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populace—it is difficult to limit the results able to realize, in some degree, the feeling that may be worked out. When," with which European missionaries are rewrites a Chinaman, * who has come for garded by Chinese. ward lately in the Shanghai press as an Still to admit that the hatred exists is exponent of the opinion of his class, - different from admitting that it is univer“ when the educated Chinese sees a mass sal and ever-active ; to admit that the of impenetrable darkness being thrust accusations are believed is different froin upon the people, with all the arrogant admitting that the people would formulate and aggressive pretentiousness of the inis- them if left alone. Flax will not burn sionaries on the one hand, and by the unless fire be applied. The riots would threat of gunboats on the part of foreign not have occurred without instigation ; governments on the other, it makes him and, when we come to ask whence the hate the foreigners with a hatred which instigation came, there is abundant evionly those can feel who see that all they dence of political intrigue. hold as the highest and most sacred as In an interview with the Taotai of belonging to thein as a race and a nation Hankow, shortly after the Wusüeh out-their ligbt, their culture and their liter- rage, H.B.M. Consul (Mr. Gardner) askı d ary refinement--are in danger of being point-blank whether there was any truth in irreparably defaced and
and destroyed. the reports that these riots were caused by The more conservative resent with horror a Secret Society whose object is not go the attacks on Confucianism and the Wor- much hostility to Europeans as hostility ship of Ancestors; while the more en- to the Imperial Government, which it lightened resent being lectured on the wished to embroil with foreign powers. folly of pandering to popular belief that The Mandarins admitted that is there is a eclipses are caused by a celestial dog eat- great deal of truth in it; but the actual ing the moon, in the same breath that rioters are generally local people, who are they are asked to believe that the sun stirred up by these” agitators. Similarly, stood still at the bidding of Joshua. the present Chinese Minister in London, However, the hatred, like the credulity, during a recent interview with Sir Philip seems to be collective rather than personal, Curric, said that “there had not for years and to be directed against the system been such an anti foreign outbreak ; tbat rather than against the individual.' The he did not attribute it to any widespread missionaries themselves are often respected feeling against foreigners, but to the and liked by the Chinese, officials as well machination of Secret Societies existing as people, with whoin they come into among the disbanded soldiery, the object contact; and a tablet has even in recog. of which was to stir up trouble against the nition of their good deeds during a recent Government." The Viceroy of Nanking famine been set up in Shantung. Perbaps bas lately memorialized the Throne in the if we attempt to picture the reception that same sense, and asked for increased pow. Buddhist or Mohammedan missionaries ers to punish the culprits. would have met with under the Common- It is literally true that China is honeywealth, in England, and the degree of combed by Secret Societies. They vary credit that would have attached to any alike in their objects and their origins ; absurd accusations that might have been but they are all viewed askance, because brought against them, in a society of their organization is prone at any moment which Sir Matthew Hale and Sir Thomas to be directed against the governing powBrownet were representatives, we may be A few words of explanation may find, therefore, instantly accounted for, a traditional centre of anti-missionary litergreat army of men, saturated with prej- ature ; but it is reactionary and conservaudice and conceit engendered by the study tive in politics as well as in religion. Ita of the native classics in which they inust hatred of innovation extends to foreigners be proficient, embarrassed often, discon- and all their ways, and it has signalized tented while waiting for the office that itself quite recently by repelling a party may never come, and prone to the mis- of workmen who were trying to set up a chief which is ever ready to the idle hand. line of telegraph poies across the pror
perbaps afford a key to the nature of the
forces at work. First and foremost in all * A letter headed " Defensio Populi ad Popu- machinations against foreigners must be los,” published in the North-China Herald of noted the literati. It is one of the evils July 24, which has attracted much attention of the Chinese system that every cducated and controversy.
| Two women were banged in Suffolk in man aspires to take a degree, but that no 1664 for witchcraft, by sentence of Sir Mat- career except the Government service exthew Hale, who declared that the reality of ists for him after he has taken it. We witchcraft was unquestionable ; and Sir Thomas Browne, who was a great physician, as well as a great writer, swore at the trial question had been bewitched.-Lecky's Histhat he was of opinion that the persons in lory of Rationalism, vol. i., chap. i.
NEW SERIES. -VOL LIV., No. 6. 51
The threads of the present outbreak ince. It was in vain they pleaded Impeseem to concentre in Hunan, a great and rial orders Over 1,000 poles were burned prosperous province lying south of the before their eyes, while the wire was put Yangtzc, nearly opposite the treaty port into an open boat and sent adrift upon of Hankow, which is comprised within the river. It is not incredible that a certhe same viceroyalty. The people of the tain spirit of hostility to a dynasty which Central Provinces, the purest descendants is introducing these foreign appliances of the old dominant race, have the repu- may be mixed up with dislike to the tation of being among the bravest as well stranger who brings them. Even the as the most bigoted in China. It is great Tseng family, of which the Hunanlargely from this region that the soldiery ese were so justly proud, is said to have were drawn who gained for the reigning been treated with some coulness when, in dynasty, the ascendency over Taeping, the person of the Marquis Tseng, it was Nienfei, fand Mohammedan rebellions wbich supposed to have imbibed progressive shook it to its foundations during the dec- ideas ; and the first Envoy to England, ade immediately subsequent to the treaty Kwo Sung-tao, who also was a Hunanese, of Tientsin. The Franco-Chinese war in met a decidedly cool reception on his Tongking followed, and it was Hunan return. again which supplied a great portion of But there are other elements in the the fighting men. Tseng Kwo-fan, the problem which we have set ourselves to greatest Chinaman of his day, the father consider, considerations which help to exof the Marquis Tseng, was a llunan man ; plain the seeming reluctance of the Impehis brother Tseng Kwo-chüan has just died rial Government to employ more force in in office as Viceroy of Nanking : Tso repressing the disorders that bave created Tsung-tang, who conducted the campaign for it such grave diplomatic embarrassin the North-west, and won back Turkes- ment. Not in its armaments any more tan for the Emperor, was a Hunanese, as than in other respects is China like Eurowas Liu Chin-tang, his most distinguished pean nations. There were the beginnings lieutenant. But Tso is dead and the three of a standing army in England in the Tsengs are dead, and tens of thousands of days of Charles II. It was not the royal their soldiers have been disbanded. Some troops, however, but Somerset and Devon went home ; some were retained as pro- militia, according to Mr. Blackmore, that vincial garrisons at various places through- were employed in attacking the Doones, out the empire ; many took to loafing and — with the result, too, even in their case, discontent; but all, or nearly all, are said that Somerset and Devon began shooting to belong to a Society called “Kolao- at one another over the heads of the comhwuy," which is alleged to be the inain- inon enemy. There are, in a certain spring of the present agitation. The late sense, Imperial forces in China. There Viceroy of Nanking disbursed, it is said, numerous troops at Peking, who a large annual sum, partly in payment of would, however, be as little likely to go superfluous troops, but indirectly as a South as Charles the Second's Guards bribe to this Society to refrain from troub. were likely to be sent to Devon. Then, ling the peace. The new Viceroy, Liu there is the large and comparatively wellKun-yi, also is a Hunan man—the fact disciplined body of men, under Li Hungthat he was recalled from a long retire- chang, who are encamped arouod Tientsin. ment may show the feeling that it was But Li Hung-chang is an Anhwei man, necessary to put a llunanese who could be and these troops are Anhwei men ; and relied on at the post ;-but he accepted to send them up the Yangtze would be to office on a policy of retienchment, and de- array Anhwci against Hunan, and not imclined to continue the blackinail.
possibly to provoke civil war Now, Hunan, as we have seen, is the And so with the navy. The
siderable fleet of modern warships which churches in Wuhu, in the province of Anhui, China has acquired is gathered in the
were burned down by evil disposed persons,
and the churches in Tadyang (Kiangsu) and North, and is practically under the con
in Wusüeh (Hupeb) were successively detrol of Li Hung-chang ; but it is manned stroyed, and it was urged that the leaders and officered in a great measure by Fok- should be discovered and captured, and hienese, and it is questionable whether stringent preventive means should be taken provincial sensitiveness might not, for [etc.]. That the several nations are at libboth reasons, resent its presence at the is set forth in the treaties, and Imperial De
erty to promulgate their religions (in China) Yangtze ports. For the provinces still crees have been granted instructing the variform, in China, so many administrative ous provinces to give protection at all times. units within which Governors and Govern- Many years have passed by, and the Chinese ors-General are practically supreme.
and foreigners have lived on friendly terms.
How is it that lately churches have been army of China has been said to consist of burned and destroyed almost simultaneously? over a million of men ; but the million is It is certainly strange and astounding. It is made
up of provincial militia, one-half of only too obvious that there must be among whom exist only on paper.
And so with the evil-doers some notoriously desperate
characters who secretly plan, dupe, spread the fleet. Besides the ironclads which are
rumors, and mislead the ininds of the people kept anchored in the North, there is a so- with the expectation that an opportunity may called Southern squadron, several ships of occur for pluoder. Even the peaceful and which are at the especial disposal of the good people have been misguided by and Nanking Viceroy. “It was one of these forced to join these rogues to aid in creating
momentous results. Unless severe which the Taotai of Shanghai dispatched, measures are devised to punish and suppress with praise worthy promptitude, immedi- [these malefactors), how are the laws to be ately on hearing from H.M. Consul-Gen- upheld, and how is the country to : enjoy eral of the riot at Wuhu. It was three quiet? Let the Governors General and Gov. of these which we have seen arrive there Anhui, and Hupeh at once command the civil
ernors of Liang-kiang, Hukuang, Kiangsu, accidentally, in the nick of time to stop and military officials to discover, capture, try, the further progress of the riot. And convict, and execute the leaders of the riots upon these, and upon the local militia, as a warning to others for the future. The the Imperial Government seems disposed monishes people to become virtuons, and the
religion of the Western countries simply adto rely, from sheer dread of making mat- native converts are Chinese subjects under ters worse ; though the majority of the the jurisdiction of the local officials. The militia are probably members of the very religions and peoples ought to exist peaceably Society which is said to be the chief agent orders) no doubt took origin from the discon
side by side. The risings (against religious in the turmoil.
tented class, who fabricate groundless rumors No two Chinese officials, probably, and create disturbance under false pretexts. would agree in assessing the exact value Such cunning people are to be found in every to be attached to all those different con- place. Let the Tartar. Generals, Governorssiderations, or the precise extent to which the people never to listen ligatly to floating
General and Governors proclaim and notify they influence the policy of the Central rumors and recklessly cause troubles. Any Government. But it must be admitted writers of anonymous placards manufacturing that they form constituent elements of the rumors to mislead the people are to be appre
The local problem ; and it will readily be inferred hended and severely punished.
officials must at all times devise measures for that the Government finds itself in a diffi- the protection of the lives and properties of cult position, between the menacing atti. the merchants and missionaries of the several tude of Europe on one hand and appre- pations, and must not permit criminals to hension of its unruly subjects on the other. harass and injure them. In case their pre
cautions are not effectual and disturbances Its public utterances, in the niean time,
occur, let the high authorities report the exhave been creditable and explicit. Early act state of the case and have such officials in June, at the instance of the Foreign cashiered. Let the various cases [of riot Ministers, the Emperor's advisers per- against foreign churches) in the different suaded him to issue the following edict :
provinces still pending settlement be prompt
ly arranged by the Tartar-Generals, Govern. “ The Tsung-li Yamén has memorialized us ors-General, and Governors, who are not to on the disturbances occurring in the various allow the subordinate officials to delay and provinces against (foreign) religious orders, procrastinate through fear of difficulties. and requested us to order the Governor-Gen. Let this Decree be known to all. Respect eral and Governors to take immediate meas- this !'' ures for their suppression [etc.]. The memorialists stated that in the fourth moon the That the proclamation itself and its
publication in the Peking Gazette were of stopping any foreign movement or inobtained with difficulty* does not detract stitution which they dislike is a resort to from its intrinsic value as an utterance in popular outbreak and violence, which they favor of Christian religion and of foreign believe will have no unpleasant result to intercourse. What the Imperial Govern- thernselves, and will merely entail money ment seems unwilling to realize is that payment of a certain pecuniary indemnity Europe requires something more than by their Government. Our relations words as an earnest of its goodwill in the with China betray, in fact, a painful tenpresent crisis.
Sir Halliday Macartney dency to revolve continually in the same has told the Foreign Office, t under in- circle. Replying to the Chinese letter struction, of course, from Peking, that from which I have quoted on a previous the Government feel really “ perplexed page, Dr. Griffith John, a missionary of and somewhat disturbed by the pressure long experience in the country, says that which continues to be put on them.” the hatred of foreigners among the litTwo men have (they plead) been executed erary and official classes is not a thing of at Wuhu, and others subjected to ininor yesterday. It existed long before the punishments. Two more have since been first Protestant missionary set his foot on condemned to death at Wusüeh for par- the soil of the Celestial land, and if I may ticipation in the riots there, and several judge from this (letter] it is likely to exist mandarins have been degraded. They for ages to come. Our first war felt, therefore, that there had been no with China is generally regarded as springlaxity or evasion in the measures taken, ing out of the opium trade, and waged in and they apprehended that further exccu- order to obtain an indemnity for the tions would tend to increase rather than losses sustained by the surrender of the a!lay the popular excitement."
opium.' But it may be regarded in anThe contention is plausible, from the other light, namely, in its relation to the Chinese point of view, if it were simply a immoderate assumptions of the Peking matter of counting heads and so balancing Cout, and the haughty, contemptuous an account ; but it ignores altogether the and insulting bearing of the Chinese offi. ulterior considerations which have forced cials in their intercourse with foreigners themselves on the attention of European from the beginning. . statesmen. The outbreaks have indeed Power could possibly submit long to such been so serious and widespread, and the insults. ... The old pride and hatred authorities have shown such evident in- still reign in the hearts of the officials and capacity to grapple with the inovement, the literati. There may be exceptions ; that it has ceased to be a question merely but they are few and far between. : . of special reparation. It is no longer a I know something of the temper of the question of this or that riot only, but of a people ; and I venture to predict that, whole series of outrages, which the Im- should a 'missionary war' ever come to perial Government may plead difficulty in pass, it will not be a war against the peopreventing, outrages which Englishmenple of China, but, as heretofore, a war in China, even those who do not sympa. against the Chinese Government; and thize with missionary enterprise, are per- that it will be induced, not by the doings suaded the local authorities rarely use dili- of the missionary, but by the pride and gence to prevent. There is a conviction, folly of the governing classes.” Dr. John as Mr. Gardner told the Taotai of Hankow, writes, of course, from the Foreign, the that these riots are largely due to “the Missionary, and the Protestant point of remissness of the Chinese authorities in view. It would be unfair to suppose that suppressing the dissemination of the the Chinese could say nothing in answer abominable anti-Christian pamphlets and to his contention. Indeed, very shortly placards ;” and, as Sir T. Sanderson told after the Tientsin massacre, they took ocSir II. Macartney, there is felt to be “ a casion to set out their case, with a view growing tendency among the Chinese to asking that certain restrictions might population to think that the simplest way be placed upon the action of missionaries,
in matters which they alleged caused irri. * Sir J. Walsham to Lord Salisbury, June
tation and danger. They began by saying 21. | Lord Salisbury to Sir J. Walsham, July 22,
that as regards trade there is no proba. 1891.
bility of Chinese and foreigners quarrel
No great The very
ling, but as regards missions there is a well as the practices which have been regreat deal of ill-feeling ;” and it may be ferred to as probably causes of misundernot amiss to note one or two of the causes standing, have reference unquestionably they allege. One point is that of extra- to the Roman system. Protestant misterritorial privilege. Either prevent mis- sionaries also have their disputes ; bat they sionaries residing in the interior or let thein are less serious and less frequent, and are do so subject to Chinese law! They are connected more often with the purchase now allowed privileges from which mer- of land or buildings in regions where the chants are debarred. Another charge is local gentry oppose their presence. There that converts take advantage of the in- can be no do::bt that the Roman Catholics, fluence of the missionaries to injure and and especially the French, are objects of oppress the common people ;” and that much greater dislike.
But the two syswhen litigation arises “the missionaries tems appear inextricably entangled so far support the latter, thus obstructing the as diplomacy is concerned. Neither authorities, which the people strongly ob- France nor England would permit the im. ject to."
The case may be strongly put; position, either, of restrictions that but, how much truth or exaggeration so- were not common to both. ever it may contain, it states without need, indeed, for such precautions would doubt a cause of serious irritation. Roman not improbably be denied ; but their bishops have been accused of imitating the enactment, in that case, could harm none, port and trappings of Provincial Govern- and Chinese Statesmen may perhaps man
An instance is given of a Roman age to gain a hearing for their proposibishop having a seal manufactured with tions when satisfaction for the recent outwhichi to stamp bis proclamations. But rages has been given. these are minor matters compared with It is possibly difficult for high Chinese the alleged tendency to look on converis, officials to appreciate the feeling in favor if not as naturalized Frenchien, as en- of missionary enterprise which prerails titled at any rate to a quasi-consular pro- among a large section of the English peotection. It is easy to understand that if a ple, and more difficult still for them to convert appeals to his priest the priest's reconcile the attitude of France toward sympathies should be enlisted ; but it is clerical institutions at home with its willequally easy to comprehend the irritation ingness to support them in the East. But that would be caused by any attempt to Sir Thomas Sanderson was undoubtedly express those sympathies in official ears.
right in impressing on the Chinese Minis. Another impression, which is not men- ter that, “if public opinion once became tioned in this despatch but is voiced by alarmed and indignant in France and Engthe Chinese exponent of the literate cause, land, a cry for intervention might arise is that missionaries constitute by their or- that might bave very serious conseganization not only an imperium in im- quences. It would be useless for the perio, but a hostile imperium in the sense Chinese to retort “ that our people object that they are prepared to place influence to the propaganda as much as your people and valuable information at the disposal desire it,” because religious enthusiasm of a foreign invader. “ Tous les ren- declines to admit argument. We shrink seignements qui parvenaient au général in horror from the doctrine of the Koran
. . tant sur les ressources des provinces or the sword. Europe would not tolerate, que nous allions traverser que sur les effec- now, a cainpaign against the Albigenses : tifs des troupes que nous allions rencon- even the most enthusiastic would recoil trer lui etaient procurés par l'intermédiaire from a naked proposal to impose Chrisdes jésuites qui les faisaient relever par tianity on any heathen vation by force of des Chinois à leur devotion." The lan
But à volume of public opinion guage is used by a writer who held an which has to be reckoned with does apofficial position in the French army during prove of compelling China to admit and the war that ended with the treaty of protect missionaries, how distasteful soTientsin ; and similar testimony has been ever their presence may be to certain given to the help yielded the French by classes of the population.
The treaty missionaries and their converts during the right will be upheld ; and the mistake invasion of Tongking.
will not, it is hoped, be made of accepting Nearly all these causes of complaint, as money and a few heads as adequate repa