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make a ceaseless roar. 4. I, being weary, sat down to rest. 5. Wishing you a pleasant summer, I am your friend Tom. 6. A house built upon the sands cannot stand. 7. He found us fishing from the rocks. 8. One fish, caught an hour before, was still alive. 9. We found a crab hiding under a stone. 10. A horse driven too far refuses to go.

169. Every Verb has two chief Participles, the Present and the Perfect.

170 The Present Participle is always formed by adding -ing to the Verb; as, work, work-ing; play, play-ing ; read, read-ing.

The spelling of the Verb is sometimes changed a little before the -ing is added.

(1) When a Verb ends in e after a consonant, the e is dropped; as love, lov-ing; convince, convinc-ing; make, mak-ing.

A Verb ending in e not after a consonant does not change; hie, hie-ing; hoe, hoe-ing; see, see-ing. Note, however, die, dy-ing; lie, ly-ing.

(2) When a Verb of one syllable ends in a single consonant with a single vowel before it, the consonant is doubled; as, rob, robbing; sin, sinning; bud, budding.

This rule also applies to Verbs of more than one syllable when the accent falls on the last syllable; as, rebel, rebelling; commit, committing.

Exercise 118. – Write the Present Participles of

a. Drink. Sing. Wear. Tread. Beat. Break. Speak. Ring. Shrink. Spring. Blow. Grow. Know. Slay. Fly.

b. Strike. Drive. Give. Rise. Smite. Weave. Choose. Freeze. Shake. Stride. Thrive. Write. Take. Bite. Hide.

c. See. Flee. Shoe. Hoe. Hie. Eye. Agree. Dye.

1 The word Present, in grammar, means, “ showing action as going on now, at the present time." In the case of Verbals, however, the term Present is not strictly accurate.

d. Run. Cut. Hit. Knit. Put. Brag. Cram. Swim, Bid. Get. Win. Shed. Shut. Split. Beg. Bet. Blot.

e. Acquit. Admit. Annul. Appall. Begin. Abet. Abhor. Aver. Bedim. Commit. Compel. Concur. Defer. Equip.

f. Prefer. Collect. Fasten. Release. Model. Travel. Offer. Purchase. Annoy. Scatter. Revel. Tremble. Gather. Untie. Allege. Arrest. Defeat. Confer. Collate. Differ. Chatter.

Exercise 119.- Pick out the Present Participles and say to what Noun or Pronoun each belongs.

1. They caught the thief running from the house. 2. The boy speaking to my sister is Jack Adams.

3. The grass growing by the river is long and juicy. 4. The arrow, glancing off a tree, hit the king. 5. A hunter, shooting in the wood, found a badger.

6. And children coming home from school
Look in at the


door. 7. And Tom ran crying down the street. 171. A Present Participle of a Transitive Verb takes an Object; as, “ The boy painting the picture is my brother."

This is why the Present is sometimes called the Active Participle.

Exercise 120. Pick out the Present Participles and their Objects. 1. The man reading the book was absent-minded.

2. My friends, expecting me, did not go out. 3. Do you see that little girl blowing bubbles? 4. The boys throwing snowballs hurt an old man. 5. The lady riding a bay horse is Miss Johnson. 6. The horses drawing the cart are thin. 7. The men mowing the hay are Mr. White's workmen.

8. Little Jack Horner sat in a corner

Eating a Christmas pie.

172. A Participle of a Copulative Verb is followed by an Attribute; as, “ Seeming already a MAN, this fellow is only a boy”; “ The birds, being TIMID, are hard to find.”

173. The Perfect1 Participle is formed in several ways. It is that part of the Verb used after I have ; thus —


Perfect Participle.


I have

I have

I have

I have

I have

I have

I have


I have
I have

I have

bought Remember that the I have is no part of the Participle. Exercise 121. — Write the Perfect Participles of

Fly. Forget. Cling. Make. Go. Strike. Drive. Beat. Bloom. Start. Sail. Arrive. Open.

Sail. Arrive. Open. Play. Call. Climb. Talk. Act. Plow. Live. Owe. Gaze. Lie. Lay. Flee.

Exercise 122.- Pick out the Perfect Participles and say to what Noun or Pronoun each belongs.

1. Children, taught by such a teacher, learn rapidly. 2. The task begun on Monday was very hard. 3. Seed dropped by the roadside sprang up.

4. The wild beast stopped amazed. 5. The army hemmed in on all sides surrendered. 6. The fox hidden behind some bushes hoped to escape the farmer's notice. 7. The signal, flashed along the coast, roused the sailors.

1 The word Perfect, in grammar, means, “ showing finished or completed (perfected) action.”

8. The wretch, concentered all in self,

Living shall forfeit fair renown,
And doubly dying shall go down
To the vile dust from whence he sprung,
Unwept, unhonored, and unsung.


174. Participles are often used as simple Adjectives, showing the kind of person or thing ; thusPresent Participles used as Adjectives :

A loving friend”; “blotting paper." Perfect Participles used as Adjectives :

A printed book"; "a broken branch." When so used they stand directly before their Nouns, and being used to describe, they are called Participial Adjectives. They differ from other Adjectives only in the fact that they come from Verbs.

Exercise 123. Pick out the Participial Adjectives and tell from what Verbs they are derived.

1. Who found the lost lamb? 2. It is of no use to cry over spilt milk. 3. This paper is white as newly fallen

4. That is now a forgotten story. 5. We could not face the freezing wind. 6. The speaker was received with ringing cheers. 7. See the newly risen sun. 8. It was a hotly contested battle. 9. What a striking likeness! 10. John has closely clipped hair.

Exercise 124. — In the following sentences pick out the Adjectives, the Participles, and the Participial Adjectives, and tell to what Noun or Pronoun each belongs.

1. Have you ever had a broken arm ? 2. The setting sun was now behind the distant hill. 3. That was a cutting reply.


4. The water, bubbling from beneath the rock, was a welcome sight to us tired travelers. 5. Rising rapidly into the air, the balloon was soon out of sight. 6. Discouraged and ashamed of himself, he tried to hide from those who knew him. 7. It is a well-situated house, standing on a small hill. 8. This is a most annoying occurrence. 9. My dog, watching my every movement, followed me with his limping trot.

Exercise 125. — Pick out the Participles and say whether they are

a. Present;
b. Perfect;
c. Present used as Adjectives ;
d. Perfect used as Adjectives.

1. In an attitude imploring,

Hands upon his bosom crossed,
Wondering, worshiping, adoring,
Knelt the monk in rapture lost.

2. His withered cheek and tresses gray

Seemed to have known a better day.
The harp, his sole remaining joy,
Was carried by an orphan boy.

3. All day the low hung clouds

Have dropped their garnered fullness down.

4. Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain,

Where health and plenty cheered the laboring swain,
Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid,
And parting summer's lingering blooms delayed.

5. With upraised eyes, as one inspired,

Pale Melancholy sat retired.

6. Something attempted, something done,

Has earned a night's repose.

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