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The Illyrians are probably of the same stem with the Thracians; at east, the elder writers, who had visited the country or conversed with natives of it, confound them together : whereas the Kelts are always contradistinguished from thern, even when resident among them. Of all the European nations, the Illyrians and Thracians only had the practice of tattooing their bodies. Their original lan. guage is probably preserved in the Epirotic dialeót of the present times : but in Illyria itself, the Slavonian tribes have wholly extinguished every other tongue. The eastern continuation of the Alps comprised the ancient dwellings of the Illyrian nations. From the Julian Alps, the high lands spread uninterrupted between the Save and the Adriatic to the Haemus and to Macedon. Of this mountainous district, the Illyrians occupied the southern declivity, together with the sea-coast, from about Aquileia to the modern Epirus. On these very mountains, down the southern declivity towards the Save, were the oldest seats of the Paeonians, as the Greeks styled them : of the Panronians, as the Latins called them. They ex
tended from the Ukraine to Macedonia. Thus Strabo specifies their station, and he flourished while Augustus and Tiberius wore in conflict with theiu; his account is " confirmed by Véleius Patercelus, , and Appian, from the cousinenta. so Fies of Augustus. . . --
Strabo does not in any thing dis, Vol. XXXVIII. §
tinguish the Paconians from the other Illyrians. Herodotus, who knew them experimentaly, does not indeed expressly reckon them as a branch of the Thracian stem, because he says that the quantity of single tribes is too great to be enumerated: but he knows only of Thracians on the south side of the Danube; he describes them as co
vering many distrićts, and placea among them the Paeonians by the Strymon and the Drino, without distinguishing them from Thra
cians;—and as he deduces the
Patonians from the Teucri of Asia,
he farther corroborates the opinion of their being of Thracian race,
whose Asiatic origin is certain.
If the Thracians be one race with the Paeonians and Illyrians, the Kelts must not be derived from the
Thracians ; for the Romans con
stantly discriminate between the language and warfare of Kelts and Illyrians.' Thucydides also notices the Paecnians in this site. Perhaps, in elder periods, they had extended their seats farther north unto the Danube, and were compressed in the couthern mountaics by tie Kelts; who, as I shall slow, overflowed at one period the whole south of Hungary. Certain it is that the Romans found towns of the Panonians only about the Save :--but, when the Keits were repulsed, and the plains emptied, the Pannonians began to migrate from their mountains into the champaign, and to extend their habitations to the Danube. At this pe. riod, probably under Claudius, Paniolia obtained its constitution and boundary as a Roman province; although fortresses had long before been raised along the river. The original district of the Panno
nians, materially differs, it should
be remembered, from the Roman province of Pannonia. .
Dion Cassius, himself a governor of Upper Pannonia, blames the Greeks for confounding the Paeonians near Macedon with the Pannonians near the Danube: but as he supports his opinions on slight grounds, and would derive the name Pannonia from pawnis, (the material of their large sleeves), it seems more rational to reject his notion,--trusting rather to Strabo, -Velleius, and Appian, who place the Paeonians and Pannonians all along these mountains. His error is natural enough to one who first knew the Pannonians in modern Hungary, in a tutored agricultural state, and had only heard of the rude Paconians of Macedon; between which nations, much of Illyria and Maesia seemed to interpose.
it comes from the Asmiraean mountains of the south-east in the 47# degree of latitude. Farther west, where the main stream inclines towards the Emodian nuountains, a -third tributary river arises, underthe 44th degree of latitude, but more to the north than the BautiSUS. edly the Erzineh, which loses itself in the desert of Sohuk, or in the lake Sopu. The eastern stream can hardly be any other than the river Onghen; which, like the Erzineh, never mingles with oths main stream, but in a minner approaches it. Ptolemarus, it shotst seem, had two accounts before
This latter arm is undoubt
The main strain, Qichardes, then, must be
latitude. It trends south-east to. wards the Emodian hills for four degrees, when it receives a second arm thence descending. In their farther progress, they bend towards the mountain Ottorokorra, and pass into an eastern unknown country. The Hoang-ho, or Yellow river, can scarcely be more clearly described from mere reports. Its northern arm Olanmuren arises in Koshotey, near to the desart of Kobi, and from the same mountains as the Erzineh. Its course is south-eastward, when it receives a southern branch Haramuren; which from the mountains of Thibet, takes a crooked north-east course. Of its northern bend Ptolemaeus says nothing : but he appears to Pre-suppose it, as he assumes another beid to the east; which, if he supposed the stream to flow straight, would be needless. - The rivers Psitaras, Cambari, and Lanos, which Pliny assigns to the Seres, probably belong not here, but to the Indian coast east of the Ganges. The people of Serica are divided into the Anthropophagi, (or, according to Ammianus, XXIII. 6. Aiitrophagi), of the north, and the Annibi, who dwell contiguous to these. Between the latter and the A szak mountains are the Sisy ges. The cannibals are placed in the forth of Siberia, of which nothing was known ; of the other two, who seem to have dwelt near the sea of Baikal, he may have heard. Above the Oichardes are the Damnae and the Piadz, and near to the river the Oichard.e. Again, in the north, but east of the Annibi, are situated the Ga
renaei and Rabanei; probably among the Monguls of Kalkas:—for, immediately below them, occurs the distrićt Asmiraea, at the foot of the mountains so named. Below these extends to the Kasian mountain the great nation of the Issedones. There can be no doubt that, by this name, Herodotus meaned Monguls. Beside them are Throani, near a town of this name; and below them, on the east, Thaguri. Farther to the north-east, Dahuri. Among the Issedones dwell the Aspakarae, who have their name from a city. Near these, the Batta; and the most southerly are the Ottokarra." mountaineers. . These three nations occupy the province of Shiensi: Ptolemaeus knows nothing of the more easterly parts. The cities of Serica and Damna, at the west end of the Oichardes, and at some distance northward from the river: Piada, on the southern bend of the Selenga, here called the Itscha : Asmiraea, near the mourtains so named : Throana, on the east side of the Onghen, in the region in which the ruins of Karakorum, once the metropolis of the Mongul sovereigns, are usually sought. The tribes above mentioned are probably named from these towns. Issedon Serica is contradistinguished from Issedon Scythica, which lay more to the north-west. This Chinese town, which Ptolemous names after the great nation of the isjedones, was situated northeast from the source of the Erzineh, and consequently on the borders of the desart of Shamo : he places, in fact, no town beyond it. Aspakara, which gives name to a tribe, lay near to the northern-Bautisus, and eastward from its source; on the Olammuren river, therefore, and probably in Koshotcy. Rhosoche lay much farther east in the same latitude. I know not where to seek it. Paliana and Abragana were both on the barks of the northern Bautisus and in Koshooey. Togara and Daxata were both in the middle of the province Shien.i, and probably near the Hoa-ho ; for all these places were in a south-east line towards the bend of the Bautisus, and towards Sera, the metropolis. Orosana lay near the source of the southern Bautisus, or the Haramuren. Ottorakorra along the course of the same river near its easterly bend, and to the north of the distrićt to which and to whose inhabitants is gives its name. Solana was more eastward: I know not where. Sera, the capital, was at some distance from the south bend of the Bautisus. If Ptolemaeus means, by this south oxo-;, the contiguous river Hoà-ho, this Sera can be no other than Singan-fu, which is at some distance from its southern evolution :-but, if he knew of the bow of the Hoang-ho, it must be placed Inore eastward at Honan, The first seems to be in ore probable, as Ptolemous appears ignorai. of the eastern cooroo of the river, and may well have unistaken a part of the Hoa-ho tur a copiu.uation of his Bautisus; and also as Singan-fu is mained as a former inct copolis of the north-west parts of China. Sera was the easteroinos: resort of the merchants; and beyond it Pookoutso kroors toothing,
* Perhaps Pliny, VI. 17, alludes to these by the name Attacora.
h 2 ar33
Historical Account of Sculptor. Frost Falconer's Chronological Tablis; beginning with the R. ign of Sz.:now, and criting with the Death of Al-rander the Great. ALL the ancient writers have agreed in dividing it into two periods, the latter of which begins with the age of Phidias. Strabo ascertains these ages very exactly, tho' rather foreign to his subject; for, in describing the temples of Ephesus, there are some which he calls ancient, and in these were &zz #422 antique wooden figures. In the other temples, built, is 3. to: writor, is after-rimus, he transgresses from his usual form, and describes three statues in particular, which were probably of the age of Phidias and Scopas. Pliny and Pausanias abound in examples of this division of the periods. The former, when discoursing of Myron, says, “capilium nen emendatius fecisse quam radis a soglutas instituisset.” This “rudis. antiquitas” means what is termed the age of Daedalus and his scholars, who improved but little on the models brought from Egypt. However, as we have some dates in Play, which fix the progression of this art with telerable accuracy, we sha'i briefly touch on the history of this period from the earliest tives ; though the vague, and nearly fabulous relations of Dxdaius form some embarrassincut in, fixing the coguneacement of this acra. Diodorus Siculus and Pau. sanias agree in supposing there was an artist of that came who worked, for Minos in Crete, and built a labyrinth at Gnossus, of which no. vestige was left in the time of Augustus, Homer, in his 18th stad, does mention a Człows who forms4. Srnaed a dance for Ariadne ; but, s he uses the same word, a few nes after, adjećtively, to signify rtificially made, he might mean •y the former no more than what be word imports, an ingenious rtist. Eustathius interprets Honer as meaning that Daedalus only nvented the dance itself, and not that he worked it in either wood, stone, or metal. The statues of Daedalus, mentioned by Pausanias, were all of wood, and resembled, as we may suppose, the Egyptian; for Philostretus says, that the statue of Memnon was formed with the feet joined together, and the arms resting on the seat, after the manner 9f cutting figures in the age of Daedalus. Such was probably the figure of Minerva in Troy, mentioned in the 6th Iliad, which seems to have been in a sitting posture. We have no remains of these rude ages; but the forms of the Juno of Samos, carved by Smilis of Ægina, said to be contemporary with Daedalus, and that of the Diana of Ephesus, by the hand of Endaeus, or Endyus, a pupil of Daedalus, are preserved on the medals of their respective cities. These representations gave a very unfavourable idea of the Dzedalean age; yet we have no reason to doubt their authenticity, for the artists of polished times would never have disgraced their coinage with such uncouth figures, had they not been exact resemblances of objects made venerable by superstition. Some more of these wooden statues are described as existing at Thebes, Lehaden, Delos, and Crete, to the reign of Hadrian. They were nearly destroyed by wge; and yet Pausanias, fired by
eligious and antiquarian enthu. siasin, could find in them something divine; but what it was he does not explain. Some other of these statues were plated with gold, and their faces painted red, viz., two of Bacchus, in the forum of Corinth ; which gives us but an indifferent idea of the taste of that period. The Venus of Delos had only a head and arms, with a quadrangular basis instead of feet ; which shews that these sculptors had improved but little on the rude ages of Greece, when unhewn stones, or at best cut into a quadrangular form, were the only emblems of their divinities. Yet even these figures, I think, were not introduced into European Greece till after the days of Homer. The name of Dedaius was, we know, given to artists long after the Athenian Drdalus is supposed to have flourished. Pausanias himself mentions one of Sicyon of that name, which he seems to confound with the Drdalus mentioned by Homer. Dipaenus and Scyllus, according to Pliny, were the founders of the school of sculpture in Sicyon, and were the first who were celebrated for carving in marble. They flourished, says the same author, in the oth Olympiad, which is very probable : for at that period, the states of Greece were beginning to cultivate their talents, and to settle a form of government. Pausanias, by a strange anachronism of above 400 years, says, that Dipaenus and Scyllus were the sons of that very Diedalus who lived so long in Crete. Piiny indeed says, they were Cretans by birth, but that they settled at Sicyon. Is it not then more likely that they. were instructed long after by DaeH h 3 dalus