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disquisitions. Hence, the central position in this book is assigned to the National Constitution. Still, it is not so much the Constitution as a document written in 1787, as the Constitution developed by the life of the people and construed by Congress, by the Executive, and by the Courts as shown in our Legislative, Administrative, and Juridical history. It is the living and working Constitution that concerns the American youth, and not simply a document; the Constitution in action, and not the Constitution in a book. Hence the author has striven, in accord with the later and better tendency in treating such subjects, to make his book strong in its historical elements. Constitutions are not made, they grow.

Hitherto the National Government has occupied disproportionate attention in teaching the American Government. The States have almost fallen out of sight. In this treatise, due prominence has been given to the fact that this Government is dual or federal, and that the citizen has two loyalties and two patriotisms. It is written in the spirit of the aphorism : An Indestructible Union composed of Indestructible States. The growth of this dual system has been traced from its roots in the first feeble English settlements planted in Virginia and Massachusetts. But it has not been thought necessary, or even desirable, to describe the State system at as much length as the National system.

It would have been easy greatly to extend the references to books. But an over-extended Literature commonly defeats its own ends. The common student especially is lost in the multitude of titles cited. The aim has therefore been to make a helpful bibliography rather than an extensive one.

Due pains have been taken to secure accuracy of fact and statement; but, as a matter of course, errors will creep into a book tha contains so much matter-of-fact material as this one contains.

With these words of explanation, the author commends “The American Government” to the consideration of students and teachers of this most engaging and important branch of knowledge.

B. A. HINSDALE. The University of Michigan, June 1, 1891.

PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.

1.

The material parts of the preface to the First Edition of this Work have been retained. This New Edition has been revised throughout, and is printed wholly from new plates. Some important changes have been made, as follows:

Old matter has been somewhat differently distributed ; for example, a number of topics have been transferred from Part III. to Part I, and some of the chapters have been divided.

2. Many paragraphs have been wholly rewritten in the interest either of greater clearness or of greater fullness of treatment, and still other paragraphs have been divided or consolidated.

3. Many new paragraphs and several new chapters have been introduced. Mention may be made of Chapters XII.-XV., which form a general introduction to Part II.

4. The bibliographies have been broken up, and, as a rule, distributed to the particular chapters to which they relate. A Bibliographical Index also has been added.

5. Some very general suggestions to teachers that were before put in the Preface, have been considerably expanded and assigned a separate place in the volume.

With these additional explanations, THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT is again commended to the consideration of studeuts and teachers.

The thanks of the author are due to Dr. A. R. Benton, of Butler University, Professors E. B. Wakefield and C. M. Young, of Hiram College and the University of South Dakota respectively (both his former pupils at Hiram College), Professor F. H. White, of the State Agricultural College, of Kansas, and Professor A. C. McLaughlin, of the University of Michigan, for valuable suggestions in making the revision.

The University of Michigan, June 1, 1895.

CONTENTS.

TO TEACHERS..

1-8

INTRODUCTION.-The Science of Politics.

9-24

PART 1.-THE MAKING OF THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT.

CHAPTER I.—The Thirteen English Colonies Planted . 25-35

CHAPTER II.—How the Colonies were Governed .

36-51

CHAPTER III.- America Independent. ..

52-63

CHAPTER IV.-The Formation of the Union . .

64-72

CHAPTER V.—The Continental Congress, 1775-1781 .

73-76

CHAPTER VI. - The Confederation, 1781-1789.

77-86

CHAPTER VII.-The Federal Convention Called .

87-90

CHAPTER VIII.-Work Before the Convention .

91-99

CHAPTER IX.-The Constitution Framed .

100-105

CHAPTER X.-Ratification of the Constitution .

106-113

CHAPTER XI.-The Constitutiou Goes into Operation . 114-116

PART II.-THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT.

CHAPTER XII.-The National and State Governments . 117-124

CHAPTER XIII.-The Nature of the Constitutiou .

125-130

CHAPTER XIV.-The Sources of the Coustitution .

131-136

CHAPTER XV.-The Constitution in Outline . .

137-143

CHAPTER XVI. -. Vesting the Legislative Power .

144-146

CHAPTER XVII. Composition aud Orgauization of the

House of Representatives . .

147-154

CHAPTER XVIII. - Apportionment of Representatives under

the Constitution ...

155-159

CHAPTER XIX.-Composition and Organization of the Sen-

ate

160-163

CHAPTER XX.-Elections of Congressmen .

164-169

CHAPTER XXI.-Impeachments .

170-175

CHAPTER XXII.—The Powers of the Separate Houses. 176-181

CHAPTER XXIII.-Rights of Senators and Representatives 182-186

CHAPTER XXIV.-Enacting Laws .

187-193

CHAPTER XXV.–The General Powers of Congress

194-235

CHAPTER XXVI.-The Limitations of the Union

236-242

Chapter XXVII.--The Limitations of the States.

243-247

CHAPTER XXVIII.-Vesting the Executive Power.

248–250

CHAPTER XXIX.-Elections of President and Vice-President 251-256

CHAPTER XXX.-The Failure of the Electoral Plan. .: 260–264

CHAPTER XXXI.—The Qualifications and Removal of the

President

265-268

CHAPTER XXXII.- Powers and Duties of the Presideut. 269–283

CHAPTER XXXIII.—The Executive Depar ents.

284-291

CHAPTER XXXIV.–Vesting the Judicial Power.

292–296

CHAPTER XXXV.-The Extent of the Judicial Power . 297-300

CHAPTER XXXVI.—The Jurisdiction of the Several Courts 301-305

CHAPTER XXXVII.—Trial by Jury.

306-311

CHAPTER XXXVIII.-Treason.

312-317

CHAPTER XXXIX.-Constitutional Law: The Judiciary. 318–322

CHAPTER XL.-The Rights and Duties of States.

323-326

CHAPTER XLI.-New States : The Territorial System . 327-335

CHAPTER XLII.-National Guarantees to the States . 3.36–339

CHAPTER XLIII.— Amendments. .

340-342

CHAPTER XLIV.-The Supremacy of the Union.

343-345

CHAPTER XLV.-Theories of the Union: the Civil War . 346-349

CHAPTER XLVI.-Ratification..

350-351

CHAPTER XLVII.—The Bill of Rights (Amendments I.-X.) 352-356

CHAPTER XLVIII.-Slavery and Reconstruction (Amend-

ments XIII.—XV.).

357–368

PART III.—THE STATE GOVERNMENTS.

CHAPTER XLIX.--Relations of the States to the Union . . 369-371

CHAPTER L.-The Siate Constitutions. .

372–377

CHAPTER LI.-The State Legislatures

378-383

CHAPTER LII.-The State Executives .

384-387

CHAPTER LIII.—The State Judiciaries. .

388-391

CHAPTER LIV.-Suffrage, Eligibility to Office aud Electious 392–396

CHAPTER LV.- Local Government

397-408

CHAPTER LVI.-State Education .

409-417

CONCLUSION.-The Nature of the American Government. 418-422

APPENDIX.-Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the

American Union : The Mayflower Compact, 1620; The

New England Confederation, 1643 ; Penu's Plan of

Union, 1697 ; Franklin's Plan of Union, 1754 ; Declara-

tion of Rights, 1765; Declaration of Rights, 1774 ; The

Non-Importation Agreement, 1774; The Declaration of

Independence, 1776; Articles of Confederation, 1781;

Constitution of the United States, 1787; Amendments

to the Constitution, 1791, 1798, 1804, 1865, 1868, 1870. 423-477

INDEX TO SUBJECTS.

478-484

INDEX TO BIBLIOGRAPHY

485-488

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