« AnteriorContinuar »
thousands of dollars in the purchase of machines
Too Rich for Wheat. for grinding corn-cobs. Corn-cobs show, on
We were told lately, by a farmer, whose expe. analysis, some nutriment matter, but not enough rience lies in one of the finest districts of Maryto pay for grinding. Some gold mines do not
land, that the most uncertain portions of the pay the cost of working them.
lands of his neighbornood, for wheat, were those As to Dr. Dadd's remarks on "animals whose wbich were richest, viz, the bottom lands. He systems want the requisite amount of phos- spoke of the clover fallow of a neighboring farm phates," it seems to us far too learned for the which averaged forty-two bushels of wheat to occasion. We have heard a great deal of this the acre, on a fifty acre field, and thought that scientific talk of the need of phosphates, and this would not be an unusual thing but for the supplying this or that particular article of diet uncertainty of the bottom lands. When they to cure the deficiency. Plain people should learn yield well the result was always a heavy crop, but that a cow, whose system “wants the requisite the average was often greatly reduced by their phosphates,” is a poor beast, that has not had a
failure. The hills and hill-sides very seldom sufficient supply of any good food known to cows failed. This result as to the bottom lands did or cow-keepers. Then they will not need Dr.
not take place when corn was the crop: with this Dadd to tell them that oat straw and ground there was rarely a failure. Our friend had formed oats would be very good aliment. So would
the opinion that land might be too rich for wheat corn blades and corn meal be excellent aliment; but not for corn. or even good wheat straw and a daily supply of
When we called to mind how often crops of bran. In summer, any good grass lot would
this grain had, elsewhere, even exceeded the supply all the phosphates her system might require. All articles known to us as good food heavy average named, and that sixty and even
seventy bushels have been often reached, we could for animals furnish, if given in proper quantity, enough of this essential ingredient. This fact is well accounted for, we think, by imperfect drainage.
not concur in this opinion. But the fact may be sufficient for our guidance under ordinary cir
There is always, as is very apparent, excess of cumstances. The cow, besides the phosphates moisture, even in the driest of such lands. In she may require in common with other animals, the summer season there may not be more than yields a large quantity in her daily flow of milk.
sufficient for a heavy crop of corn, but in winter It is a proper subject of scientific inquiry wheth- it will be very likely to cause the throwing out er the variety of food which is found in experi- of the wheat in freezing and thawing, and esence to be most productive of milk is that which pecially subject it in summer to destruction by contains the largest percentage of phosphates.
It will be remarked that what is here vacant
is not land in any degree swampy, for no one The Power of a Growing Tree.
would think of putting wheat in such land. It Walton Hall had at one time its own cornmill, is quite dry enough, in all ordinary seasons, to and when that inconvenient necessity no longer plow well, and sufficiently drained to draw the existed, the mill-stone was laid in an orchard water readily from the surface, but there is too and forgotten. The diameter of this circular much moisture in the subsoil, and when the sun stone measured five feet and a half, while its gets much power in the early summer, it makes depth averaged seven inches throughout; its cen- just the condition of things favorable to rust. tral hole bad a diameter of eleven inches. By Moreover, the wheat is always more succulent mere accident, some bird or squirrel had dropped here and keeps green longer; both circumstances the fruit of the filbert tree through this hole on
favoring the attacks of rust. We should be to the earth, and in 1812 the seedling was seen
glad to see experiments made in draining these
bottoms. rising up through that unwonted channel. As its trunk gradually grew through this aperture
Mr. John Johnston said, some years ago: “I and increased, its power to raise this ponderous did last year what I never did before; that was mass of stone was speculated on by many. plowing up wheat stubble and sowing again with Would the filbert tree die in the attempt? wheat. It is a respectable looking crop now, Would it burst the mill-stone, or would it lift it? but if you saw the half of the field that I sowed In the end the little filbert tree lifted the mill- salt on, say a full barrel to the acre, I am almost stone, and in 1863 wore it like crinoline about sure you would order forty or fifty barrels of its trunk, and Jr. Waterton used to sit upon it second quality of salt to sow in September or under the branching shade.- English Paper.
October. The salted wheat stands much thicker
on the ground, is considerably taller, came in ear the globules is by heat, by fermentation, or by fully four days before the other, and altogether the chemical agency of acids or alkalies. looks richer every way; and as I had not salt 4. That the dextrine, which is the kernel, as enough to sow the whole field, I sowed the half it were, of each globule, is alone soluble, and that has hitherto brought the worst crop, and therefore alone nutritive. latest in ripening. Now it is much the best. I 5. That the shells of the globules, when recan stand in the middle of the field and look duced to fragments by mechanism or heat, are forty-five rods each way, and see distinctly how therefore not nutritive. far the salt came; or I can ride or walk down 6. That though the fragments of these shells the side of the field not salted, and see the line are not nutritive, they are indispensable to dias plainly as if on the one side was corn and the gestion, either from their distending the stomach other wheat. If this won't make men experiment or from some other cause not understood; it with salt'I don't know what will."
having been found by experiment that concenSalt may be made very useful in economising trated nourishment, such as sugar or essence of manures, as directed in the Gardener's Cbroni- beef, cannot long sustain life without some mire cle: Dissolve common salt in water, sprinkle the ture of coarser or less nutritive food. same over your manure heap, and the volatile 7. That the economical preparation of all food parts of the ammonia will become fixed salts, containing globules or fecula, consists in perfrom their being united with the muriatic acid fectly breaking the shells, and rendering the dexof the common salt; and the soda, thus liberated trine contained in them soluble and digestible, from the salt, will quickly absorb carbonic acid, while the fragments of the shells are at the same forming carbonate of soda ; thus you will retain time rendered more bulky, so as the more readily with your manure the ammonia that would to fill the stomach.-Selected. otherwise fly away, and you have also a new and most important agent introduced, viz, the car
Necessity for More Reliable Experiments. bonate of soda, which is a powerful solvent of
We have had theories of agriculture without all vegetable fiore.
end, propounded for our consideration; innumerIt is matter of surprise that opinions among able guesses have been hazarded upon every conscientific as well as practical men should be so
ceivable topic; inclusive of experiments, which unsettled as to a substance so familiar as common
no man can number have been made, and yet, to salt. It would be well to have it freely experi
our shame be it spoken, there is scarcely a single mented with, and we especially wish to see its question which has been mooted in American effects tested on the bottom grounds considered agriculture, that can be said to be settled on the too rich for wheat.
sure basis of reliable experiments.
Many of our indigenous grasses have never Why Scalded Meal is More Nutritious than Raw.
been analyzed. There is a bopeless discrepancy The nutriment afforded to animals by seeds between the analysis which have been made in and roots depends upon the rupture of all the Europe and America. Thus, by the analysis of globules which constitute their meal flour. These Mr. Way, in England, the ash of timothy gives globules vary in different roots, tubers and seeds.
11 per cent. of the phosphates and 24 per cent. Those of potato starch, for instance, are usually of potash. According to the analysis of the from fifteen ten-thousandths to the four-thou
same grass, made by Mr. Salesbury, under the sandth part of an inch ; those of wheat really tains 16 per cent. of the phosphates and 36 per
direction of Prof. Emmons, at Albany, it conexceed the two-thousandth part of an inch, and
cent. of potash. so on. From experiments made on these globules by M. Rapsail, the author of "Organic Chemistry," and M. Boit, of the French Academy of Sciences, the following conclusions have been The theoretical value ed by Boussingault drawn :
to rye straw, in comparison with English hay, 1. The globules constituting meal, flour and was 479 lbs. That is, 479 lbs. was equivalent starch, whether contained in grain or root, are to 100 lbs. of English bay. Fresenius, as the incapable of affording any nourishment as ani- result of his analysis, gave 527 lbs. of straw as mal food, until they are broken.
equivalent to 100 lbs. of hay. Boussingault 2. That no mechanical method of breaking or makes 319 lbs. of potatoes, 70 lbs. of Indian grinding, is more than partially efficient. corn, and 60 lbs. of oats, each equivalent, in nu
3. That the most efficient means of breaking tritive principles, to 100 lbs. hay. Fresenius
COMPARATIVE VALUES OF FOODS-ACTUAL TRIALS
AT THE MANGER.
makes 330 lbs. of potatoes and 58 lbs. of oats
Hints on Manures. equivalent to 100 lbs. of hay. If we compare
We reproduce some useful hints, for which we the equivalent values of different species of food;
are indebted to a practical man, whose experience deduced from actual feeding of animals, we find has authorized him to give his opinions. It will the confusion even worse confounded. Bloek be observed that he economizes and preserves, in makes 216 lbs. of potatoes equivalent to 100 lbs. the best manner, the manure from horses, cattle, of hay; Petri, 200 lbs.; Meyer, 150 lbs. Block sheep, hogs, poultry, all under a uniform system found 39 lbs. of oats equivalent to 100 lbs.; Pe- of management. While exception may be taken tri, 71 lbs.; Thaer, 86 lbs.; Pbaes, 60 lbs.;
to some points of his practice, it cannot be denied Scheveitzer, 37} lbs. I have searched industri- that on the whole it deserves high commendation: ously for chemical or experimental researches in
First, the horse stable is kept well littered with this country, with which to compare the discordant results of Europe, but I am compelled to dry leaves, applied, sometimes, as often as once
a week; at others, only once a fortnight. When confess that if such exist, I have been unable to
the stalls get about twelve inches deep in manure, find them.
they are emptied by first throwing the manure Chemical analysis indicate that timothy has
into the stable passage with the dung forks, and twice as much muscle making nutriment, and twice and a half as much fat making nutriment, ing shed, to remain until wanted for the land.
then carrying it in wheelbarrows into an adjoinas sweet-scented vernal grass. It has 25 per cent.
This removal and spreading checks the fermentamore muscle making power than Kentucky blue
tion and the consumption by fire fang, to which grass, or than Fescue grass; but I cannot find that this has ever been verified experimentally
stable manure is liable, except under careful
management, and saves it from being sobbed with either in Europe or America.
The cattle are penned on the same spot every We learn from analysis of Mr. Salisbury, that night in the year, in a square yard, with an open 100 lbs. of the Ohio Deut corn contains 8.58 lbs.
shed on its north side, fifteen feet wide. This of flesh forming principles, and 60.34 lbs. of fat shed and lot are regularly littered, and the maand heat forming principles—while 10 lbs. of
nure never disturbed but three times in the year. the small eight-rowed corn contains 13.80 lbs. of The sheep lot adjoins both horse and cow lots, flesh forming, and 44 lbs. of fat and heat forming and is regularly littered, and the sheep are penned principles. Now, if such difference really exist in it every night in the year. This lot has also in these varieties, farmers may make a great deal
a house on the north side, and in this house the of money by knowing it. But they do not know sheep are salted three times a week, the year it, or even suspect it; with them, a bushel of round, and fed every night during the winter. corn is worth a bushel of any other corn, just as
To the objectiou made to penning on the same much as one gold eagle is worth another; and spot throughout the year it is answerable that yet we see, if Mr. Salisbury's analysis is reliable, sheep are not safe from dogs in the fields or in 100 lbs. of the eight-rowed corn will lay 25 per the hurdles, but are safe in a lot immediately adcent. more muscle upon a hog or a bullock than joining the other stock. It is also objected that the Ohio Deut.
the labor of moving the pens and hurdles during There is not a single experiment upon record the busy season makes it liable to be neglected. which has, for its object, the verification of this Into the horse lot, which is also littered, the chemical indication by actual feeding. If the hogs are called and fed every night, if it is only fact were once reliably proved, the knowledge a nubbin to each. Here they sleep, and are would be worth half a million dollars annually turned out every morning. In the winter, the to the farmers of the State.
hogs fattened to kill are penned upon leaves, and then a load of manure is made to every hog, and
the loads are always a four borse wagon body If a lond of horse manure, a load of cow ma full. nure, and a load of bog manure, should be of The cbicken coop is littered with a little fine fered to a farmer, each at a specified price, he straw, occasionally sprinkled with lime, (plaster could not tell which would be the cheapest.-would be better,) charcoal dust or ashes. This There is not a farmer in the State that knows is considered equal to guano, pound for pound, exactly what profit he can make upon a load of but rarely finds its way to the farm, being thought any kind of manure.-- From Address of J. Stan- the best manure for onions, tomatoes, Irish potaton Gould.
Behind the stable is a pen built of logs, into cay of corn stalks and coarse straw. But it which is thrown occasionally a load of leaves, should be protected from rain. Some farmers and upon these leaves are thrown all the leached pitch long manure in the wagon with horse ashes of the farm, all the dead chickens, pigs, forks. But I never could perceive that the pracrotten eggs, sweepings of the house-yard, soap- tice would pay, because a horse fork will not suds, now and then a peck of salt, the slops from hold as much as a horse is capable of elevating. the chambers daily, and all kinds of bloody water It is easy for any one to try the experiment, or slops that the hogs will not eat.
which will soon satisfy all anticipations or doubts The manure is never touched till it is dry, and on this subject.– North British Agrieulturist. only hauled out when the land is dry. In this way the loads seldom contain less than eighty
A correspondent of the Germantown Telegraph The manure is never put down in heaps, or gives the following sensible advice: little conical piles, to be scattered hereafter. It "A majority of farmers do not attach importis scattered from the wagon broadcast, and ten ance enough to the subject of saving and making or twelve wagon loads cover an acre; of horse manure and compost. To them manure and lalot manure, only trampled leaves, twenty wagon bor are what capital and credit are to the merloads are put on; of good dry and pulverized chant. They think they cannot afford to pay stable manure, about eight hundred busbels, or five and six dollars per cord for manure, and it eight to ten wagon loads per acre.
does seem a high price; but one thing they can We have given these items of manure manage- do, they can take better care of what they have, ment as an example for large or small farmers, and prevent the waste of what is the most valuwho have heretofore been careless in the matter. able part. Many hog pens are built on sloping Some extra work of course will be required to ground, the manure sinking away to some drain supply the large amount of litter. One hand on
and lost. Now with proper care the manure of a large farm would be sufficient for the purpose every hog raised and fattened is worth twenty and do a good many other useful jobs. On a dollars to put in corn hills. It is better not to grain farm, a proper use of the straw and stalks let hogs wallow in the manure, as most of farwill amply supply the place of leaves. Not only mers do, with the view that the hogs will work will a great quantity of good manure be manu fine the coarse trash generally thrown into the factured, but the stock of every description will pen. Make a tight board floor to the pen to prebe greatly benefitted by the abundant littering. vent the leakage of the urine and manure, then
throw in the absorbents, such as weeds, straw,
shavings, sawdust, leaves, chip dirt, briers, and Forking Barnyard Manure Over.
in fact almost fine hickory brush, clean the sty This is essential to rotting well. When corn
out once a week, and throw the manure into a stalks, straw and ordure of animals are all trod square pile, exposed to all the rain that falls, and down firmly during the winter and spring, the in a dry time keep the manure moist by the adair is effectually excluded, and the material will dition of water, or cover with damp earth to not rot until it has been forked over, were it to
prevent the "blue blazes.” By this arrangeremain there for a year or more. If it is loosened ment, with ten hogs and plenty of material, a up so that the air can circulate among it, the en farmer will make near two hundred dollars' tire mass will decay in a few weeks, so that it worth of manure ready for the land in good conwill be easy to pitch and spread it. Now, the dition, and have better hogs than if he allowed most expeditious manner of pitching manure up them to wallow at pleasure in the mass. clean from the bottom is to do the greater portion of it with a horse fork. Set up three long CHARCOAL FOR TURKEYS.-A California paper poles as for pitching hay on a round stack, and says a recent experiment has been tried in feedmake a hole down to the bottom of the manure ing charcoal for fattening turkeys. Two lots of first; then tbrust the tines of the horse fork un four each, were treated alike, except for one lot der the manure, and turn it up in large rolls, finely pulverized charcoal was mixed with mashed and tear it to pieces with hund forks. Horse potatoes and meal, on which they were fed, and forks are of great service where the manure is broken pieces of coal also plentifully supplied. very long. After it has rotted, a man, or two The difference in weight was one and a half men, can pitch much faster by hand. If barn- pounds each, in favor of the fowls supplied with yard manure remains in the yard all summer, it coal, and the flesh was superior in tenderness and should always be forked over to facilitate the de- 'flavor.
I do not understand those for poor which are Sunday Reading.
vagabonds and beggars, but those that labor to
live, such as are old and cannot travel, such poor The militant and the triumphant are not two
widows and fatherless children as are ordered to churches ; but this the porch, and that chancel
to be relieved, and the poor tenants that travel of the same church, which are under one head,
to pay their rents, and are driven to poverty by Jesus Christ : so the joy and the sense of salva- mischance, and not by riot and careless extion, which the "pure in heart” have here, is
penses : on such have those compassion, and God pot a joy severed from the joy of heaven, but a
will bless thee for it. joy that begins in us here, and continues, and accompanies us thither, and then flows on, and
How silly it would be to envy a man that was dilates itself to an infinite expansion ; the plenary drinking poison out of a golden cup: and yet congumation thereof being respited till we "see
who can say that he is acting wiser than this, God."
when he is envying any instance of wordly It is no brag to say that the ministry of the greatness ? gospel is more glorious than that of the law.
For those, who mix in the world with safety, God would have everything in the last temple there is needed just the reverse of the very gifts more glorious than in the first, which was fig- which make men the worlds' favorites, namely, ured by the outward frame; more glorious in
gifts of caution, retirement, and silence. Christ's time than that of Solomon, as that was beyond the tabernacle. This is a “better testament." That had the shadow-this is the sub
When injured by any one, we should rememstance.
ber that God presents to us the most glorious op
portunity of showing forth his own image, No bound or measure can be assigned in the mercy and forgiveness. reception of divine grace, as is the case of earthly benefits. The holy spirit is poured forth co
Endeavor to subdue all thy irascible, as well piously, is confined by no limits, is restrained by
as concupiscible, affections; the sum of all huno barriers : He flows perpetually; He bestows manity and the height of moral perfection is in rich abundance. Let our hearts only thirst,
"bear and forbear." and be open to receive Him, as in proportion to the capacious faith we bring, will be the abound
The love of one's friends is common to all reiog grace we receive.
ligions; the love of one's enemies is characteris
tic of christians. Nothing can be our happiness in this life, but what is to be the foundation of it in the next. Heaven is the universal measure of all things If I cannot serve God and my Saviour with de earthly. Riches, pleasures, honors, will not light, and make a kind of heaven of it here, He
profit there. has no other heaven for me hereafter.
Happy the soul that, in the lucid intervals of a Make not the hungry soul sorrowful; defer not wounded conscience, can praise God for the the gift to the needy; for if he curse thee in the bitterness of bis soul, his prayer shall be heard Blessed is he, O Lord, who loveth Thee, and of Him that made him.
loveth his friend in Thee, his enemy for Thee.
Praise for pensiveness, thanks for tears, and
Music is sweetest near or over rivers, where the blessing God over the floods of affliction, makes echo thereof is but rebounded by the water. the most melodious music in the ear of heaven.
God has two thrones; one in the highest How did the martyrs glory in their sufferings heavens, the other in the lowest hearts. for Christ? calling their chains of iron chains of gold, and their manacles bracelets.
The joy of the world is nothing but the im
purity of sin. The tree of life, said the holy Hyperichus, grows in heaven; and humility is the grace that He sure is rich, that has the key to God's climbs and touches the top of it.