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The committee plans to make a special study of the legitimate demands upon the schools for commercial training from the various groups of occupations. Occupations whose demands are to be studied are: (1) Agriculture, (2) manufacturing, (3) banking, (4) insurance, (5) transportation, (6) civil service, (7) professional offices, (8) wholesale establishments, and (9) retail establishments. The committee also proposes to study the various groups of subjects included in the commercial course, as follows: (1) Business technique, (2) secretarial and office training, (3) business English, (4) economics, commercial geography, and industrial history, (5) science and its applications, (6) advertising, and (7) salesmanship. Each member of the general committee will be expected to serve upon one subcommittee in the occupation group and one subcommittee in the subject group. This committee work will start early in 1914. In the meanwhile the committee will try to get in touch with persons who are willing and able to serve on these committees and to consider some of the general problems connected with the aim of commercial education, as commercial instruction in the seventh and eighth grades, the possibility of part-time instruction, etc. A special effort will be made through the National Chamber of Commerce and local chambers of commerce and boards of trade to enlist business men in the work of the committee in ascertaining the definite demands of commercial work upon the schools.

Some of the special problems of the commercial course that have been suggested to the committee are listed below. The committee would like more of these questions and is especially desirous of learning of the experiences of various schools with these or similar problems.

1. Is it possible to teach the elements of accounting in high schools? 2. Is it possible to teach business organization in high schools; and if so, to

what extent should it be taught? 3. What equipment of mechanical devices used in offices should be used in

schools? 4. What modifications of stenographic systems by the teacher are permissible? 5. Leaving cost of equipment out of consideration, is it desirable to teach

typewriting as an office art before stenography? 6. What is an ideal arrangement of hours in stenography and typewriting?

Should it be spread over a long period, with a few hours of instruction per week, or concentrated in a short period, with many hours of instruc

tion per week? 7. What should be the content of the business-practice course? 8. How should spelling be taught? 9. Should business correspondence be divided into two courses, namely, (a)

an elementary course containing the elementary work to be given in the early part of the course, and (b) an advanced course devoted to such problems as “ follow-up” systems, selling goods by mail, etc. ?

10. Can advertising be taught in high schools? 11. What practice work can be done in advertising? 12. How can the English and art departments cooperate in teaching advertising? 13. Can salesmanship be taught in high schools? 14. Is it worth while to teach advertising and salesmanship to boys and girls

of high-school age? 15. How much time should be devoted to the study of local business conditions? 16. Should history and history of commerce be taught as separate subjects? If

taught as separate subjects, should history of commerce be taught before

or after economics? 17. What economic problems should be considered in the high-school course ?

(Those most commonly considered now are trusts, banking and cur

rency, labor, and transportation.) 18. In order to avoid the encyclopedic instruction of the older commercial

geography, to what countries and products shall we limit the instruction,

and which should we teach in detail? 19. Should the materials of commerce form the subject matter of a separate

course, or should the material be given in connection with the sciences of

the secondary schools, namely, biology, chemistry, and physics? 20. Should a fourth-year course be given in practical chemistry? Would the

expense of the laboratory equipment required for such a course make it

prohibitive? 21. How shall commercial schools secure the cooperation of business men ? 22. To what extent shall we ask outside experts to give talks to the school or

to classes? 23. What should be the content of the mathematical courses in commercial

high schools? 24. How can the commercial school carry on part-time work? 25. Should not students of marked ability in the senior class who fill positions

satisfactorily during the last 10 weeks of the course be permitted to graduate without taking an examination?

A. L. Pugh, Chairman. High SchooL OF COMMERCE,

New York City.

The other members of the committee on business are as follows:
Wm. A. Barber, East Orange High School, East Orange, N. J.
W. E. Bartholomew, State commercial inspector, Albany, N. Y.
J. S. Curry, High School of Commerce, Cleveland, Ohio.
Carlos B. Ellis, principal High School of Commerce, Springfield, Mass.
R. A. Grant, McKinley High School, St. Louis, Mo.
Cheesman A. Herrick, president of Girard College, Philadelphia, Pa.
S. B. Koopman, High School of Commerce, New York, N. Y.
Selby A. Moran, Ann Arbor High School, Ann Arbor, Mich.
L. C. Rusmisel, High School of Commerce, Omaha, Nebr.

Parke Schoch, principal West Philadelphia High School for Girls, Philadelphia, Pa.

A. H. Sproul, Normal School, Salem, Mass.
A. T. Swift, English High School, Providence, R. I.
Frank V. Thompson, assistant superintendent of schools, Boston, Mass.
Ernest Thurston, assistant superintendent of schools, Washington, D. C.
W. H. Wigam, R. T. Crane High School, Chicago, Ill.


Ancient languages. See Languages, ancient.
Barnard, J. L., community civics, 18-20.
Berlitz method, modern languages, 4-5.
Biology, civic, study, 21.
Burch, H. R., on study of economics, 21-25.
Business education, statement of chairman, 75-78.
Chambers, W. G., on modern psychology and music study, 67.
Chorus practice, first and second years, 69–70.
Citizenship. See Civics.
Civics, community, 18-22, theory and practice, 26–27.
Commercial courses. See Business education.
Commercial texts and business correspondence, 44.
Commission, origin, membership, and plan of work, 7-9.
Committee of Twelve of the Modern Language Association of America, report,

45, 55.
Community health, value of study, 21.
Cooking. See Household arts.
Corporations, study of workings, 25.
Counterpoint, study, 72.
Daniels, A. L., statement of chairman on household arts, 58-62.
Domestic science. See Household arts.
Doty, A. I., and comparative study of scholarship, 33.
Earhart, Will, statement of chairman of committee on music, 66–75.
Economics, study, 24-27.
English language, aims, 12; plan of study, 11; problems, 14–16; statement of

chairman of committee, 9–16.
Foods, study, 60-61.
Foster, W. E., statement of chairman on study of ancient languages, 29-31.
German, study, 33.
Gouin-Bétis system, modern languages, 50–51.
Gouin system, modern languages, 45.
Government, and public welfare, 27.
Harmony, study, 72.
Health, community, value of study, 21.
Heness-Sauveur system, modern languages, 45.
History, provisional suggestions, 23-24.
History, three unit courses, 24.
Hosic, J. F., statement of chairman of the committee on English, 9-16.
Household arts, statement of chairman of committee, 58-62.
Jones, T. J., on teaching of civics, 26-27; statement of chairman on social

studies, 16–27.
Kingsley, C. D., statement regarding commission, 7-9.
Laboratories, high school, 28.
Languages, ancient, statement of chairman, 32-40.

Languages, modern, choice of material for beginners, 48-49; statement of chair-

man on study, 40–58.
Latin, status in secondary schools, 32-40.
Leavitt, F. M., statement of chairman on manual arts, 62-66.
Manual arts, statement of chairman of committee, 62-66.
Mathews, W. S. B., on music instruction, 67.
Middletown (Conn.) High School, survey of rocations, 22.
Modern languages. See Languages, modern.
Music, statement of chairman of committee on music, 66–75.
Musical appreciation, 70–71.
National Council of Teachers of English, and study of English, 10.
Natural science, study, 28–31.
Orchestra ensemble, course, 73.
Orr, William, statement of chairman on science teaching, 29-31.
Philadelphia School of Pedagogy, course in civics, 18–20.
Phonetics. See Pronunciation.
Pronunciation, teaching, modern languages, 46–47, 49.
Pugh, A. L., statement of chairman on business education, 75-78.
Robinson, J. H., on study of history, 23–24.
Science, teaching, 28-31.
Sewing. See Household arts.
Singing, ensemble, choosing material, 68-69.
Snow, W. B., statement of chairman on modern languages, 40-58.
Social studies, statement of chairman, 16–27.
Teachers, modern languages, 56-58.
Textbooks, modern languages, 56-57.
Textiles and clothing, study, 60–61.
Translation, modern languages, 50, 52-53.
United States, productive system, study, 25.
Vocations, survey, 22.
Wheatley, W. A., survey of vocations, 22.

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