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produce abundance of fine fruit, particularly the peach, and vegetables, that yield a profitable return in the New York and Philadelphia markets. But the middle section is the most highly improved and wealthy part of the state. Valuable iron ores and other minerals abound in this state. Several thousand manufacturing establishments, of various kinds, are vigorously prosecuted. The value of the iron manufactures is estimated at nearly two milions of dollars annually. Many eminent men have gone forth from Nassau Hall, Princeton; and several high schools and academies adorn the state, but primary education has been too much neglected.
The central position of this great state, its wealth, its natural resources, its grand artificial flues of communication, and its population, make it one of the most important in the Union, and have obtained for it the honorable distinction of being denominated the
Key Stone of the Arch.” Like Virginia, it stretches quite across the great Appalachian system of mountains. Distinguished topographers have boldly asserted that it may be doubted whether a more widely diversified region exists on the face of the earth, than Pennsylvania, or one of similar area on which the vegetable and mineral productions are more numerous; and, it may be added, the climate of which is more congenial to health. Besides marble, which it produces of a beautiful variety and excellent texture, the state abounds with iron and anthracite coal in quantities literally inexhaustible. This highly favored state is, moreover, emphatically congenial to wheat, and admits a wide diversity of vegetable productions, embracing, in fact, (with the exception of rice) the entire catalogue of cerealia cultivated in the United States. Manufactures are also carried on in great variety and extent, many of which are of superior excellence. Improvements for internal intercommunication have been executed on a grand scale, extending over broad and rapid rivers, through rugged defiles, and over lofty mountains. Pennsylvania has the honor of having constructed the first turnpike in the United States. Philadelphia, the most regularly laid out, and handsomely built city in the world, is second only to New York in population, and while it is inferior only to that city and Boston (on this continent) in commerce, it yields to none in the Union in the wealth, enterprise, and intelligence of its citizens. Time would fail to describe the number and excellence of its literary and benevolent institutions. Free schools abound in the city, and the legislature in its wisdom has not very long since perceived the importance and propriety of extending them throughout the state. There are nine hundred and thirty-three school districts, of these, eight hundred and forty have accepted the provisions of the law for their support. During the past year, there were in these accepting districts, three thousand seven hundred and fifty-eight male teachers, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-four female teachers, five thousand two hundred and sixty-nine schools, one hundred and twenty-seven thousand, six hundred and seventy-seven male scholars, one hundred and six thousand and forty-two females. Among the distinguished citizens of this state, who have long labored to establish the common or free school system, perhaps no name stands so conspicuously pre-eminent as that of Joseph R. Chandler, Esq., whose consistent, able, and persevering efforts in this noble cause, have justly entitled him to the esteem and admiration of his fellow-citizens.
Delaware, after Rhode Island, is the smallest state in the Union; and in point of population, inferior to that state, sending but one member to lower house of Congress. The more northern parts of the state are slightly undulating, but it becomes almost a perfect level towards the ocean. The soil is generally thin and marshy, but in some places the land is rich, and well adapted to the productions of wheat, which may be said to constitute the staple commodity of the state. There were in the state, in 1833, some fifteen or twenty cotton mills, besides machine shops, foundries, woollen manufactories, paper mills, two powder mills, producing upward of a million of pounds, twenty quercitron mills, seventy-two flour mills, producing upward of one hundred and thirty thousand barrels of flour and Indian corn meal
per annum; some forty or fifty saw mills, &c., and Wilmington has several ships engaged in the whale fishery. The state is divided into school districts, which are authorized to lay a tax for the support of free schools. The number of school districts is one hundred and thirty-three.
This state being completely, though irregularly, divided in nearly its entire length, by the famous Chesapeake Bay, presents in what may be termed its ground plan, a very unique and singular appearance. That section of the state lying east of this
great estuary, and usually denominated the “ Eastern Shore,” consists, for the most part, of an extensive sandy and clayey level. It is, however, by no means unproductive; Indian corn and wheat being the agricultural staples. The same articles, with tobacco, are the staples of the western section; the soil of which is generally non-productive, and its broad, moist valleys, forming fertile meadows, and luxuriant pastures; great quantities of flour, and Indian corn meal are annually exported from this state. An abundance of valuable minerals is also found, particularly the iron and other ores, yielding metal of excellent quality. Manufactures are carried on to a
a very considerable extent. The herring and shad fisheries constitute an important article of trade, and yield a valuable return. Commerce is extensive, the shipping amounting to about one hundred thousand tons. The superiority of the Baltimore naval architecture, particularly as applied to vessels of smaller construction, has long been proverbial. The enterprise of the citizens of Maryland is conspicuously exhibited in its magnificent public works, most of which are on a gigantic scale. Various scientific and literary institutions flourish in this state ; colleges, academies, and high schools are fostered by liberal appropriation, and considerable provision has been made for the education of indigent children.
This state, covering an area greater than that of England, is "the largest and most central state in the Union; and being perhaps the most varied in her productions, the richest in natural resources, blessed with a most happy climate, abundantly supplied with noble channels of communication, exhibiting over her spacious bosom a pleasant interchange of the wildest and most lovely scenes, Virginia seems to possess within herself the elements of an empire. Nor to the American heart are the historical associations connected with the “ Old Dominion,” as she is fondly called by her children, of less interest; here the first English colony in America was planted. Virginia disputes the honor with Massachusetts, of having given the first impetus to the ball of the revolution. She gave birth to the Father of his Country; and his mortal remains repose in her soil, Professor W. B. Rogers's “ Geological Reconnoisance," demonstrates the mineral wealth of this state to be boundless; and the citizens are beginning to realize now, more than formerly, the great importance of bringing forth these hidden treasures from the bowels of the earth. The hydro-sulphurous springs of Virginia have been long celebrated; their efficacy in cases resulting from derangement of the liver, and want of function of this organ and the stomach, is, perhaps, unsurpassed by any in the world. And the Warm and Hot Springs, also found here, are not less salutary in rheumatic and cutaneous diseases. Indian corn, wheat, and tobacco, are the principal agricultural productions, and cotton is raised in the southeastern counties to an extent of some three hundred and fifty thousand bales per annum.
There are valuable public works for facilitating the intercommunication between the different parts of the state. Primary schools for instructing poor children are in part supported by the literary fund of the state.
North Carolina, in its whole width, for about sixty miles from the sea, is generally a dead level, supposed at no great distance of time to have been covered by water, and is varied only by occasional springs in the immense forests with which it is covered. But beyond this a beautiful country is seen stretching west, of a fertile soil, and adorned with forests and lofty trees. The soil and productions of the hilly country are nearly the same as in the northern states, Orchard fruits are produced in abundance, particularly the apple, and peach. Grain is cultivated to some extent, and cotton is raised in considerable quantities; the cotton crop is about thirty-five thousand bales. Some valuable mineral productions abound in this state, particularly gold and iron. A mint for the coinage of gold has been erected, and is in operation in this state. The pine forests which cover nearly the whole of the eastern part of the state, yield not only much lumber for exportation, but nearly all the resinous matter used in ship building in the country. No system of general education has been adopted.
This state, for one hundred miles from the sea, presents a forest of pitch-pine, varied only with occasional swampy tracts. Beyond this is what is called the Middle Country, consisting, for the most part of low, sandy hills, of an undulating appearance. Still farther westward, the country gradually ascends, exhibiting a beautiful alternation of hill and dale, interspersed with extensive forests and watered by pleasant streams. Gold and iron ore are found in the western section of the state, and have yielded some valuable returns; but the mineral resources of the state are, on the whole, inconsiderable. Cotton and rice are the agricultural staples ; these great staples are very extensively cultivated, the cotton crop being about sixty. six million pounds; and the annual exports of rice from the United States, which are chiefly from this state, amount to nearly two hundred thousand tierces. There are no manufactures of any importance in South Carolina, but the commerce of the state is necessarily extensive, the exports, including large quantities of the productions of Georgia and North Carolina. The shipping belonging to the state is disproportionate to the extent of its commerce; the foreign and coasting trade being mostly in the hands of foreigners and northern ship owners. Measures, however, have recently been adopted by a convention of delegates from several southern states, for augmenting this branch of commercial investment, and for encouraging the direct importations of their own merchants. Several useful canals have been constructed, but of no great extent. A rail. road leading from Charleston to Hamburgh, opposite Savannah, one hundred and thirty-five miles, has been some time completed. Another great work is now being constructed, at an estimated cost of ten millions of dollars, (the Charleston and Cincinnati railroad,) whole distance six hundred miles. Extensive means have been created for the education of poor children, both by the state, and various benevolent institutions.
Georgia, in point of dimensions, is exceeded only by Virginia and Missouri, and although the last settled of the Atlantic colonies, has been surpassed in prosperity and rapidity of growth by none of the eastern states except New York. This state, like the Carolinas, has extensive swamps, but large portions of it are blessed with a strong productive soil, and a mild and healthy climate, and is represented
as " being everywhere fertile and delightful; continually replenished by innumerable rivulets, either coursing about the fragrant hills, or springing from the rocky precipices, and forming many cascades; the coolness and purity of whose waters invigorate the air of this otherwise hot and sultry climate.” Its mineral resources are very imperfectly known. No systematic mining operations are carried on, although copper and iron have been found.' Gold is the most valuable mineral yet produced. The sulphurous springs in Butts county are much resorted to for their efficacy in cutaneous and rheumatic affections. The great agricultural staples are cotton and rice; the other exports are tar, pitch, turpentine, and lumber. The value of exports amounts to about eight millions of dollars annually. Of imports not much over half a million. A canal from the Savannah to the Ogechee, is the only artificial channel of navigation. Railroads have been constructed to some considerable extent. The income of a poor school fund is divided among the counties, but there is no system of common education.
The northern part of this state is somewhat mountainous, being traversed by the Appalachian chain, yet for the most part pleasantly diversified. The central and southern sections assume a more level surface, consisting of some extensive plains and pine barrens, interspersed with alluvial river bottom, of great fertility. Cotton is the great agricultural staple ; the crop exceeding four hundred thousand bales. Fruits flourish abundantly. Bituminous coal and iron ore abound, and of an excellent quality : several forges on the Catawba are in operation. The mineral resources, however, of the state, have never been carefully explored. The enterprise of this youthful state has been manifested, by the construction of several important useful works for intercommunication. Its growth has been extremely rapid. Mobile is a flourishing commercial town; an idea may be formed of its advancement by a knowledge of the fact, that in 1830 the population of Mobile was three thousand, four hundred; in 1835, five thousand, three hundred; and by the census taken last year, it was found to be nearly fifteen thousand. The exports of Mobile this year, amount to upwards of seventeen millions of dollars. Ample means are provided in this state for the
promotion of learning, and for the gratuitous education of indigent children.
There are no mountains within the limits of this state, but numerous ranges of hills of moderate elevation, give to greater part of the surface an undulating and diversified character. The eastern border is characterized by an extensive region of swamps, subject to annual inundations. There is one tract between the Mississippi and Yazoo one hundred miles in length, by fifty in breadth, that is an