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-rather in a little shrinkage, than in the occasional application. It may be made by damage to quality and quantity, by too long pouring water upon manure of almost any delay.
description, which should be allowed to stand,
with an occasional stirring: The elder leaf is The Vegetable Garden. very offensive to many insects, and may be
thrown into the liquid to give it more effiJUNE.
ciency in this respect. Vegetables of almost every kind will need close attention during the month. The grass
The Fruit Garden. should be strictly kept down and the surface loose.
Newly-planted trees should, by all means, Early Crops.-As these pass away, let the have a mulch of straw, leaves, or other coarse ground be cleared of their remains, and pre- litter thrown around them, to the distance of pared for late ones. Spinnage, lettuce and three to four feet from the stems, before very radish, may give place to late beets, cabbage dry and hot weather sets in. In the absence and celery. These may be planted, too, be- of these they must occasionally be well watertween the rows of early peas.
ed in dry weather. Cabbage, Cauliflouer, Broccoli.- Make sure of Apricot, Nectarines, Plum and Peach Trees an abundant supply of plants for these crops, should be thinned in due time by those who by sowing again, if necessary, and forcing are fortunate enough to have a full bearing. with liquid manure.
Let such fruit as falls, being punctured by the Cucumbers—May still be planted for table curculio, be gathered up and destroyed. use, and in July, for pickles.
Grapes.-Stop the shoots before the bunches Cymblins-May still be planted.
of grapes, and train wood for next year's bearCelery-May be planted for early use, the ing. Young vines coming into bearing, should principal crop not till July.
not be allowed to bear full crops—the less the Egg PlantsMay still be planted. They better, until they have age and strength. Enare slow growers, and should be pushed for courage growth of foliage, and pinch out the ward with liquid manure.
points of strong shoots, to give strength to Peas and BeansPlanting may still be weaker ones, and so make a uniform growth made for succession crops.
on the canes. Roasting Ears.—Plant for late crop.
Strawberries—While in bearing will be much Lima Beans.—Make sure of crop of this benefitted by frequent watering, if the season vegetable.
be very dry. If new beds are to be made for Tomatoes.—Put out an extra supply of next year's use, the sooner the better, if you these that there may be enough for winter can get a favourable season for transplanting. use. They can be so well preserved that no Otherwise transplant the runner-plants into a family should be without them in winter. shaded border, where they can be protected Peppers.—Plant out these.
and watered, and put them into their permaOnions.—If the tops of these be very luxu. nent beds in September. riant, press them gently to one side, and bend them down. This will check the flow of sap, The Catawissa Raspberry. and cause the bulbs to form. They should be
We don't entirely agree with our friend, weeded very carefully, without disturbing the Thomas Meehan, respecting the Catawissa roots, and no earth drawn to them. Seeds raspberry, who admits that if properly manmay be sown for pickles, and sets, for another aged it is productive and valuable as a late year.
sort. He says, or is represented to say, “all Herbs.—As the garden herbs come into that is necessary, is to cut it down in the spring flower, let them be cut and dried in the shade. to about two feet, and pile plenty of manure
Liquid Manure. It is very desirable to have about the roots on the surface of the ground." on hand a supply of liquid manure to be used Why cut it down in the spring, and why to for such things as may need vigorous help. two feet? We were among the first to cultiYoung plants, of weekly growth, may be in- vate this raspberry in this neighborhood. We vigorated and protected from insects by an commenced some twelve years ago by pur
chasing six plants. Subsequently one plant stakes, and kept tied up as they advance in was sent to us by Col. Paxton, of Catawissa, growth. who originally discovered the raspberry, grow Flowering Shrubs-Newly planted out, ing in the old Friends' burying-ground at that should be mulched before the summer drought place, and we found it to be identical with the begins. others. Our own rule has been to cut the canes down even with the ground the last of Keep the grass cut and the walks firm and November, cover with manure and let alone. well rolled; pulling out weeds from the latter The manure answers as an excellent mulching by hand. The gravel should have clay enough the following year. By this means the whole with it to make it pack firm and smooth, and strength of the stool or roots is thrown into should not be chopped or otherwise disturbed. the new wood, and a far more productive crop Gas tar, coal ashes, and gravel, make a good is obtained. It begins to ripen about the 20th walk, if the smell of the star is not objectionof August and continues to furnish a supply able. The walks should be made firm and far into October, if the season is favorable. smooth by rolling when wet, and kept so. We have had them upon our table on the 11th of November. The poor crop which the foot
Fall Flowers. of the previous year's wood will afford is not
To produce an elegant effect in the flower needed when there are plenty of other berries garden in October and November, sow now for early summer use, and it detracts just seeds of the double white wall-flower-leaved about in the same proportion from the fall stock. As soon as the plants are large enough crop. We think highly of this fruit and have to be transplanted, put each one separately a profuse supply from about twenty-five stools into a seven-inch pot and plunge the pots to every year without any signs of the stools run
the rims in any out-of-the-way place. They ning out.-Germantown Telegraph.
will need no care until September, when they
will commence to bloom. Reject those with The Flower Garden. single flowers as soon as they are discovered.
If the seed is good, nearly all the plants will This is the season of especial beauty in the prove double. Early frosts, which destroy Flower Garden, and of enjoyment to the cul- many other bedding plants, do not have the tivator. The flush and glow of the summer slightest effect upon this stock. In October bloom of flowers-
they may be turned out into any of the beds
where the plants have been killed, and their "The trees, and the blue sky, and sunshine bright"
masses of double white flowers will attract these are the rewards of the faithful and lov- attention from every one. In our own garden ing tender of the Flower Garden. Let us not we had a fine show until the 10th of Decembe too busy to enjoy them. There are some ber, last year, long after every other bedding things to be looked after however.
plant was destroyed. This stock grows to Seedling Plants.-There will be many of the height of but nine inches and the same in these now large enough to go into the borders. diameter across the plant.— The Horticulturist, Stock Gillyflowers, Wall Flowers, Sweet Williams, Canterbury Bells and many others.—
16 Forty thousand barrels of cranberries, Water well when planted, unless the ground it is estimated, will be the crop of New Jersey. be wet, and, if practicable, shade them till Ocean County furnishes 16,000 barrels. New rooted.
England, Michigan, New-York, North CaroBulbous Roots—When thoroughly ripe, lina and other localities will produce probably should be taken up, dried several weeks, and 50,000 barrels additional. It is thought that then packed in dried sand or wrapped sepa- the value of the crop will be not less than rately in paper till time to plant again.
$1,200,000. In this State (New Jersey) once Perennial Plants.-Cut off the flowering valueless swamp lands are now worth $1,000 stems of such perennial plants as have finished per acre for cranberry culture. their bloom, except when wanted to save seeds from.
There are 22,693,427 acres of unimproved Dahlias.—Have these supplied with neat / land in farms in Texas.
An Essay on Colic and Bots in Horses. licking, the ova adhere to the tongue, and are Written for the "American Farmer" by G. H. DADD, carried into the horse's stomach in the act of
V. S., Baltiinore, Md. Entered according to Act of Congress in the 1885, the horse's stomach, and are sometimes, though
swallowing. The bots attach themselves to
Court for the District of Maryland.
less frequently, found in the first intestine. Coatinued from May number-page 327. The number varies considerably; sometimes
there are not half a dozen, at others, they exI have associated the subject “Colic” with ceed a hundred. They are fixed by the small that of Bots, because it often happens that end to the inner coat of the stomach, to which when a horse is tortured with either flatulent they attach themselves by means of two or spasmodic colic, and stands with his head hooks." turned towards the flanks, some persons are Let us now, briefly, enquire into the history, apt to conclude that he is tormented with habits, &c. of some of the lower orders of “bots,” and in view of giving the so-called parasites, and we shall perceive that the pres“bots” their "ticket of leave," the animal is ence of bots in a horse's stomach is no deviacompelled to swallow a juvenile apothecary tion from the general rule which seems to obshop, including pounded glass, more likely to tain in all created beings.* In the study of kill than cure. I must confess, however, that animal physiology, we discover that animals the subject of bots brings me into “deep and insects require the operation of certain water," as the saying is, for very many horse forces in order that their peculiar vital promen, and farmers, too, have always entertained perties shall be manifested. They all require an idea that the bot is a mortal enemy to the food, water and oxygen; food, for the developequine race and is always injurious, and I ment of organized tissues; water, to maintain often fail to succeed in convincing men of the an equilibrium between the solids and fluids, real facts in the case. I hope, however, on and oxygen, for promoting various changes, this occasion to convince some of our readers uniting some particles of the fabric for special that bots are not quite so destructive to horses purposes, and dise ging others destined for as many persons have been led to suppose. excretion. These agents have to be obtained
Mr. Bracey Clark, who has paid consider- under varied circumstances. The number of able attention to the subject, informs us that the different species of reptiles known to natu"bots are not, properly speaking, worms,
but ralists is about thirteen hundred, and there are the larvæ of the gadfly, which deposits its are at least one hundred and sixty thousand ova on the horse's body in such a manner as species of insects. Among this vast assembthat they shall be received into his stomach, lage of animate forms, a great proportion of and then become bots. When the female fly them obtain food, water, and oxygen in a situhas become impregnated, and the ova are suf- ation and at a temperature which is most conficiently matured, she seeks among the horses genial to each species; each one of which a subject for her purpose, and approaching it exhibit great variety in organization and on the wing, she holds her body nearly up
"it is a curious fact that numerous parasites do crawl right in the air, and her tail, which is length over the surface of our bodies, burrow beneath our skin,
nestle in our intestines, and riot in propagating their ened for the purpose; she approaches the
kind in every corner of our frame, producing ofttimes part where she designs to deposit the ova, and
such molestation and disturbance is to require the inter
ference of medicine. Nearly a score of animals that have suspending herself for a few seconds, suddenly their dwelling place in the interior of the human body,
have been already discovered and described, and scarcely darts upon it, and leaves the ova adhering to
a tissue or an organ but is occasionally profaned by their the hair by means of a glutinous fluid secreted inroads. Each, also, has its special or its favorite domi
cile. One species chooses the heart for its place of abode; with it. She then leaves the horse at a small another inhabits the arteries; a third, the kidneys.-distance, and prepares the second ova, and Myriads of minute worms lie coiled up in the voluntary
muscles or in the areola tissue that connect the flesh poising herself before the part, deposits it in
fibres. The guinea-worm and chigoe bore through the
skin, and reside in the subjacent reticular tissue. Hythe same way; the liquor dries and the ova datids infest various parts of the body, but especially the
liver and brain. A little fluke, in general appearance become firmly glued to the hair. This is re
much like a miniature flounder, lives, steeped in gall, in peated by various flies, until four or five hun. the biliary vessels. If you squeeze from the skin of your
nose, what is vulgarly called a maggot (the contents of dred ova are sometimes deposited on one one of the hair pellicles), it is ten to one that you find in horse; they are usually deposited on the legs, tremely minute, yet exhibiting, under the microscope, a
that small sebaceous cylinder several animalcules, exside and back of the shoulder; those parts wiving inmates; but it is in the intestines that we are most exposed to be licked by the animal. In
most infested with these vermin."'-- WATSON.
habits-hence the necessity for that diversity of development; these are all fætal hydatids; in their geographical distribution which seems they increase in size until the parent sac is to surprise some of us.
so distended that it finally bursts, and thus Each species of reptile and insects, or at liberates a multitude of parasites, which, in least very many of them, carry about with their turn, undergo the same evolution, bethem, in their own organization, the fertile coming, each, a parent hydatid, producing cmbryonic habitation for successive increase subsequent generations, which diffuse themand development, and all are, to a certain ex- selves over the whole body of a pig; hence tent, dependent on one another for vitality arises that peculiarity in pork known as and food. It has been truly said that there “measels." is “life within life.” Begin, for example, with His body, also, is sometimes completely infestthe body of man, and we shall find that it is ed with parasites known as Trichinæ Spiralis, occasionally infested with thirty-nine distinct dwelling in myriads in the muscles of the species of entozoæ. These are not confined body; yet no indication of the presence of to a local situation, like the bots in the stomach these worms seems to have been afforded in of a horse, but some are to be found in the those instances in which the condition of the eye, bronchial tubes, glands, kidneys, urinary animal in whom they were found was known, bladder, gall bladder, liver, intestines, mus- during life. The intestines of the pig are cles, blood, &c. There are also several species ofttimes full of worms known as ascaris lumof entophytæ to the number of ten, inhabi- bricoides, and these parasites are so prolific tants of the skin and mucous surfaces. So that naturalists have calculated many millions that man can boast of a greater number of of ova within the body of a single female. living parasites, within and about his body, Many of these perish, yet a part of them, at than we have as yet been able to find in the the proper season, are deposited within the body of his servant, the horse; and if the intestines of the pig, who, notwithstanding, former can carry about in the living citadel, grows fat, and after passing from the hands such a myriad host of active, living parasites, of the butcher, furnishes savory meals for the often without much inconvenience, and he lovers of pork. being the weaker of the two, why should not Sheep also are infested with various forms the horse, who is the strongest, be able to of entozoæ, yet it is very rare that those aniendure the presence, and furnish nutriment, mals suffer any inconvenience from the prefor the few bots that occasionally locate in the sence of the parasites, except when present stomach, and be able to perform ordinary in large quantities. I might go on to show work without inconvenience ?
that every living being is more or less infested Some of the inferior orders of creation are with parasites, and that almost all parasites the receptacle of immense masses of parasites. are in turn likewise affected, but the examples The grasshopper, for example, is soinetimes here offered must answer my present purpose. infested with a parasite known as gordius— The very atmosphere we breathe, and which a sort of hair worm-which some persons have serves as the purificator of the vital current erroneously supposed to be a transformed the blood-teems with an innumerable host horse-hair. Several of these coil themselves of living, organized sporules and invisible to in the digestive cavity of the former, often the naked eye-infusoria. The water which penetrating its abdomen, thorax and cranium; serves to quench our thirst, and plays so the weight of the parasites often exceeding important a part in the economy of man and that of the body of the grasshopper, yet we animals, whether it be in lake, pond, spring, often see and hear the latter skipping, jump- or gully, contains crowds of parasites, or aniing and chirping, notwithstanding this para malculæ; at times so numerous are they that sitic mass, just as freely, perhaps, as others several hundred thousand have, by means of not so infested.
magnifying lens, been discovered in a single Then consider the condition of swine; we drop of water. Yet such water is good and frequently find in the porcine liver a vesicle, pleasant to the taste, and is not injured thereby, or sac, filled with fluid, apparently possess- neither is it injurious to man. ing no further, or no real organization ; but Dr. Leidy states, that he has at various examine it carefully and we shall find within times purposely swallowed large draughts of its tunic, other sacular cells in various stages / water containing myriads of animalculæ, with
out ever perceiving any effect; and he combats on the bot; the external surface of its body the idea that diseases are produced or propa-is impervious to fluids-non-absorbing-insengated by parasites taken into the stomach in sible, composed of bristles in rows, and interthis way. The most curious feature, however, mediate tissue, identical in structure with that in the history of parasites, is their extraordi- of the claws of birds, and nails of man; nary powers of multiplication, which is doubt in fact the bot will live for some time in strong ed by some persons, but it is well known to acids; they may be kept in proof spirits for others, that some species of these creatures weeks, and even months has not sufficed to are capable of producing a hundred repetitions destroy them; they will then, on being washed of themselves, and the process can be repeated and exposed to the sun's rays, give evidence ten times in a season. The common white of vitality. ant is capable of depositing ova at the rate It was formerly thakali of eighty thousand per day from
vapavie of perforating the walls of the verks, and the common flesha maggot stomach; but this opinion is now generally is generated by the million, in the course of a exploded. They do not possess the means, if few hours; and as regards growth and devel- they had the inclination to bore through the opment, the common flesh fly and the cater- stomach. Yet as some wonderful stories are pillar increase in weight two hundred times often, at the present period, related of bots in the course of twenty-four hours.
burrowing through the stomach, it may be But the bot is a creature that does not proper for me to refer to that subject. multiply nor increase in bulk at this rapid
The stomach of a horse is the nursery and rate; he may be set down as a “slow coachi,” | home of the bot, its natural habitation; here and when once located in the only domicil it generally remains during its minority, or that he ever inhabits, (the stomach of a horse) until it is fully developed and capable of exit becomes his abiding place for a period of ercising an independent existence, or of unnearly twelve months. The bot is a sort of dergoing metamorphosis into the gadfly:aristocratic entozoa; he lives in the upper Destined therefore by the law of nature; region of the stomach; he seldom internixes, which localises all equine parasites to their or associates with the common parasites of respective tissues and organs, out of which the intestinal tube. The little creature seems they are very seldom found, and then merely to exercise considerable tact in selecting his by accident; the little creature is too comfortaabiding place, although he has but a “squatter'g” bly esconsed ever to attempt an escape title to it, yet his location is the best and through the stomach into the abdominal safest in the whole “diggings." He is in the cavity, where it would be out of its element; upper and anterior part of the stomach, where if the period has arrived for the bot to vacate the fluids-poison or medicines—with which its stronghold it chooses the safest and ordiyou are about to coax or drive him off, are
nary route, which is through the alimentary inoperative-for they merely act as a shower canal-intestines. The month of May is usubath—and pass immediately through the ally the period of their maturity; at this stomach into the intestines, where all the fluid
season the horse being at grass the bots will a horse drinks is generally found; therefore leave him. such remedies do not disturb the bot. Then, Bots are occasionally found in the abdomiagain, the bot is usually located on the cu pal cavity, but if the stomach of the dead ticular part or coat of the stomach; a mem horse be carefully examined, it will be found brane as insensible to pain as that which gives to have been ruptured, either as a consequence an interior lining to the gizzard of a chicken. of disease--ulceration-or from over-distenThis part possessing but very little vascularity sion by gas. Very many cases of flatulent is not susceptible to the action of medicine or
colic terminate in rupture of the stomach, or any of the ordinary bot remedies, and the bot from decomposition. being within his own castle, his suctorial disk,
[To be continued.) or mouth, imbedded in this non-absorbing membrance of the stomach, can refuse to Treat your horses with that kindness imbibe the proffered dose, which, however, which is characteristic in all the actions of a
merciful man; no animal will appreciate it often succeeds in destroying the horse. better or respond to it with more gratitude
Another reason why medicine does not act than the horse.