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Thomson, engaged on atoms and molecules, piercing the secrets before the astonished officers realized it, the ship's sharp of the smallest entities, brooding over the mystic dance of iron prow crashed into the monster. The blow was ethereal vortices, while his magic wand summons elemental
a square, incisive one.
The ship seemed to sail right forces to reveal the nature of their powers to his scientific gaze, through the whale, which disappeared almost immediately, I forget the disciplined accuracy of the man of science, while leaving a trail of crimson as far as the eye could see. Shortly lost in wonder at the imaginative inspiration of the poet.” afterwards the whale was sighted astern, floating liselessly.
When the ship came into collision with the whale the shock The trustees of the Missouri Botanical Garden have issued
caused the vessel to tremble from stem to stern, and startled their third announcement concerning garden pupils. The object the passengers for a moment. The passengers who were below of the trustees, as we have already stated, is to provide adequate rushed on deck, and a panic seemed to be imminent. Captain theoretical and practical instruction for young men desirous of Wilson hurriedly left the bridge and appeared on deck. “Have becoming gardeners. It is not intended at present that many
no fear,” he said, “ we have only killed a whale. The ship is persons shall be trained at the same time, nor that the instruction
not hurt." His words allayed the fears of the passengers. shall resemble exactly that given by many State Colleges, but that it shall be quite distinct, and limited to what is thought to be In his recent Presidential address to the Royal Society of necessary for training practical gardeners. Three scholarships New South Wales, Dr. A. Leibius referred with satisfaction to will be awarded by the Director of the Garden before April 1 the progress made by the cause of scientific and technical educanext. The course extends over six years, so the trustees are
tion in New South Wales. In addition to the opportunities particularly anxious that scholarships shall be won by boys given by the University of Sydney for the study of science, the who are not much over fourteen years of age.
Government, by the establishment of a technical college and
technological museum at Sydney, with branches in different The Bulletin of the Botanical Department of Jamaica, for parts of the colony, have brought within the reach of all who September, contains a report, by Mr. W. Fawcett, Director of desire it the means of acquiring scientific and technical know Public Gardens and Plantations, on a disease causing the death, ledge. As an illustration of the extent to which the colony is on a large scale, of the cocoa-nut palms in the neighbourhood of developing this part of its educational system, Dr. Leibius menMontego Bay. The disease first attacks the tissues of the tioned that contracts already let in connection with the Sydney youngest parts. There is no evidence that it is produced by College alone amount to close upon £48,000, while £20,000 an insect, and Mr. Fawcett considers it is due to an “organized have been voted by Parliament for technical Colleges and techferment.” In the supplement of the Jamaica Gazette for Sep nological museums at Bathurst, Broken Hill, Maitland, and tember is the remark that the disease is “rapidly destroying the
Newcastle. cocoa-nut walks in the parish of St. James, and that, if not checked, in a very few years the cocoa-nut will cease to be a The Michigan Mining School, at Houghton, sends us its product of this parish, indeed if not of the island.”
“Catalogue " for 1890-91. The course of instruction for the
regular students at this institution extends over a period of three The Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences publishes in its years, the work continuing through most of the year. The Proceedings (Part 46) a list of the chief relics of the Hindu authorities of the school express an earnest desire to secure as period in Java, and along with it an archæological map indicat students young men who, before beginning their professional ing the sites of the ruins of temples, statues, and other anti- studies, have obtained “ an education of the broadest and most quities. Both list and map are the work of Dr. R. D. M.
liberal character." Every regular student is required "to spend Verbeek, a well-known engineer.
seven hours a day for five days each week in the laboratory or
field work, or in recitation or lecture." His recitations” are A PAPER on water and water-supply, with special reference to prepared “in time taken outside of the seven hours a day.” On the supply of London from the chalk of Hertfordshire, hy Mr. John Hopkinson, appears in the Transactions of the Hertford Saturdays, or on other days, as occasion may require, excursions shire Natural History Society (vol. vi., Part 5, October 1891), bourhood.
are made to the mines, mills, and smelting works in the neighand has now been published separately. Mr. Hopkinson insists that instead of more water being taken from Hertfordshire for the At a meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society at Edinburgh on supply of London the amount at present taken should be reduced. November 11, a capital address was delivered by Prof. I. London, he thinks, must sooner or later follow the example of Bayley Balfour, on botanical enterprise in relation to pharmaother and much less wealthy towns by obtaining a supplementary colgy. Prof. Balfour devoted himself especially to the task of supply from a distant source. Liverpool obtains its water from showing how vast are the obligations of pharmacologists to the the Vyrnwy, Manchester from Thirlmere, Glasgow from Loch Royal Gardens, Kew. The address is printed in the current Katrine, and there is a project on foot for Birmingham to obtain number of the Pharmaceutical Journal. a supply from Central Wales. The most feasible scheme for
MR. J. E. Dixon records, in the Victoria Naturalist for London appears to Mr. Hopkinson to be to obtain a supple. October, a curious fact which came under his own observation. mentary supply from Bala Lake, or some other lake or lakes in During a ramble along the Kooyong Creek, Oakleigh, on North Wales, or from Central Wales or Dartmoor.
August 15, he was somewhat surprised to see a specimen of The White Star liner Teutonic, which arrived the other
the ring-tailed opossum, hanging, as he thought, by her claws, day from New York, after a rapid passage, brought particu
to a sharp-pointed limb of a gum-tree, about twenty feet from lars of a collision between the Anchor Line steamer Ethiopia
Upon closer observation he found that the creature and a large whale, eight hundred miles east of Sandy Hook,
was dead, and that death was due to the fact that in her flight on the 15th inst., on the passage to New York from Glas
she had become impaled by her pouch. In the pouch were two gow. At 10.45 a.m. Captain Wilson and Second Officer
young ones almost old enough to leave her. Fife were on the bridge keeping a close watch ahead. Sud. MR. ANGELO HEILPRIN contributes to the New York Nation denly a whale came to the surface directly in the path of of November 12 an interesting paper in which he describes the the ship, and only a few feet ahead. The ship was rushing charms of a summer tour to Greenland. A journey to the towards the whale at the rate of sixteen miles an hour. There 75th parallel of latitude, or thereabouts, could, he says, be
no time to check the speed of the vessel, and almost arranged annually with much of the certainty of a trans
Atlantic trip, and would involve neither hardship nor danger. given. The other is a solid corresponding to the formula During the latter part of July and throughout the whole of Fe (CO), and is termed di-ferro hepta-carbonyl. Liquid ferro August the coast is mainly free of ice, and even the passage of penta-carbonyl is obtained by heating finely-divided iron, the much-dreaded Melville Bay can very generally be effected obtained by reduction of ferrous oxalate, in a stream of carbon during this season of the year without danger from a “nip," monoxide. The operation is a very slow one, 100 grams of and frequently with not so much as an acre of ice to interfere metallic iron yielding one gram of the liquid in twenty-four with the traveller's journey. Once beyond Cape York, the free hours. Ferro penta-carbonyl is a light amber-coloured liquid, North Water opens up a passage to the 79th or the 8oth parallel of which may be distilled without decomposition. It boils conlatitude, or to within some 700 miles of the Pole. In the course stantly at 1028C. Its specific gravity, compared with water at of such a trip the traveller would see much that is novel and 18°, is 1'44. It solidifies at -21°, forming yellow acicular interesting, much that is grandly picturesque, and still more that crystals. Its vapour density has been determined, the number is striking in its deviation from the rest of the earth. A country obtained being 6'5, agreeing fairly well with the value 6'7 inhabited by a race of people so remarkable as are the Eskimos calculated for Fe(CO). The liquid is quite stable in the dark, is always worthy of a visit, especially at a time when a greatly but when exposed to light an important change occurs. Goldincreasing interest in the science fostering the study of coloured crystals rapidly form in it, which upon analysis are ethnology. But merely in the contemplation of the forms of found to consist of a second iron carbonyl, the di-ferro hepta. the almost endless number of icebergs, the vacation tourist | carbonyl Fe(CO). These crystals are almost insoluble in the would probably consider himself amply repaid for a journey to ordinary solvents. When warmed to 80°, however, they dethis easily reached land of the midnight sun, with its almost compose, the products of decomposition being the penta-carbonyl numberless glaciers, its sky-splitting mountains, and a boundless metallic iron, and carbon monoxide. It appears, therefore, that ice-cap. The artist, too, would find abundant suggestion for his iron does not exactly resemble nickel in its behaviour with carbon brush and palette.
monoxide, for the carbonyl compound of the latter metal, it will Prof. August Weismann's “Amphimixis : oder, Die be remembered, possesses the composition Ni(CO).. Vermischung der Individuen," has been published at Jena by A NOTE upon the products of oxidation of nickel carbonyl is Herr Gustav Fischer. An English translation, we believe, will contributed by M. Berthelot to the current number of the shortly be issued.
Comples rendus. M. Berthelot states that nickel carbonyl A FRENCH translation-edited by Dr. H. de Varigny-of behaves towards oxygen in a manner somewhat similar to an Weismann's “Essays on Heredity” (Reinwald) has been issued organic radicle. The products of its spontaneous oxidation do in Paris.
not consist entirely of the oxides of nickel and carbon. The
liquid may be preserved in a glass vessel under a layer of water The third volume of Dr. McCook's “ American Spiders and without change so long as air is excluded ; but as soon as air is their Spinning Work,” will be ready for delivery in the coming admitted, the compound! slowly oxidizes, and a quantity of spring. The numerous lithographic plates are many of them apple-green hydrated oxide of nickel free from carbon is prepared and in the colourists' hands. The cost of preparing deposited. At the same time a portion of the nickel carbonyl the numerous engravings and plates has greatly exceeded the volatilizes and oxidizes in the air, forming a white cloud which expectations of the author (who is also the publisher).
deposits upon all the objects in the neighbourhood. M. DR. ADOLF Fritze contributes to the Mittheilungen der Berthelot has succeeded in collecting a considerable quantity of Deutschen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Völkerkunde Ostasiens, this white deposit, and has subjected it to analysis. He conin Tokio (Heft 46) a valuable paper on the fauna of Yezo in siders it to be the hydrate of the oxide of an organic radicle comparison with that of the rest of Japan. He does not, of containing nickel. The numbers obtained from the analysis course, profess to give a complete account of the subject ; but agree with the formula C,O,Niz . 101,0, but as it appears the natural history of Yezo has hitherto been so imperfectly likely that the preparation contained more or less nickel hydrate investigated that his work will be very welcome to zoologists. this formula is not considered final. M. Berthelot is of opinion
MR. Robert E. C. Stearns gives in the Proceedings that the substance probably contains an organo-nickel comof the U.S. National Museum (vol. xiv., pp. 307-335), a
pound of the composition C,ONi, belonging to a type derived valuable list of shells collected on the vest coast of South
from ethylene. He is continuing the study of this interesting America, principally between latitudes 7° 30' S., and 8° 49' N.,
substance. by Dr. W. H. Jones, Surgeon, U.S. Navy. This collection, The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the with various other treasures, was presented to the National past week include a Bonnet Monkey (Macacus sinicus 8 ) from Museum in 1884 ; but until lately Mr. Stearns had not an op- India, presented by Mr. J. Robinson ; a Rhesus Monkey portunity of preparing a list. A great part of the shells were (Macacus rhesus 9 ) from India, presented by Mrs. K. Clarkpicked up on the beaches, and in poor condition ; but our Ourry; a Macaque Monkey (Macacus cynomolgus ) from India, knowledge of the distribution of west South American species presented by Captain J. F. C. Hamilton ; two Ourang-outangs is so limited that the collection, Mr. Stearns says, has its special (Simia satyrus 8 8 ) from Borneo, a Greater Sulphur-crested value for the information it furnishes on this point.
Cockatoo (Cacatua galerila) from Australia, four Pelicans The following science lectures will be given at the Royal (Pelecanus sp. inc.) from India, deposited ; a Bronze-winged Victoria Hall on Tuesday evenings during December :
Pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera 8) from Australia, a Blood-breasted December 1, “North Wales,” by A. Hilliard Atteridge ; 8, Pigeon (Phlogænas cruentata $ ) from the Philippine Islands, “The Ways in which Animals hide Themselves,” by E. B.
purchased Poulton ; 15, “Old Stones," by H. G. Seeley. At the meeting of the Chemical Society on Thursday last
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. some further particulars were given by Mr. Mond concerning
DETERMINATION OF THE SOLAR PARALLAX.-A. Auwers, his work in conjunction with Dr. Langer upon iron carbonyl. in. Astronomische Nachrichten (No. 3066), gives the results
obtained in the determination of the solar parallax from They have succeeded in isolating two distinct compounds of
the heliometer observations made by the German Transit iron and carbon monoxide. One of them is a liquid of the of Venus Expedition, in the years 1874 and 1882. The number composition Fe(CO),, to which the name ferro penta-carbonyl is of measurements taken amounted to 754, of which 308 were
made from the 1874, and the remaining 446 from the 1882 transit. the bitter winds and frosts, desolate bituminous lakes ; a region Taking each series of measurements of each transit separately, where for the most part there is neither fuel nor fodder; an and applying the corrections of Leverrier's tables,
Engadine of Asia, with nine months winter and three months
cold weather ; the home of the wild sheep, the summer haunt Transit of 1874 Dec. 8 Aa = + 4.69
Δδ = + 2*30
of a few wandering shepherds; nomads' land if not no man's 1882 Dec. 6
land. Long ago Marco Polo described it well. That is the he obtains the following values for the parallax –
scene of Mr. and Mrs. Littledale's adventures; that is the
region where the emissaries of three nations are now setting up Transit of 1874 1 = = 6-873
rival claims. “The half-way house to heaven" is a Chinese 1882 T = 8:883
appellation for the Pamirs. “Coelum ipsum petimus stultitia Both the above numbers are subject to the mean errors to":062 our and the Russian soldiers and diplomats may now almost say and o" '037 respectively, and are computed in the first case of one another. For the tales of summer pastures of extra
ordinary richness, told to Marco Polo and repeated to Mr. from 307, and in the second from 444 measurements.
Littledale, refer, so far as they are true at all, only to isolated By taking now the two series toge:her, and finding the most
oases. The country in question cannot feed the caravans that probable number, he obtains the following result subject to the
cross it ; far less could it sustain the baggage animals of an iwo adjoined errors
army on the march. No one in his senses could consider that 8 880
in itself the Pamir is a desirable acquisition. Any value it may Mean error =
have is in relation to adjoining lands. From the north there is Probable error = = 0.022
comparatively easy access to it from Russian Turkistan. From
the east the Chinese and their subjects climb up the long ascent A comparison of the above results with those of other ob- from the Khanates, and pass through easy gaps in the encircling servers, taking the transits of 1874 and 1882, may be gathered horseshoe of mountains on to the portions of the tableland they from the following list
claim. From the south, a route which seems from Mr. LittleTransit 1874.
dale's experience to be anything but a military route, leads over
glaciers, passes, and through well-nigh impassable gorges into Harkness 8.888 Auwers
Gassin and Chitral, and so to Kashmir. To the south-west Todd ... 8.883 Cornu
8.86 easier routes, little known or little described as yet, lead into French measures
8:842 the wild regions of Kaffiristan and Afghanistan. We do not Stone ... 8.88 Faye
here deal with politics, but we do deal with the geographical Auwers 8.873 Toid
8.803 and cartographical facts on a knowledge of which politics and Tupman 881
policy ought to be-but unfortunately for our country have not Airy 8.76
always been--based. Certain portions of the Pamir have been
more or less closely attached to Afghanistan. The Amir lays PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS.— The Publications of the claim to Wakhan, Chignan, and Roshan, tracts stretching along Potsdam Astro-Physical Observatory, No. 27, contains a series the sources of the Oxus. It is obvious that England will claim of photometric measurements made by Dr. Müller at a station
an interest in these, but probably, owing to the deficiencies in on the Säntis, situated 2500 metres above sea-level, with a exact knowledge of the geographers of Cabul, we have not as Zöllner's photometer. The observations extend over two yet formulated publicly our claims. months, and they show that the form of the curve of extinction In 1873 the Russian Government, at the time of their advance from the zenith to a point very near the horizon is satisfactorily 10 Khiva, undertook never to pass the Oxus. Shortly afterrepresented by Laplace's Theory. But a comparison of the
wards, Sir Henry Rawlinson argued with great force that the curves calculated separately for the various days of observation Murgabi, the stream that cuts the Pamirs in two, and not the shows considerable differences, which approach and even exceed Pandja, which flows along their southern skirts, was the true 04 of a magnitude near the horizon." The superiority of the and proper source of the Oxus. Seven years ago, in the negoSäntis station over Potsdam as regards conditions of atmospheric tiations which followed the Penjeleh incident, the negotiators transparency is very striking. For a star in passing from the deliberately left this portion of the frontier out of their calzenith to an altitude of about 2° has its light diminished nearly by a culations. whole magnitude more in the plain than on the top of the Why, undeterred by the experiences of which that entertainmountain. From the observations, according to Laplace's ing traveller and Anglophobe, M. Bonvalot, had lately given so Theory, the loss of light produced by the atmosphere in the alarming a picture, should an Englishman and his wise cross this zenith at Säntis is about 12 per cent. ; or, in other words, a star desert ? Mr. and Mrs. Littledale are eager in the pursuit of viewed from a point above the atmosphere would appear brighter rare game. They were old travellers ; they had sojourned in by about 0'14 of a magnitude. Since the corresponding value the forest wildernesses of the western Caucasus; they had, on for Potsdam is 0'2 magnitude, it follows that the absorption a previous occasion, penetrated Central Asia. A pair of horns produced by a stratum of atmosphere between sea-level and a
were to them what a bit of rock from a maiden peak is to height of 2500 metres amounts to o'o6 magnitude. Before others. this value, however, can be accepted as definite, simultaneous And lastly, why did Mr. and Mrs. Littledale go from north observations of stellar magnitudes must be made at stations to south? Why did they, being English, make Russian territory lying closer together than the two between which the comparison their starting-point? Thereby bangs a tale. Because our is instituted.
Anglo-Indian Government prohibits all independent travel in its trans frontier lands. Something may be said for this course,
but it does not stop there. It also gags its own official explorers. THE PAMIRS.
It carries yearly farther and farther the policy deprecated by
Sir H. Rawlinson in this hall, when he said : “Russia deserves AT the meeting of the Royal Geographical Society on all honour for her services to geographical science in Asia. I
Monday the paper read was on a recent journey across the only wish I could say as much for ourselves as regards our own Pamir by Mr. and Mrs. Littledale. In introducing the paper, frontiers." Mr. Douglas Freshfield made some remarks on the subject No one, least of all the Council of this Society, would ask for generally
the publication of any tactical information our military authoriThe Pamir or Pamirs (Mr. Freshfield said)--for Pamir is a ties desired to withhold. But the military authorities go along generic term, the different strips of tableland are distinguished with us in asking for an intelligent censorship in place of a by separate names-is a vast tableland averaging 12,000 feet in wholesale system of suppression of the mass of knowledge, height and 200 miles in length by 120 to 150 miles in breadth, general and scientific, acquired by the servants of the State in ringed by a rough horseshoe of mountain ranges, and inter- our frontier and transfrontier lands. We believe, and the sected by snowy ridges and shallow trenches that deepen west- Council have represented to H.M. Government, that the present wards, where the streams of the Oxus descend towards Bokhara. practice is not in accordance with the existing official rules, that The numerous photographs taken by Mr. Littledale exhibit a it was intended and has been ordered that expurgated copies of characteristic type of landscape :-tent-shaped, glacier.coated all official reports of public interest should be given to the ridges, bare heights naked of verdure and shorn of forests by public. They hope that the departments concerned will before
long be instructed to give practical effect benceforth to any such instructions that may exist, and thus that the forward march of English power may once more, as it should, be accompanied by a general advance of scientific knowledge.
Leaving Samarcand early in Jay, Mr. and Mrs. Littledale drove in Russian post-carts up the beautiful valley of the SyrDaria, which reminded them in parts of the Vale of Kashmir, as far as Osh, the last post-station. Here they organized their caravan for their great adventure, the crossing of the Pamirs into Kashmir. They had the advantage of previous experience of Cenual Asian travel, and of the cordial assistance of the Russian Commandant, Colonel Deubner, who could hardly have done more for the travellers had they been his own nearest relatives. After much hesita'ion from the difficulty of obtaining any trustworthy information as to the state of the Alai passes, they selected ihe Taldik, 11,600 feet, before crossing which, they left behind the last tree and bush they were to see untill reaching the valley of the Gilgit.
Crossing the Alai plateau they proceeded by the Kizil Art Pacs to Karakul Lake. Thence their route led over passes of 15,500 feet, in sight of the great Mustag Alla to the Murgab or North Oxus, which they struck at 12,300 feet, their correct elevation between the Alai and Sarbad. Another pass of 14, 200 feet led over the Alichur Pamir-where Ovis poli horns lie about in hundreds—to the Boshgumbaz Valley. The pass of the same name was found impracticable. Mr. and Mrs. Littledale made a long detour to visit the Victoria Lake, one of the sources of the South Oxus, for purposes of sport. Thence they turned eastwards and crossed by the Little Pamir Lake into the Valley of Wakhan. When near Sardab they met with their first misadventure, and this was the encounter with the troops of our ally the Ameer. The civil authorities detained Mr. and Mrs. Littledale for many days, and only let them go at last grudg. ingly, and after having despoiled them as far as they could without open robbery.
ELIZABETH THOMPSON SCIENCE FUND. THIS fund, which has been established by Mrs. Elizabeth
Thompson, of Stamford, Connecticut, " for the advancement and prosecution of scientific research in its broadest sense, now amounts to $26,000. As accumulated income will be available in December next, the trustees desire to receive applications for appropriations in aid of scientific work. This endowment is not for the benefit of any one department of science, but it is the intention of the trusters to give the preference to those investigations which cannot otherwise be provided for, which have for their object the advancement of human knowledge or the benefit of mankind in general, rather than to researches directed to the solution of questions of merely local importance.
Applications for assistance from this fund,'in order to receive consideration, must be accompanied by full information, especially in regard to the following points :
(1) Precise amount requireal. Applicants are reminded that one dollar ($1.00 or $1) is approximately equivalent to four English shillings, four German marks, five French francs, or five Italian lire.
(2) Exact nature of the investigation proposed. (3) Conditions under which the research is to be prosecuted.
(4) Manner in which the appropriation asked for is to be expended.
All applications should reach, before December 10, 1891, the Secretary of the Board of Trustees, Dr. C. S. Minot, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. It is intended to make new grants at the end of 1891.
** The trustees are disinclined, for the present, to make any grant exceeding three hundred dollars ($300); decided preference will be given to applications for smaller amounts. (Signed) HENRY P, BOWDITCH, President.
WILLIAM MINOT, JR., Treasurer.
CHARLES-SEDGWICK MINOT, Secretary.
List of Grants hitherto made. 1 1. $200, to the New England Meteorological Society, for the
investigation of cyclonic movements in New England. (American Meteorological Journal for 1887, and May 1888.]
* The results published are given within brackets.
2. $150, to Samuel Rideal, Esq., of University College,
London, England, for investigations on the absorp
tion of heat by odorous gases. 3. $75, to H. M. Howe, Esq., of Boston, Mass., for the
investigation of fusible slags of copper and lead smelting. [Trans. Amer. Institute of Mining En
gineers, Feb., 1890.] 4. $500, to Prof. J. Rosenthal, of Erlangen, Germany, for
investigacions on animal heat in health and disease, [Sitzungsber. Ki Akad. Wiss., 1888, 1309-1319; 1889, 245-254. Arch. Anat, 11. Physiol., Suppl.
1888, 1-53.] 5. $50, 10 Joseph Jastrow, Esq., of the Johns Hopkins
University, Baltimore, Md., for investigations on the laws of psycho-physics. (American Journal Psy
chology, 1890, III., 43-58.] 6. $200, 10 the Natural History Society of Montreal, for the
investigation of underground temperatures. (Cana
dian Record of Scince.) 7. $210, to Messrs. T. Elster and H. Geitel, of Wolfenbüttel,
Germany, for researches on the electrization of gases by glowing bodies. (Sirsungsber. K. Akad. Wiss.
Wien., xcvii., Abth. ii., 1175-1264, 1889.] 8. $500, to l'rof. E. D. Cope, of Philadelphia, Penn., to assist
in the preparation of his monograph on American
fossil vertebrates. 9. (Withdrawn.) 10. $125, to Edw. E. Prince, Esq., of St. Andrews, Scotland,
for researches on the development and morphology of the limbs of Teleosts. [" Inaugural Dissertation,
Pp. 24, Pls. II., Glasgow, 1891.] II. $250, to Herbert Tomlinson, Esq., of University College,
England, for researches on th: effects of stress and strain on the physical properties of matter. [Philos.
Magazine, Jan., 1890, 77-83.] 12. $200, to Prof. Luigi Palmieri, of Naples, Italy, for the con
struction of an apparatus to be used in researches on
atmospheric electricity. 13. $200, to Wm. H. Edwards, Esq., of Coalburg, W.Va.,
to assist the publication of his work on the butterflies of North America. [" Butterflies of North America,"
3rd Series, Part V.] 14. $150, 1o the New England Meteorological Society, for
the investigation of cyclonic phenomena in New
England. 15. $25, to Prof. A. F. Marion, for researches on the fauna of
brackish waters. 16. $300, to Prof. Carl Ludwig, for researches on muscular con
traction, to be carried on under his direction by Dr. Paul Starke. [Abhandl. math. Phys. Classe K.
sächs. Ges. Il'iss., xvi., 1890, 1-146, Taf. i.-ix.] 17. $200, to Dr. Paul C. Freer, for the investigation of the
chemical constitution of graphitic acid. 18. $300, to Dr. G. Müller, for experiments on the resorption of
light by the earth's atmosphere. [Publicationen A strophys. Observ. Potsdam., viii., 1-101, Taf'n
II.] 19. $300, to Prof. Gerhard Kruss, for the investigation of the
elementary constitution of erbium and didymium.
[Lielig's Annalen, Bd. 265, 1-27.] 20. $50, to Dr. F. L. Hoorweg, for the investigation of the
manner and velocity with which magnetism is pro
pagated along an iron bar. 21. $150, to Mr. W. H. Edwards, to assist the publication of
his work on North American butterflies. [“ Butter.
flies of North America," 3rd Series, Part VIII.) 22. $250, to Dr. Ernst Hartwig, for researches on the physical
libration of the moon (see Grant No. 27). 23. $200, to Prof. Charles Julin, for researches on the mor
phology of Ascidians. 24. $250, to Prof. M. Nencki, for researches on the deco nposi.
tion of albumenoids by microbes. (Arch. Expi.
Path. Pharmak., xxviii., 311-350, Taf. IV.-V.) 25. $200, to Prof. Carl Frommann, for researches on the minute
organization of cells. 26. $300, to Edward Atkinson, Esq., for experiments on cook
ing, to be carried on under the direction of Mrs. Ellen H. Richards. [Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv.
Sci., 1890.] 27. $250, to Dr. Ernst Hartwig, to continue the work of Grant
28. $200, to Edward S. Holden, Esq., for researches on stellar on account of a total want of fossils. M. Obrutcheff also con
spectroscopy, to be carried on at the Lick Observa- firms the glaciation of the whole of these highlands. The tory.
valleys are filled up with morainic deposits, with polished and 29. $150, to Prof. J. Kollmann, for investigations on the em. striated boulders, and there are traces of inter-glacial layers. bryology of monkeys.
The dômes arrondis and the roches moutonnées, so familiar to the 30. $25, to Prof. J. P. McMurrich, Clark University, Worces glacialist, are frequent, and the author gives interesting facts to ter, Mass., to study embryology of Aurelia.
confirm the transport of boulders at great distances over the 31. $200, to Dr. Johannes Dewitz, Zoolog. Institute, Berlin, mountain-ridges, which cannot be explained without admitting
Germany, for researches on the laws of movement of that the whole of the highlands was covered with a mighty ice-
cap. The same number contains a note by the same author on 32. $150, to Alexander McAdie, Clark University, Worcester, the Jurassic sossil plants recently discovered on the Bureya River
Mass., for experiments on atmospheric electricity. (a tributary of the Amur), and a list of 290 flowering plants 33. $250, to Prof. Julien Fraipont, University of Liége, Liége, collected by Mme. Klements in South Yeniseisk and Tomsk,
Belgium, for the exploration of the cave of Engihoul. and described by M. Preyn. 34. $50, to Prof. M. E. Wadsworth, Houghton, Michigan, for
observations on the temperature in mining-shasts.
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
LONDON. 36. $250, to Dr. G. Baur, Clark University, Worcester, Mass., Chemical Society, November 5.-Mr. W. Crookes, F.R.S.,
for the exploration of the Galapagos Islands. Vice-President, in the chair.—The following papers were read :37. $300, to Prof. Edw. S. Holden, Lick Observatory, Cal., The magnetic rotatory power of solutions of ammonium and for astronomical photography.
sodium salts of some of the fatty acids, by Dr. W. H. Perkin, 38. $250, to Prof. Louis Henry, Louvain, Belgium, for re- F.R.S. Ostwald has argued that the peculiar results obtained
searches on the fundamental solidarity of carbon by the author in the case of solutions of acids and of ammonium compounds.
salts, &c., are in accordance with the electrolytic dissociation 39. $300, to Prof. I.. Hermann, Königsberg, Prussia, for phono- hypothesis ; and has suggested that since salts formed from weak graphic experiments on vowels.
acids are as good conductors as those formed from strong ones, 40. $50, to Prof. Alpheus Hyatt, Cambridge, Mass., for re- we may expect in this case also, marked deviations from the searches on the evolution of Cephalopoda.
calculated values. He also considers that such salts as ammonium formate, &c., when in aqueous solution would show molecular
rotations which would not be the sums of the rotations of the UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL components of the salts, as must nearly be the case if the view INTELLIGENCE.
put forward by the author be correct, that such salls are almost
entirely dissociated into acid and base. The author has obOXFORD.-Convocation on Tuesday arrived at the following tained results which show that the rotatory powers of the decision :
ammonium and sodium salts do not vary with dilution ; and on "That the University accept the offer of Mr. G. J. Romanes, comparing the experimental values obtained in the case of F.R.S., Christ Church, to give an annual sum of £25 for a ammonium salts with those afforded by the constituent acid and lecture to be delivered once a year on some subject approved by ammonia, as night be expected, as reduction of rotatory power the ViceChancellor relating to science, art, or literature. The always attends combination, the values are slightly less in lecturer to be called the Romanes Lecturer, and to be appointed the case of the salts. This reduction is very nearly the same as by the Vice-Chancellor annually in the Michaelmas Term, the that which takes place in the formation of the corresponding lecture to be delivered in the next following Easter or Trinity ethereal salts, and as the latter are anhydrous, the results show Term on a day to be fixed by the Vice-Chancellor, who shall that the values for ammonium saits in solution are practically give public notice thereof to the University in the usual manner. those of the dry salts, and therefore that Ostwald's views are inAlso, that the thanks of the House be given to Mr. Romanes applicable. —Note on the action of water gas on iron, by Sir for his liberality."
H. E. Roscoe and F. Scudder. Whilst making experiments on We understand it was Mr. Romanes's wish that the the application of water gas for illuminating purposes, the foundation should be anonymous ; but as such a course was authors have observed that occasionally the Fahnehjelm comb found to be without precedent, and otherwise impracticable, he becomes coated with a deposit of serric oxide, and a further yielded the point to the University authorities.
examination of the tips of the steatite burners showed that the Mr. H. T. Gerrans, Fellow of Worcester College, has deposit of ferric oxide was "coralloid," and therefore could not been elected by the Board of the Faculty of Natural Science a be produced from dust in the atmosphere. They also observe member of the Committee for nominating Masters of the Schools that water gas which has been standing in steel cylinders at a from Hilary Term 1892 to Hilary Term 1895. Mr. C. H. pressure of 8 atmospheres for about a inonth coniains a much Sampson, Fellow of Brasenose College, has been elected larger quantity of iron. A preliminary determination of the by the same Board of Faculty a member of the Committee for iron in this gas amounted to 24 milligrams per litre. Although nominating Mathematical Honour Moderators.
the compound, which is doubtless the iron carbonyl of Mond and Quincke, is only present in this small quantity, the authors
have succeeded in proving that it can readily be liquefied. In SCIENTIFIC SERIALS.
the discussion which followed, the Chairman referred to the fact
that at the recent British Association meeting at Cardiff, Mr. A good deal of interesting geological information is given in Mond had exhibited specimens not only of liquid iron carbonyl, the last number of the Isvestia of the East-Siberian Branch of but also of a solid compound of iron with carbonic oxide. Prof. the Russian Geographical Society (vol. xxii., 2 and 3). M. | Ramsay stated that he had found that the compound of nickel Obrutcheff gives an orographical and geological sketch of the with carbonic oxide was formed in the cold.—The dissociation highlands of the Olekma and the Vitim, with the exploration of of liquid nitrogen peroxide, by J. Tudor Cundale. The author which he was intrusted by the mining administration. Besides has determined by colorimetric methods the relative amount of the upheavals of these highlands, which have a general direc- NO, formed in liquid nitrogen peroxide, (!) by dilution with tion from the south west to the north-east, M. Obrutcheff chloroform, (2) by rise of temperature. He has also aseertained found another series of upheavals stretching west-north-west the absolute amounts of dioxide by comparing the colour of the to east-south-east, the chief ridge of that system (named liquid solution with that of the gas containing a known amount Kropotkin's ridge by the author) rising to the height of from
of nitrogen peroxide. The results show that, on dilution, (1) 1300 to 1500 metres, and separating the tributaries of the dissociation takes place very slowly at first, but more rapidly Lena from those of the Vitim. Several lower chains seem when less than 5 per cent. of the peroxide is present ; (2) that to have the same direction. The whole series consists of solutions of the peroxide dissociate more rapidly than the pure metamorphic slates and limestones, intersected by granites liquid on rise of temperature. - Ortho- and para-nitro-orthoand gneisses, and belongs to the Lower Silurian and Cam.
toluidine, by A. G. Green and Dr. T. A. Lawson. The authors brian system, a closer definition of its age being difficult find that when ortho-toluidine sulphate is nitrated in a large