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labour for some departments of it, and it tion to the agricultural community, at any should not be entered upon, on a large scale, point, which intelligent and industrious adverunadvisedly.
tising could reach. Their wise policy has The planting is done in rows 8 feet apart been to be very sure of having excellent each way, making 680 hills to the acre. articles for sale, and then as sure that every
body should know it. Soluble Pacific Guano,
and Flour of Raw Bone they offer. Advertisements.
Lister Bros. Fresh Bone Superphosphate of We beg the attention of our readers to the Lime, is offered by the enterprising firm, advertising pages of this number. We are well Townsend & Sons, Agents, and is highly reassured that the business men who seek the
commended. substantial pages of the Farmer, through Rhodes & Co. offer their far-famed Superwhich to communicate with the agricultural phosphate, which we have reason to think community, are of such character as to give has a substantial merit that may perhaps, in a the strongest assurance of the value of what
measure justify them in not advertising so they offer for sale. We exclude with all the freely as in years past. care we can, humbuggery and quack adver
J. B. Ruth & Co. offer Bergen & Butz's tisements, and seek only those of reliable Superphosphate of Lime, and bring up the business men, engaged in legitimate trade and
rear of our list, making such a variety of ferresponsible in their dealings, and we have the tilisers, and of such character as afford the satisfaction of knowing that our pages put best opportunity for selection. such advertisers in communication with the most stable men of the agricultural class, and plants. Se ds, dc.-Edward J. Evans & Co.
Nurseries—Trees, Fruit and Ornamental such as want to buy and are generally able to
York, Pa. Of Fertilisers.-We have the Rodunda Is
R. Halliday & Son, Baltimore. Also Plants
and Flowers-specialty. land Guano, offered by Wm. Crichton & Son,
Ellwanger & Barry, Rochester, N. Y. General Agents. The agents sent last fall a
Richard Cromwell, Baltimore. lot of this guano for trial, to the Agricultural
Henry K. How, New Brunswick, N. Jersey. College, which unfortunately miscarried, and no report can be made of it. Very strong (Hewes & Warner, Agents, Baltimore.)
John Saul, Washington City, D. C. Also, assurances are given by gentlemen who have tried it, of its value and cheapness.
Plants, Flowers and Seeds-specialty.
Wm. Corse & Son, Baltimore. The Baltimore City Fertilising Company, a
Frank L. Morling, Baltimore. Also Plants valuable institution for preserving the health
and Flowers-specialty. of the city, by utilising its filth and offal,
H. F. Crowell, Hammonton, N. J. offer various fertilisers, including bonedust
Lukens Peirce, Ercildoun, Pa. and poudrette.
Small Fruits, Sceds, &c.-D. H. Brown, X. George Dugdale offers Baugli's Raw Bone
Brunswick, N. J. Phosphate, of which enormous quantities are
John S. Collins, Charles Collins, T. C. An. now being manufactured, and which las drews, Moorestown, N. J. obtained a National reputation.
P. Sutton, Beverly, N. J. Ncale, Ilarris & Co., an old Baltimore New Plants and Seeds.-B. M. Watson, Pls. firm of the highest standing, offer the Patapsco mouth, Mass. Guano Co's Ammoniated Soluble Phosphate. Grape l'ines.-Sullivan & Ford, Sykesville,
Andrew Coe's Superphosphate of Lime has Md. been long known in our market, and is in ex Dr. John B. Keasliy, Washington, D. C. cellent lands, Messrs. Herbert & Hairston, Dr. R. T. Underhill, New York, who also Agents.
makes PURE WINE from the Grape-neither G. Ober offers his Manipulated and the drugged, liquored nor watered. Ammoniated Alkaline Phosphates. Mr. Ober Wheat and Grass Seeds-specialty. George has been long known and commended in this A. Deitz, Chambersburg, Pa. line, both on his own account and by his long Stock, Poultry and neu varieties of Oats.-N. association in the firm of Kettlewell & Ober. P. Boyer & Co., Chester Co., Pa.
John S. Reese and Co. need no introduc Agricultural Implements.-Our old friends :
R. Sinclair & Co., Richard Cromwell, Thos. A New Agricultural Monthly_We take Norris & Son, all of wliom supply also Seeds, much pleasure in calling attention to the adver&c., &c.
tisement of The Farmer's Gazette, about to be Cresylic Soaps and Compounds, Plant Pro- issued at Richmond, by Col. S. Bassett French. tector, Sheep Dip, &c.—Jas. Buchan & Co., N. We welcome to a seat at the Editorial Board, York. Hewes & Warner, Agents, Baltimore.
one who has been long a warm friend of The Horse and Cattle Poroders.—David E. Foutz, Farmer and a frequent contributor to its col
umns. The communication in this number Baltimore.
with his initials, and others during some of
the past months on practical topics, with the Chemical Manuridg.
initial “F." are from his pen, and will indicate We are indebted to a friend for the follow-to our readers, in some measure, his ability ing extract from the Chemical News:
for the work he now enters upon. We wislı “On the property of M. Payne, at Boricourt the Gazette the most ample success, and com(Aisne) there is an experimental plot of ground mend it especially to the favour of Adverwhich is quite perfect in its way, and which
tisers. has already furnished important results. This
Having been for more than twenty years piece of ground is laid out similar to that at in important public positions in “Ola” VirVincennes, where, by different chemical ma
ginia, there are few of her citizens better nures, combined by the formulæ of M. Ville, known than Col. F., or more able to command we remark the same ascending scale of crops, from the weakest to the most luxuriant, with
The Use of Paper.–We notice that there is out the law governing the culture having
a company in Camden, N. J., who manufacshown a single exception.
ture a Patent Water-Proof Paper, extensively Not far from the border of a road, in a used for building purposes, said to be cheap fiinty land of very bad quality, a plot was ma and durable, and used in place of shingles, nured with 40 tons to the hectare; another tin, slate, &c., also for weather-boarding, walls, parcel of the same ground received a complete ceilings, and even for carpets, that are handianure of 400 kil. of superphosphate of lime, somely designed and will wear many years. 200 kil of nitrate of potash, 250 kil. of sulphate of ammonia and 350 kil, of sulphate of
THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE AT lime-in all 1200 kil.—the cost of which was
CIRENCESTER.—There seems to be a prevail325 franes per hectare (24 acres.) Stable dung ing impression that this institution is defunct. produced a miserable crop of wheat; the A few days ago we heard an officer connected chemical manure gave a splendid return.
with one of our colleges say so, in so many From a letter addressed to the Journal de le words. We believe, however, that the trutlı Aisne we learn the following:
is that the institution was never before in so A hectare of land treated by the complete prosperous a condition. A recent writer, wlio manure produced
las carefully examined its condition, and the 1,-8 hectolitres of wheat at 27 francs....... 756f.
results it produces as manifested in its students, arrives at the following conclusion : “Our own observation would lead us to re
commend any youth resolving on agriculture The same ground treated with good farm- | as bis occupation in life, to place himself with yard manure, 40 tons per hectare, only pro- a tenant farmer for a year, to acquire what duced
may be called the grammar of agriculture. 1-28 hectolitres, 50 litres at 27 francs...... 229f. 50c.
With this preparation, he would be in a position to derive greater advantage from a two years' course of instruction at the college;
after this, two years' residence with a skillful The hectare is about 24 acres; the kilogramme farmer, with daily observation, and the study is 2 lb., 8 oz., 1 dr., 14 gr.; the hectolitre is of the most approved agricultural literature, 6102.8 cubic inches=2 bu. 838; the litre is would form a reasonably safe foundation to 1-1000 of the hectolitre,
2 - Stra w 6070 kilos at Of. 4c. 3.-Small straw ......
00c. 80c. 00c.
2.-Straw 1696 kilos at of. 4c. 3-Small straw.....
For the "American Farmer."
leave it rough to the action of the winter frosts Lime-Guano-Pean-Clover.
In May, when danger of frost Va., Feb. 4, 1868. has passed, sow down 100 lbs. guano and two MY DEAR J.: In a former letter I mentioned bushels of peas and put in with cultivators or the tendency of lime to sink below the soil. single-horse plouglis. When the peas art Mr. Ruffin in his Essay on Calcareous Ma- matured—which will be about the middle of nures, mentions“Westover” as affording August–turn them under clean-not deep: proof of this prior to 1851. It is reported spread twenty to forty bushels of lime per that the present proprietor in fallowing with acre and roll with a heavy roller. When ready three horses in the fall of 1866 turned up to sow wlieat, apply another 100 lbs. guano, pure lime in such abundance as to give to the covering it, and seed with cultivators, and field the appearance of having been freshly immediately sow on this, grass seed—timothy limed. This is conclusive, and establishes, one peck per acre, if the lay is for marketalso, the point made when we last conversed otherwise two bushels orchard grass seed. In together, that deep ploughing was essential the spring sow two gallons of clover seed. I upon land which had been limed years before. should calculate upon a full return for the I refer you to Johnston's Lecture on Chemis- outlay, including rent, &c., in the increased try and Geology applied to Agriculture, and to product in wheat. With such a preparation the essay on calcareous manures above referred I should not look in a favorable season for less to. I call your particular attention to Mr. Ruf- than 20 bushels of wheat per acre. tin's essay, because his experiments were made In the mode proposed there would be sein our own midst and on land similar to that we cured for the action of the lime, a goodly cultivate. You are in the first years of man- quantity of vegetable matter-ensured by the hood and cannot better devote your leisure first 100 lbs. of guano; a sufficient stand for than to the study and thorough mastering of wheat and grass seed, afforded by the second your profession.
100 lbs. of guano, until they could reach and I have not much faith in guano as a fertili- feed on the pabulum furnished by the peas and zer, i. e. an IMPROVER. I consider it a power- lime in the following spring. ful stimulant to the crop, but I have never been I am not alone in my estimate of guano as able to discover any improvement to the soil an improver per se. I am constantly hearing where guano was used alone. E contra, I think of others, heretofore strong advocates, now I have seen decided injury result from its use. yielding to the conclusion that guano will not Certain it is that the second crop, after its ap- pay, unless used in combination with some plication, has been no better than that which other agent. The market gardeners in my preceded it. I do consider it, however, a section tie to bone dust-declaring that they most valuable assistant in speedily renovating do not get the real good of bone manure, unworn-out lands.
til the third or fourth year; they use guano as I am speaking of pure Peruvian guano. a stimulant alone. I am not prepared to speak of the several Guano—as well as all the manipulatel compounds in which guano is the main con fertilizers--are too costly to be wasted-and stituent. I do know of one, however, which it is a waste if you fail to seed to grass where I could recommend upon my own experience. you have used these purchased manures It is or was prepared by Magruder Sons of To improve your soil and to get the fullest reRichmond--and was one half Peruvian guano turn for your outlay in fertilizers, you must and one half bone-ash—thoroughly manipu- sow grass seed liberally, lated. This I know to be an improver, both Our lands, which are free from the carbonate from trial on my land, and observation of the of lime--the form in which it is used for agrieffect of a similar preparation on the land of cultural purposes—do not readily produce it neighbor who was engaged before the war clover--while those which are naturally calin manufacturing a fertilizer of precisely the careous or to which lime lias been applied, same materials and in the same proportions. yield abundant crops. I do not know of a I can recommend the Magruder Sons to you. single application of lime which has not been
To renovate an exhausted field with the compensating. It mellows stiff land aud stirleast delay at a moderate charge, I woull, if fens sandy, and experienco lias proven that stiff land, break it up deep in the fall and the cultivation of limed lands is easier than of
those not limed. In many instances the cost farm rationally. Dr. Stewart's article in Febof liming has been fully met by the increase ruary number “ American Farmer" is worth in the first crop, and not unfrequently has to every thinking man the annual subscripbeen exceeded, while a permanent improve- tion of all the agricultural papers in America. ment has been secured.
The dear old “Farmer" has on a new jacket The proper quantity of lime to the acre -now wasn't it good in the printer to revaries with the condition of the land. Some member the old gentleman this cold weather land is 80 free of vegetable matter, that any and make him look so comfortable and quantity, however small, would be a quant. respectable. Ah, my son, this self-same prinsuf', while there are others upon which 100 ter means for the good old man to pay for his bushels per acre would do no injury. In new clothes just as your tailor expects you to England much heavier quantities of quick pay for your coat. I hope you have rememlime are used and repeated at short intervals. bered this and have already sent on your subThe amount of vegetable in the soil will scription, not only to pay for clothing our greatly, if not entirely, determine what quan- friend, but for feeding “his cherubs.” Like tity of lime may be used without detriment. every editor, in esse or posse, I ever heard of,
In five years rotation the quantity of pure (who was worth a copper) the “ Farmer” has a lime abstracted from the soil in three crops louse-full of children, young Americas, who of grain and one of potatoes, does not exceed are not to be put off with a stone or a scorfour pounds or 0.8 pounds per year. The pion when they ask for bread or a fish. I am turnips, straw and clover abstract in the like just like these self-same children-I wouldn't period one hundred and twenty pounds or give a good loaf of brend with a good fish, twenty-four pounds per annum, which, how- just at this present writing, for all the stones ever, may be presumed to be returned to the and scorpions in Washington, and if I ever soil in the sliape of manure, and need not get to be editor I hope it will be generally therefore be considered. Both quantities received and universally understood that the would be hardly appreciable-five pecks per most certain way to my immutable love is acre would supply this abstraction.
through the Haversack. Thus it would seem that six bushels per
Yours truly, S. B. F. acre would perform all the " useful manuring functions of lime.” Formerly the applications
FLOUR MAKING.–The question how much of lime were in quantities not only in excess
wheat does it take to make a barrel of flour is of all necessity, but in many instances were often asked, and the answer is of general charpositively injurious. The danger now is in acter, “five bushels are allowed.” At the running into the other extreme-either from annual fair of the Dubuque county (Iowa) a concietion that small doses are more bene- Agricultural Society, in 1867, a premium of ficial or because the pocket will not bear a
three dollars was offered for the best barrel of heavy strain. I am greatly inclined to believe flour made from winter wheat, and also the that 40 bushels of lime is sufficient for any same made from spring wheat. A firm enland in Eastern Virginia ; and that 20 would tered one barrel cach, accompanied with the be better adapted to much the larger portion. statement that sixteen bushels of winter wheat This for a rotation of six years. I am also yielded three barrels and one hundred and much leaning to the opinion that if the three pounds of flour-at the rate of four amount determined on for the rotation were bushels and fifteen pounds of wheat to the divided into as many quantities as there were barrel. Of spring wheat, fifty bushels yielded years in the rotation and the yearly portion eleven barrels of flour, being four bushels and applied every spring, the greatest possible thirty-two pounds to the barrel. The wheat return would thus be obtained from the quan. was fair quality and no more. tities sown. This would require additional labor and expense.
In Benton Co., Ind., there is a farm of I would advise you by all means to sow 24,000 acres owned by Messrs. Fowler & Earl. lime on your wheat-say five bushels per acre They design it to be used entirely in preparnow and at any time before April-leave ing cattle for market. When the whole tract out every third or fourth bed, so you may see has been brought into proper condition, it is for yourself the cffect. We really ought to expected 8,000 cattle can be fed on it.
For the "American Farmer."
of $25 each, twenty-five per cent. of the same The Fair at New Orleans.
to be paid annually for five consecutive years. To enter, at this late day, into a lengthy vot commence its labors until 1866, when
The war intervening, the association did argument as to the utility and practical results officers and directors were chosen, and a fair of mechanical and industrial exhibitions, held, which proved a far greater success than would be an insult to the intelligent reader,
even the most sanguine had anticipated. The and a waste of time and words, It is true grounds of the association, known for many that in the South we have heretofore paid but little attention to such exhibitions, done little years as the Creole Race Course, contain 110
acres, enclosed by a substantial fence, and to foster and encourage them. But the events
were purchased for $60,000. Since the first of the past few years have wrought many fair was held, the grounds have been greatly changes in our condition as a people. We improved and embellished; streets and walks live now to rebuild what was torn down and laid out, canals and sewers dug, and a permaswept away by leaden and iron hail; to foster nent draining machine erected. Hot-houses new industries; to inculcate habits of tlırift and have been built, and filled with rare plants : economy; and to stimulate and encourage the trees planted, in addition to the noble live labors of the artisan and agriculturist. As a
oaks “native to the soil;" a telegraph station means to accomplish these ends, industrial erected, communicating with the city; and exhibitions occupy a prominent place; and various buildings put up for the use of ex. they are daily growing into form in all parts hibitors, and for other purposes. Commoof the country. The Louisiana State Fair, dious stables, a mile race-course, a spacious held at Baton Rouge, at the close of 1867, was
arena for the exhibition of stock, with a stand quite a success, despite the untoward condi- for judges and musicians in the centre, and an tion of affairs. At this fair was exhibited an) amphitheatre capable of seating 10,000 people. invention for making sugar from cane or sor are located on the grounds; and improve gum, in which the defecation is produced by ments now projected will add still further to filtering through wool, without the agency their attractiveness. of any chemical whatever. The Baton Rouge The main exhibition building is octagon in Gazette describes it as a most simple, economi- shape, 80 feet in diameter, and surmounted by cal, and practical method. Next in import
a dome 80 feet from the ground. It contains ance were specimens of the ramie plant, of a spacious, gallery, used to exhibit paintings, which we shall speak more at length farther etc. One of the adjoining buildings contains
steam-power and a line of shafting for the In November, 1866, was held, at New Or- exhibition of machinery; and other buildings leans, the first fair of the Mechanics' and are devoted to stock of all kinds, vehicles, and Agricultural Fair Association of Louisiana. useful and ornamental articles. This association was incorporated in 1860,
The Club-House, which is to be kept open and its object, as set forth in the second article permanently, is a handsome little building, of its charter, is,“ to promote and foster im- one-story high and surmounted by a gallery. provements in all the various departments of The restaurant and bar are in competent agriculture, including cotton, sugar, coffee, hands, and the club already numbers some tobacco, rice, hemp, etc.; horticulture, fruits, 300 members. vegetables, ornamental and staple gardening;
The second fair of the association was to the promotion and development of the me
have been held during the month of Norenichanic arts; liome manufactures in all ber, 1867; but owing to the epidemic and branches; the rearing, improvement and de- other causes, it was postponed to January velopment of the races of useful animals; the 9th, 1868, on which day it was opened with general advancement of rural economy; the the usual ceremonies. The Directors this encouragement of household manufactures, year had much to contend with. The weather and the dissemination of useful knowledge in January is almost always unfavorable and upon such subjects, by offering inducements
was so in this instance. The rivers were ultiand premiums therefore."
usually low, interrupting business and travel: The capital stock of the association was unfavorable reports as to the sanitary condifixed at $150,000, represented by 6000 shares, / tion of the city had gone abroad, and deterred