq., of University College, Littledale for many days, and only let them go at last grudg.

England, for researches on th: effects of stress and ingly, and after having despoiled them as far as they could

strain on the physical properties of matter. [Philos. without open robbery.

Magazine, Jan., 1890, 77-83.] 12. $200, to Prof. Luigi Palmieri, of Naples, Italy, for the con

struction of an apparatus to be used in researches on ELIZABETH THOMPSON SCIENCE FUND.

atmospheric electricity. THIS fund, which has been established by Mrs. Elizabeth

13. $200, to Wm. H. Edwards, Esq., of Coalburg, W.Va., Thompson, of Stamford, Connecticut, • for the advance.

to assist the publication of his work on the butterflies ment and prosecution of scientific research in its broadest sense,

of North America. [" Butterflies of North America," now amounts to $26,000. As accumulated income will be

3rd Series, Part V.] available in December next, the trustees desire to receive applica

14. $150, to the New England Meteorological Society, for tions for appropriations in aid of scientific work. This endow.

the investigation of cyclonic phenomena New meat is not for the benefit of any one department of science, but

England. it is the intention of the trusters to give the preference to those

15. $25, to Prof. A. F. Marion, for researches on the fauna of

brackish waters. investigations which cannot otherwise be provided for, which have for their object the advancement of human knowledge or 16. $300, to Prof. Carl Ludwig, for researches on muscular conthe benefit of mankind in general, rather than to researches

traction, to be carried on under his direction by Dr. directed to the solution of questions of merely local importance.

Paul Starke. [Abhandl. maih. Phys. Classe K. Applications for assistance from this fund, in order to receive

siichs. Ges. Il'iss., xvi., 1890, 1-146, Taf. i.-ix.] consideration, must be accompanied by full information,

17. $200, to Dr. Paul C. Freer, for the investigation of the especially in regard to the following points :-

chemical constitution of graphitic acid. (1) Precise amount required. Applicants are reminded that

18. $300, to Dr. G. Müller, for experiments on the resorption of one dollar ($1.00 or SI) is approximately equivalent to four

light by the earth's atmosphere. [Publicationen English shillings, four German marks, five French francs, or five

Astrophys. Observ. Potsdam., viii., 1-101, Taf'n Italian lire.

II.] (2) Exact nature of the investigation proposed.

19. $300, to Prof. Gerhard Kriiss, for the investigation of the (3) Conditions under which the research is to be prosecuted.

elementary constitution of erbium and didymium. (4) Manner in which the appropriation asked for is to be

[Liebig's Annalen, Bd. 265, 1-27.] expended.

20. $50, to Dr. F. L. Hoorweg, for the investigation of the All applications should reach, before December 10, 1891, the

manner and velocity with which magnetism is proSecretary of the Board of Trustees, Dr. C. S. Minot, Harvard

pagated along an iron bar. Medical School, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.

21. $150, to Mr. W. H. Edwards, to assist the publication of It is intended to make new grants at the end of 1891.

his work on North American butterflies. [“ ButterThe trustees are disinclined, for the present, to make any

flies of North America,” 3rd Series, Part VIII.) grant exceeding three hundred dollars ($300); decided pre

22. $250, to Dr. Ernst Hartwig, for researches on the physical ference will be given to applications for smaller amounts.

libration of the moon (see Grant No. 27).

23. $200, to Prof. Charles Julin, for researches on the mor(Signed) HENRY P, BOWDITCH, President. WILLIAM MINOT, JR., Treasurer.

phology of Ascidians. EDWARD C. PICKERING,

24. $250, to Prof. M. Nencki, for researches on the deco nposi

tion of albumenoids by microbes. [Arch. Exp. FRANCIS A. WALKER. CHARLES-SEDGWICK MINOT, Secretary.

Path. Pharmak., xxviii., 311 350, Taf. IV.-V.1

25. $200, to Prof. Carl Frommann, for researches on the minute List of Grants hitherto made. 1

organization of cells, 1. $200, to the New England Meteorological Society, for the

26. $300, to Edward Atkinson, Esq., for experiments on cook

ing, to be carried on under the direction of Mrs. investigation of cyclonic movements in New England.

Ellen H. Richards. [Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. (American Meteorological Journal for 1887, and May

Sci., 1890.) 1888.)

27. $250, to Dr. Ernst Hartwig, to continue the work of Grant The results published are given within brackets.

No. 22.

1

.

28. $200, to Edward S. Holden, Esq., for researches on stellar on account of a total want of fossils. M. Obrutcheff also con

spectroscopy, to be carried on at the Lick Observa- firms the glaciation of the whole of these highlands. The tory.

valleys are filled up with morainic deposits, with polished and 29. $150, to Prof. J. Kollmann, for investigations on the em: striated boulders, and there are traces of inter-glacial layers. bryology of monkeys.

The dômes arrondis and the roches moutonnées, so familiar to the 30. $25, to Prof. J. P. McMurrich, Clark University, Worces glacialist, are frequent, and the author gives interesting facts to ter, Mass., to study embryology of Aurelia.

confirm the transport of boulders at great distances over the 31. $200, to Dr. Johannes Dewitz, Zoolog. Institute, Berlin, mountain-ridges, which cannot be explained without admitting

Germany, for researches on the laws of movement of that the whole of the highlands was covered with a mighty ice-
Spermatozoa.

cap. The same number contains a note by the same author on 32. $150, to Alexander McAdie, Clark University, Worcester, the Jurassic sossil plants recenily discovered on the Bureya River

Mass., for experiments on atmospheric electricity. (a tributary of the Amur), and a list of 290 flowering plants 33. $250, to Prof. Julien Fraipont, University of Liége, Liége, collected by Mme. Klements in Souih Yeniseisk and Tomsk,

Belgium, for the exploration of the cave of Engihoul. and described by M. Preyn. 34. $50, to Prof. M. E. Wadsworth, Houghton, Michigan, for

observations on the temperature in mining-shasts.
35. $50, to_Prof. A. B. Macallum, University of Toronto,

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
Toronto, Canada, to study the digestion and ab.
sorption of chromatine.

LONDON. 36. $250, to Dr. G. Baur, Clark University, Worcester, Mass., Chemical Society, November 5.- Mr. W. Crookes, F.R.S., for the exploration of the Galapagos Islands.

Vice-President, in the chair.— The following papers were read : 37. $300, to Prof. Edw. S. Holden, Lick Observatory, Cal., The magnetic rotatory power of solutions of ammonium and for astronomical photography.

sodium salts of some of the fatty acids, by Dr. W. H. Perkin, 38. $250, to Prof. Louis Henry, Louvain, Belgium, for re- F.R.S. Ostwald has argued that the peculiar results obtained

searches on the fundamental solidarity of carbon by the author in the case of solutions of acids and of ammonium compounds.

salts, &c., are in accordance with the electrolytic dissociation 39. $300, to Prof. I.. Hermann, Königsberg, Prussia, for phono- hypothesis ; and has suggested that since salts formed from weak graphic experiments on vowels.

acids are as good conductors as those formed from strong ones, 40. $50, to Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, Cambridge, Mass., for re- we may expect in this case also, marked deviations from the searches on the evolution of Cephalopoda.

calculaied values. He also considers that such salts as ammonium formate, &c., when in aqueous solution would show molecular

rotations which would not be the sums of the rotations of the UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL components of the salts, as must nearly be the case if the view INTELLIGENCE.

put forward by the author be correct, that such salts are almost

entirely dissociated into acid and base. The author has obOxford). - Convocation on Tuesday arrived at the following tained results which show that the rotatory powers of the decision :

ammonium and sodium salts do not vary with dilution ; and on " That the University accept the offer of Mr. G. J. Romanes, comparing the experimental values obtained in the case of F.R.S., Christ Church, to give an annual sum of £25 for a ammonium salts with those afforded by the constituent acid and lecture to be delivered once a year on some subject approved by ammonia, as might be expected, as reduction of rotatory power the Vice-Chancellor relating to science, art, or literature. The always attends combination, the values are slightly less in lecturer to be called the Romanes Lecturer, and to be appointed the case of the salts. This reduction is very nearly the same as by the Vice-Chancellor annually in the Michaelmas Term, the that which takes place in the formation of the corresponding lecture to be delivered in the next following Easter or Trinity ethereal salts, and as the latter are anhydrous, the results show Term on a day to be fixed by the Vice-Chancellor, who shall that the values for ammonium saits in solution are practically give public notice thereof to the University in the usual manner. those of the dry salts, and therefore that Ostwald's views are inAlso, that the thanks of the House be given to Mr. Romanes applicable.— Note on the action of water gas on iron, by Sir for his liberality.”

H. E. Roscoe and F. Scudder. Whilst making experiments on We understand it was Mr. Romanes's wish that the the application of water gas for illuminating purposes, the foundation should be anonymous; but as such a course was authors have observed that occasionally the Fahnehjelm comb found to be without precedent, and otherwise impracticable, he becomes coated with a deposit of serric oxide, and a further yielded the point to the University authorities.

examination of the tips of the steatite burners showed that the Mr. H. T. Gerrans, Fellow of Worcester College, has deposit of ferric oxide was " coralloid," and therefore could not been elected by the Board of the Faculty of Natural Science a be produced from dust in the atmosphere. They also observe member of the Committee for nominating Masters of the Schools that water gas which has been standing in steel cylinders at a from Hilary Term 1892 to Hilary Term 1895. Mr. C. H.

pressure of 8 atmospheres for about a month contains a much Sampson, Fellow of Brasenose College, has been elected larger quantity of iron. A preliminary determination of the by the same Board of Faculty a member of the Committee for iron in this gas amounted to 2-4 milligrams per litre. Although nominating Mathematical Honour Moderators.

the compound, which is doubtless the iron carbonyl of Mond and Quincke, is only present in this small quantity, the authors

have succeeded in proving that it can readily be liquefied. In SCIENTIFIC SERIALS.

the discussion which followed, the Chairman referred to the fact

that at the recent British Association meeting at Cardiff, Mr. A good deal of interesting geological insormation is given in Mond had exhibited specimens not only of liquid iron carbonyl, the last number of the 1svestia of the East-Siberian Branch of but also of a solid compound of iron with carbonic oxide. Prof. the Russian Geographical Society (vol. xxii., 2 and 3). M. Ramsay stated that he had found that the compound of nickel Obrutcheff gives an orographical and geological sketch of the with carbonic oxide was formed in the cold. - The dissociation highlands of the Olekma and the Vitim, with the exploration of of liquid nitrogen peroxide, by J. Tudor Cundale. The author which he was intrusted by the mining administration. Besides has determined by colorimetric methods the relative amount of the upheavals of these highlands, which have a general direc

NO, formed in liquid nitrogen peroxide, (1) by dilution with tion from the south west to the north-east, M. Obrutcheff chloroform, (2) by rise of temperature. He has also aseertained found another series of upheavals stretching west-north-west the absolute amounts of dioxide by comparing the colour of the to east-south-east, the chief ridge of that system (named liquid solution with that of the gas containing a known amount Kropotkin's ridge by the author) rising to the height of from

of nitrogen peroxide. The results show that, on dilution, (1) 1300 to 1500 metres, and separating the tributaries of the dissociation takes place very slowly at first, but more rapidly Lena from those of the Vitim. Several lower chains seem when less than 5 per cent of the peroxide is present; (2) that to have the same direction. The whole series consists of solutions of the peroxide dissociate more rapidly than the pure metamorphic slates and limestones, intersected by granites liquid on rise of temperature. –Ortho- and para-nitro-orthoand gneisses, and belongs to the Lower Silurian and Cam.

toluidine, by A. G. Green and Dr. T. A. Lawson. The authors brian system, a closer definition of its age being difficult find that when ortho-toluidine sulphate is nitrated in a large

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excess of sulphuric acid at a low temperature, three isomerides Carruthers presented 10 the Society a half-length portrait in oils are formed-namely, para-nitro-ortho-toluidine (about 75 per of Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., P.C., F.R.S., a former cent.), mela-nitro ortho-toluidine, C&H,Me(NH.)(NO.)[1 : 2:5] President, painted by Mr. Leslie Ward ; and the remarks (about 3 or 4 per cent.), and ortho-nitro-ortho-toluidine, which he made on the services rendered to biological science by C,H,Me(VH)(NO2)[1 : 2:6] (about 20 per cent.). The separa- Sir John Lubbock drew from the latter a graceful acknowledg. tion of the ortho-nitro-ortho-toluidine from the mixture is ment of the honour conserred upon him.- Amongst the exhibiefiected by taking advantage of the greater solubility of this tions which followed, Mr. E. M. Holmes showed some new isomeride in slightly warm water. The authors give a table of marine Algæ from the Ayrshire coast ; Mr. J. G. Grenfell the properties of the ortho- and para-nitro-ortho-toluidines, and showed some Diatoms with pseudopodia, illustrating his remarks of their products on reduction and other derivatives.-Researches with diagrams, upon which an interesting discussion followed. on the gums of the arabin group : Part ii. Geddic acids- The President exhibited and made some observations on a tooth Gedda gums; the dextro-rotatory varieties, by C. O'Sullivan. of the walrus, which illustrated in a curious manner the periods The Gedda gums described consist of the calcium, magnesium, of growth.-Mr. R. V. Sherring called attention to a large and potassium salts of gum acids, the calcium salt pre- series of framed photographs which had been taken under his dominating, and more or less nitrogenous matter, which is direction in Grenada, and illustrated the general character of probably combined with a true gum acid. They dissolve easily the West Indian fora as well as the physical features of that in water, forming a yellow or reddish syrup, neutral to test particular island. --Mr. J. E. Harting exhibited a specimen of paper, which is dextro-rotatory. The gum acids are obtained Wilson's Petrel which had been picked up in an exhausted pure by dialyzing their acidified solution, and by fractional state in the Co. Down on October 2 last, and had been forprecipitation with alcohol. The gum acids in any one sample warded for inspection by Mr. R. Patterson, of Belfast. Mr. of gam bear a very simple relation to one another, and are Harting gave some account of the species, and remarked upon closely related to the gum acids contained in other samples. A the unusual number of Petrels, Shearwaters, Skuas, and other table of their relationships is given. The composition and marine birds which had been driven inland to a considerable partial constitution of any one of the gum acids wbich have been distance during the recent gales.-A paper was then read by as yet examined may be expressed by the general formula, the Rev. Prof. Henslow, entitled “A ‘Theory of Ieredity CH59-2002-..CH000-pCjH160g. These

gum acids,

based on Forces instead of any special form of Matter.” The when heated at 80-100° for 10-30 minutes with a solution con- author maintained that no special form of matter (as is generally taining 2 per cent. H,SO., are hydrolyzed, yielding arabinon and supposed) other than protoplasm is required ; the latest disa gum acid of lower molecular weight. The gum acids thus pro

coveries of the organized structure of protoplasm militating duced closely resemble the gum acids existing in the natural against the idea of any other special form of matter. Taking gums, but are less optically active and more insoluble in weak illustrations from the animal and vegetable kingdoms, he alcohol. The most marked difference between these gum acids inquired why two varieties of chickens fed from the first day to and those existing in the natural gums is that they are only full growth were different? It seemed to him more probable that hydrolyzed with difficulty with 2 per cent. sulphuric acid. They the results were due to different arrangements of the same kinds are, however, slowly broken down by several hours' digestion, of molecules rather than to different kinds of “germ-plasm. and acids of successively lower weight are formed. The lowest Ranunculus heterophyllis, he pointed out, produced a "landstage of the hydrolysis is represented by the general equation :- form" and a water-form" according to its environment ; it CzH35-20.4-1.1C,H2,00 + 3nH,O

therefore exhibited both “beredity” and “ acquired characters.”

As the materials of its structure were the same in both cases, = CH.0.2 + 2nCH 206

the different results, he considered, must be due to different The compound Cg3H3O.has not yet been obtained in sufficient arrangements of its molecules, and must be effected by forces. quantity for an examination of its properties. Those gum acids The sudden appearance of stomata on the “land-form” illusobtained from Gedda gum are highly dextro-rotatory, whilst trated a case of forces normally "potential ” while the leaf is those from gum arabic, although otherwise identical, are in- submerged, becoming “actual” when the leaf developed in air. active.- Some compounds of the oxides of silver and lead, by After some further deductions, Prof. Henslow concluded that Emily Aston. The author finds that on following the direc: protoplasm and the forces bound up with it were perfectly able tions given by Wöhler for the preparation of the compound io do all the work of transmitting parental characters, as well Ag0,2PbO the product varies in composition. A substance of as to acquire new characters, which in turn might become the composition 2 Ag,0, PbO is obtained when a mixture of lead hereditary as well. and silver hydroxides is allowed to stand in presence of caustic soda, and also by precipitating the mixed nitrates of lead and

Physical Society, November 6.- Dr. E. Atkinson, Vicesilver, and exhaustively extracting with caustic soda. —The

President, in the chair. - Prof. Sydney Young read a paper on the

generalizations of Van der Waals regarding “ corresponding electrolysis of potassium acetate solutions, by Dr. T. S. Murray. Op electrolyzing a dilute aqueous solution of potassium acetate

temperatures, pressures, and volumes, in which he gave the only hydrogen and oxygen are evolved; with concentrated solu

results of an investigation made with a view of testing whether tions a mixture of ethane, hydrogen, oxygen, methyl acetate, and

these theoretical deductions agree with experimental facts.

From his virial equation, carbon dioxide is evolved. On diluting the solution the amount of ethane decreases, at first very slowly, but finally with great

(++) (2

:) (2) - b) = R(1 + al), rapidity. Reducing the current has a similar influence. With rise in temperature, the ethane diminishes, and ceases to be

Van der Waals showed that, if the absolute temperatures of formed at 100°. In contradiction to Jahn, the author finds that the

various substances be proportional to their absolute critical employment of a large anode reduces the yield of ethane ; the largest yield is obtained with a very small anode ; variations in

temperatures, their vapour pressures will be proportional to the cathode do not influence the electrolysis. The results of the

their critical pressures, and their volumes, both as liquid and experiments are illustrated by curves. The author believes that

as saturated vapour, will be proportional to their critical volumes.

These deductions have now been put to the test of experiment. the ethane is formed, not by partial oxidation of acetic acid, but by a simple interaction of the acetions (CH COO). He finds relating to the temperatures, pressures, and specific volumes of

Some years ago, Prof. Ramsay and the author published data that the yields of ethane from equivalent solutions of potassium, methyl

, ethyl-, and propyl-alcohols, ether, and acetic acid. sodium, and calcium acetates are equal. -A new method of preparing B-dinaphthylene oxide, and the constitution of its

Since then, experiments have been made on benzene and its tetra-sulphonic acid, by W. R. Hodgkinson and L. Limpach

halogen derivatives—fluor-, chloro-, bromo., and iodo-benzene

carbon tetrachloride and stannic chloride, and in a few cases Beta-dinaphthalene oxide is obtained by heating 2: 3' B-naphthol.

the observations have been carried to the critical points. The sulphonic acid to low redness; the distillate is freed from B

critical volumes being in many cases difficult to determine Diaphthol by extraction with alkali, and the residue crystallized from acetic acid. It crystallizes in rhombic plates, and melts at

with any exactness, the author, instead of expressing the tem153" On sulphonation it yields a tetra-sulphonic acid, which

peratures, pressures, and volumes of each substance in terms

of their critical values, found it necessary to compare the various is identical with the product obtained by the continued action of

substances with one of them taken as a standard. Fluorbenzene salphuric acid on B-naphthol.

was chosen as standard on account of the very simple relations Linnean Society, November 5.-Prof. Stewart, President, observed between the monohalogen derivatives of benzene, and in the chair.-On behalf of a number of subscribers, Mr. the fact of its critical constants (temperature, pressure, and

22

a

tures in in mms.of

C.

288.5

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volume) having been determined with considerable accuracy. true. According to Prof. Tait, the two states were not conSome of the critical constants of the various substances examined tinuous. Prof. Herschel remarked that Prof. Tait had estab.! are given in the following table, the brackets indicating calculated lished his law on the assumption that the co-volume is four values

times the volume occupied by the molecules. This law, he said, had been amply verified by experiments on explosions.

Dr. Burton, referring to Prof. Ramsay's remarks on the comTempera- Pressures Volumes in c.c.'s Substance. Formula.

pressibility of molecules, said the law of force between attractof a molemercury.

ing molecules should be accurately known before any deductions gramme cular.

were made ; and he pointed out that, at constant volume, the

pressure should be proportional to the absolute temperature, if i Fluorbenzene COU;F 286.55 33,912 2:43 233

allowance be made for the negative pressure of attraction. Mr. Chlorobenzene CH,C1 (360) (33,912) 2'34 (262)

Blakesley, in speaking of molecular forces, said he had observed Bromobenzene CAH;Br (397) (33,912) 1976 (275)

that, when water is allowed to evaporate from glass, a furrow is Iodobenzene

C.H; (448) (33,912) 147 (298) formed in the glass, which marks out the original boundary of Benzene

C.U.

36,395 2.82

219

the liquid. To all appearance, the particles of glass are torn Carbon tetrachloride CCI, 283'15 34, 180

away by the molecular forces acting along the boundary. Stannic chloride Sncl. i 3187 28,080

Geological Society, Nov. 11.—Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., Ether

(C,H;),O . 19494
27,060

President, in the chair. — The following communications were Methyl alcohol

CH,OH 240o0
59,760

read :-On Dacrytherium ovinum from the Isle of Wight and Ethyl alcohol ...! C,H,OH 243'I 47,850

Quercy, by R. Lydekker. The author described a cranium and Propyl alcohol C,H,OH '2637 38,120

mandible of Dacrytherium Cayluxi from the Quercy phosAcetic acid CH3COOH 3216 43,400! 2:46 147

phorites, which proved the identity of this form with the Dichobune ovina of Owen from the Oligocene of the Isle of Wight,

This species should thus be known as Dacrylherium ovinum. It Other tables of experimental data—including boiling-points at was shown tha tthe mandible referred by Filhol to D. Cayluxi corresponding pressures, vapour pressures at corresponding belongs to another animal.- A discussion followed, in which temperatures, molecular volumes of liquid and saturated Mr. Charlesworth and Mr. E. T. Newton took part.-Supple. vapours at corresponding pressures and at corresponding tem- mentary remarks on Glen Roy, by T. F. Jamieson. The peratures, and ratios calculated therefrom, accompany the author discusses the conditions that preceded the formation of paper. From these the author infers : (1) that Van der Waals's the Glen Roy Lake, and appeals to a rain-map of Scotland in generalizations are nearly true for chloro-, bromo-, and iodo- support of his contention that the main snowfall in glacial times benzene when compared with fluorbenzene ; (2) that for would be on the western mountains. He gives reasons for benzene. carbon tetrachloride, stannic chloride, and ether, the supposing that, previously to the formation of the lake, the generalizations may only be taken as rough approximations valleys of the Lochaber lakes were occupied by ice, and that to the truth ; and (3) that for the three alcohols and acetic the period of the formation of the lakes was that of the decay of acid, they do not hold good at all. The tables further show the last ice-sheet. He supports the correctness of the mapping that more consistent results are obtained when the comparisons of the terraces by the officers of the Ordnance Survey, and are made at corresponding pressures rather than at corresponding shows how the absence of the two upper terraces in Glen Spean temperatures, particularly in the case of molecular volumes of and of the highest terrace in Glen Glaster simplifies the explana. saturated vapours. The subject of saturated vapours is also tion of the formation of the lakes by ice-harriers. The alluvium treated by another method. If Van der Waals's deductions of Bohuntine is considered to be the gravel and mud that fell into were strictly true, then the ratios of the actual densities of the the lake from the front of the ice when it stood at the mouth of saturated vapours of different substances to their theoretical Glen Roy during the formation of the two upper lines. During densities should be equal at corresponding pressures. These the last stage of the lake, the ice in the valley of the Caledonian ratios have therefore been calculated, and show an approximate Canal is believed to have constituted the main barrier, whilst agreement amongst benzene and its halogen derivatives, carbon the Corry N'Eoin glacier played only a subordinate part. The tetrachloride, stannic chloride, and ether. For the other author suggests the possibility of a debacle during the drop of substances the agreement is less satisfactory. It is also noted water from the level of the highest to that of the middle terrace, that the ratio of the actual critical density to the theoretical and in support of this calls attention to the breaking down of density is for many substances about 4'4. The alcohols differing the moraines of the Treig glacier at the mouth of the Rough so widely from the other compounds, were compared amongst Burn. He believes that when the water dropped to the level of themselves instead of with fluorbenzene, with the result that the lowest terrace, it drained away quietly, at any rate until it somewhat closer agreement was found, but the deviations were receded from Upper Glen Roy. In discussing Nicol's objections, still far outside the limits of experimental error. Of the critical he maintains that notches would not be cut at the level of the constants the volumes are the most difficult to determine, because cols, and observes that the discrepancy between the heights of at the critical point the curves connecting temperature and the terraces and those of the cols has probably been increased by volume, and pressure and volume, are parallel to the axes of the growth of peat over most of the ground about the watervolume. Accordingly, the author, in some cases, has deduced sheds. The horizontality of the terraces is stated to be a fact, this quantity by plotting against temperature the numbers and cases are given where waterworn pebbles are found in representing the ratios of the molecular volumes both of liquid connection with the “roads," these being especially noticeable and saturated vapour to those of fuorbenzene at corresponding in places where the south-west winds would fully exert their temperatures and also at corresponding pressures. Four curves influence, and the structure of the terraces is considered to be result, which should intersect at the critical temperature, and such as would be produced at the margins of ice-dammed lakes, the point of intersection gives the ratio of the molecular Further information is supplied concerning the distribution of critical volume of the substance to that of fuor-benzene. This the boulders of Glen Spean syenite. These are found on the method leads to results in fair accord with direct determina- north side of tbe Spean Valley, at the height of 2000 feet above tions. In the discussion which followed the reading of the the sea and 1400 feet above the river, and fragments of the paper, Prof. Ramsay said the results proved that Van der syenite have been carried towards the north-east, north, and Waals's generalizations were only rough approximations, and he north-west. In an appendix, the author discusses Prof. Prestsuggested that some force bad been neglected or a term omitted wich's remarks on the deltas, and his theory of the formation of from the equations. Perhaps the assumption that the molecules the terraces. After some remarks from Prof. Bonney and Mr. are incompressible was not correct. He also strongly protested | Marr, the President said he agreed that no explanation that had against the tacit assumption of Van der Waals's laws, and yet been proposed for the parallel roads of Lochaber was free deductions made therefrom, which had recently become so from difficulties. Yet he had long felt that these were far fewer common, particularly in German text-books. Prof. Perry and less formidable in the glacier theory than in any other. inquired whether the quantities a, b, and a, had been deter- Had the terraces been marine, there ought surely to be similar mined for different substances and found to be constant. Prof. terraces in some at least of the hundreds of sheltered glens in Ramsay said that for substances in states analogous to those of the Scottish Highlands, where the conditions for their formation perfect gases, the quantities were approximately constant, but and preservation were at least as favourable as in Glen Roy and when the liquid state was approached this was no longer | its adjacent valleys. And though the absence of marine shells

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